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THE

AMERICAN

ANNUAL CYCLOPÆDIA

AND

REGISTER OF IMPORTANT EVENTS

OF THE YEAR

1870.

EMBRACING POLITICAL, CIVIL, MILITARY, AND SOCIAL AFFAIRS; PUBLIC DOCU-
MENTS; BIOGRAPHY, STATISTICS, COMMERCE, FINANCE, LITERATURE,

SCIENCE, AGRICULTURE, AND MECHANICAL INDUSTRY.

VOLUME X.

• NEW YORK.
D. APPLETON AND COMPANY,

549 & 051 BROADWAY.

1871.

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Ꮲ Ꭱ E FA C Ꭼ .

No recent period of time has witnessed events of so much importance to mankind generally as those which occurred in Europe during the year 1870, of which this volume of the ANNUAL CYCLOPÆDIA treats. The overwhelming march of the combined German forces into the heart of France, and the rapid capture of her fortified cities and surrender of her vast armies, thereby casting her down from her preëminent position, to the feet of the conqueror; the occupation of Rome by the Italian Government, and the overthrow of the temporal sovereignty of the Pope, by which liberalism and authority have been brought to a final issue before the world, are some of the chief events. The great public questions of Europe, such as the Baltic and the Eastern, the relations of the various nationalities, such as those of race, population, military strength, financial ability, or national resources, and the new forms which public interests have begun to assume on that Continent, are herein stated and explained more fully and completely than is to be found elsewhere in any single volume.

Nor were the affairs of the United States of less interest or importance than in previous years. The census of 1870, completed during the year, for the States, counties, and principal cities of the Union, shows the rapid growth and spread of the population, and is herein contained. The new departure of the Federal Government under its National aspect has made rapid advances. All the States were restored to the Union, under constitutions approved by Congress, and the conduct of their affairs transferred to civil officers elected by the citizens. The ballot has been cast at all elections by every citizen, without distinction of race, color, or previous condition, who was exempt from the restraints imposed upon those active in the late hostilities. The progress of all the States, and especially the Southern, under the joint rule of the white and the colored man, as a citizen, a legislator, and a judicial officer, the struggles of factions, the local disturbances of citizens, with the rapid improvement of the people in general, socially and financially, are herein presented, and also the measures adopted by Congress under the altered condition of affairs,

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