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the debates on the same, the numerous aspects of the incidental questions raised and discussed, with the final action of that body.
The details of the internal affairs of the United States comprise the finances of the Federal Government; its receipts and expenditures; the sources whence those receipts are obtained, and the principles upon which are based the mode and degree of taxation; the management of the public debt, and the steps taken to reduce it, or to diminish its burden ; the modifications of the currency, its fluctuations; the changes in the system of taxation, with its effects upon the industrial interests and prosperity of the people; the banking system, with its expansions and contractions; the products of agriculture, and the extension of internal trade and commerce; the proceedings of the Southern States to improve and establish their social and financial affairs; the various political conventions of the year, the results of elections; the acts of State Legislatures; the rapid improvement of educational and charitable institutions under the care of the State governments; the rapid extension of the facilities for transportation, especially railroads; the resources and population of the several States, and all those facts which determine their rapid progress.
The Diplomatic Correspondence of the Federal Government, derived from the most authentic sources, is very fully presented in these pages, and the existing relations with all foreign nations clearly shown.
The progress of Mechanical Industry, although indicated by works less extensive and important than in the previous year, has been no less marked and useful.
The advance in the various branches of Astronomical, Chemical, and other sciences, with new and valuable applications to various purposes, is extensively described. .
Geographical Discoveries have been actively pushed forward, in various quarters of the globe, with interesting results.
The record of Literature and Literary Progress is as interesting as during any previous year. The title of each of the more important works of various classes has been stated, with some remarks on the nature of its contents.
The history of the religious denominations of the country, with the results of their conventions, their branches, membership, views on public affairs, and progress of opinions, and numbers, are here given from official sources. The proceedings of the Ecumenical Council at Rome are fully narrated, and all the decrees adopted previous to its suspension, inserted.
The memory of deceased persons of note, in every department of society, is briefly noticed.
All important documents, messages, orders, treaties, and letters from official persons, have been inserted entire.
An Index, at the end of this volume, contains a list of all the subjects treated in the volumes of the Annual CYCLOPÆDIA, with a statement of the volume and page where each may be found.
AFRICA. The year 1870 has been one of South of Africa was, the discovery of the remarkable quiet, which forms a striking con- diamond-fields on the banks of the Vaal River. trast to the excitement produced in 1869 by Soon after their discovery, in May, 1870, the the opening of the canal of Suez, and the diffi- Transvaal Republic and the Orange Free States culty between the Khedive of Egypt and the both claimed the territory as their own, and a Sultan, and in 1868 and 1867 by the Anglo- war about its occupation and possession apAbyssinian War. The relations between Egypt peared inevitable. The diggers, then on the and Turkey remained undisturbed, and even fields, remained neutral, however, and, as their the serious complication which, in November, number was daily increasing by new arrivals arose between Russia and Turkey, did not elicit of well-armed men from all quarters, they from the Khedive of Egypt any intimation of soon became sufficiently strong to defy any ata new movement in behalf of the independence tempt on the part of either of the above-menof Egypt. The Suez Canal increased the com- tioned governments to interfere with the parmerce of Egypt, but failed altogether to fulfil suit of their labors. The diamond-fields may. tbe expectations of the shareholders.
therefore be considered neutral territory. In Abyssinia relapsed into entire obscurity, the beginning, diamonds were found on the neither its relations to foreign countries nor surface in goodly numbers and of various sizes. its internal condition attracting the least at- This, of course, did not last long, and the picktention. Only occasional reports from Chris- axe and shovel were soon resorted to for regutian missionaries or travelling naturalists suc- lar digging. The yield of diamonds has, so far, ceeded from time to time in keeping alive & been extremely liberal, and though some parreligious or scientific interest in a country ties have been unfortunate, and returned from which a few years ago seemed on the point of the diggings disappointed and in disgust, the being drawn into more intimate connections majority of the diggers are doing well, while with the civilized world.
in some exceptional cases they have realized One of the most notable facts in the history an independent fortune from the sale of their of Africa during the past year is the rapid prog- diamonds. In the commencement, during the ress of Christianity in Madagascar. The col- months of June and July, there were about lapse of paganism, as far as political power and 500 white men at work on both banks of the influence are concerned, is complete, and the Vaal River. The majority of the diggers were Christianization of the whole people only a ques- engaged on the northern bank, the southern tion of time. The spread of popular education bank being owned by the German missionary encourages the hope that, among the native establishment at Pniel. The missionaries were states, Madagascar will soon occupy a front unwilling to admit of any digging on their rank in point of civilization.
grounds, unless they could share in the proOn the western coast of Africa, the Afro- ceeds of the labor to the extent of at least American republic of Liberia continues to en- one-fourth. The feeling among the miners joy the blessings of peace, but its leading men was, consequently, any thing but friendly towappeal to the United States for further aid in ard the missionaries. During the quarter the development of their country. During the from June 1st to August 31st, considerably summer months the President of the Republic more than 1,000 diamonds were found, varybimself made a visit to the United States. ing in value from 30 shillings to £1,000 sterOne of the most important events for the ling. Two steamers, which left Cape Town for
VOL. X.-1 A
Europe during the latter part of August, took lost on them; they have thus directly and inout diamonds valued at more than £10,000 directly contributed to the present prosperity sterling. The arrivals at the fields have con- of the settlement. They are unacquainted with tinually increased ever since, the new-comers French institutions, and would submit to alaveraging about 1,000 per week. A regularly most any taxation in order to remain under organized community of diggers has been the British flag. formed at a short distance from the mission The population of Morocco is variously estistation at Pniel. A set of regulations has been mated at from two and a half to five millions. drawn up, and is enforced by a vigilance com- According to the French consul in Mogador, mittee elected by the white community located M. A. Baumier, it is from four to five millions. there. It is believed diamonds to the value M. Baumier is satisfied that the country is of £500,000 sterling were found during Sep- very thinly populated. During a six-days' jourtember and October.* The diggers were all ney on the main road connecting the principal well-armed, and although some extensive Kaf- seaport with the capital of the country, he did fre raids had been threatened, nothing of any not meet over two hundred people. In Algeserious consequence had transpired up to the ria, by an imperial decree of December 10, 1868, latest dates.
thirty-nine districts of the province of ConstanOfficial papers, respecting the establishment tine, which had been previously separated from of a responsible government for the Cape the same and incorporated with the military Colony and the withdrawal of troops from the district, were reunited with the province, incolony, were issued in London on June 13th. creasing its area to 2,074 English square miles, Earl Granville, in reply to an address from the with a population of 150,056, of which 55,056 House of Assembly sent to him by Sir Philip were Europeans and 95,000 natives. The CathWodehouse, holds out no hope that the English olic missionaries, in their “Annals of the PropaGovernment will sanction any further delay in gation of the Christian Faith," compute the popthe removal of the troops beyond that already ulation of Tunis at 15,553 Roman, and 300 determined upon, and he earnestly hopes that Greek Catholics, 25 Protestants, 400,000 Jews, the Cape Parliament will address itself seri- and 2,000,000 Mohammedans, making a total ously to the task of placing the finances on a of 2,415,878. It is evident however, that the proper footing, and making further provision figures concerning the Jews and Mohammedans for the defence of the colony.
are vague estimates. Mr. Amos Perry, consul Several attempts at insurrection were made of the United States at Tunis until September, in the French possessions in Algeria, as well as 1867, is of opinion that the population is not in the Senegal settlements; but all of them were below 1,500,000 and not above 2,000,000. The quelled without difficulty.
population of Egypt proper was stated by the The King of Combo entered a formal protest Sanitary Commission, on April 21, 1868, to be against the proposed transfer of the Gambia 4,976,230. The Year-Book of Senegal and its by England to the French, urging that the land dependencies for 1869 states the population of does not belong to the English Government, the French possessions in Senegambia at 201,but to himself, and that it was only rented to 012, exclusive of 45,000 inhabitants in two the English Government by his ancestors. provinces under French protection, and of the
Simultaneous with this protest, numerous population of Bandon, Kamera and a part of and earnest manifestations of the dislike of Casamance, which, although not exactly under the English colonists to a transfer to the French rule, are governed by native chiefs seFrench reached the home Government, and a lected by the French Government. The popupetition was sent to Lord Granville, ernbody- lation of the Portuguese possessions, actually ing the views of the prominent settlers in the under Portuguese rule, is officially reported country. It appears that some fifty years ago in 1870 at 8,500. The Journal of the Statisthe English Government commenced to send tical Society of London (March, 1869) reports discharged soldiers from the West-India regi- the population of Natal at 250,808, of whom ments to the Island of St. Mary, and to that 17,971 were whites, and 232,837 colored; the part of the main-land known as British Combo. colored population comprised 6,298 Indian cooThese people, living under English laws and lies. Since 1855 no census has been taken in protection, have brought up their families in the Orange Free State. The Friend of the Free feelings of loyalty to England and liking for State and Bloemfontein Gazette of August 14, her institutions. By their quiet habits and 1868, estimates the white population at 37,000, steady industry they have set an example to of which 2,000 are British subjects, while the the surrounding natives, which has not been remainder consist of Boers, Germans, and
Dutch. * Late advices from England and Holland, it is but just
According to the Geographisches Jahrbuch to state, throw considerable doubt on the genuineness or these diamonds. Some of the most eminent experts pronounce them quartz crystals, of remarkable perfection
work on geography and statistics, the populaand beauty, but still only quartz. The fact probably is, that a few genuine diamonds have been found, though for tion and area of the divisions and subdivisions the most part not of the first water, but that the greater of Africa * were in 1869 as follows: part of the supposed gems were in reality only quartz crystals, wbich are often found in the vicinity of diamond deposits.
* The indented names indicate subdivisions.
French Posseesions in Senegambia....
Portuguese Poesessions, Eastern Coast...
Cape Verde Islands........
Tristan da Pinha,...
Inland lakes, not enumerated.......
AGRICULTURE. As usual, we are unable corporated in the census of 1860, was in round to give any thing more than approximate esti- numbers 838,000,000 bushels. The increase in mates of the crops of 1870, in this volume, population in the ten years which followed owing to the early date at which it is put to was just about twenty per cent., and the crop press. The estimates are, however, unusually of 1869 should have been 1,005,000,000 bushels. full. We give first the returns of the crops in It was only 874,000,000, or but five per cent. 1869 as obtained by the census of 1870, pre- increase. The crop of 1870 makes amends for mising that most of them are yet only in round this deficiency, being estimated at 1,100,000,numbers, and hence only approximately ac- 000 bushels. Assuming, which is very near curate.
the truth, that the acreage of Indian corn was The year 1870 was, in general, one of fair 39,000,000 acres against about 38,000,000 acres though not excessive productiveness. The year in 1869, the average yield would be about 28 was not a remarkably favorable one for Wheat, bushels to the acre, against an average of 26.42 and the acreage was considerably less than that bushels in 1869. of the previous year. The quality is greatly The Rye crop was about 21,125,000 bushels, superior to that of 1869. The entire crop is or about four per cent. below the crop of 1869. estimated at 216,000,000 bushels, a decrease The quality was generally good. This grain of 48,000,000 bushels below that of 1869, but is quite largely grown for pasturage in the the quality is at least fifteen per cent, better. Southern States.
Of Indian Corn the crop is the largest ever Barley was also somewhat less in quantity known, though the increase in the production than in 1869, the aggregate being about 27,of this grain is hardly keeping pace with the 600,000 bushels. increase in the population. The yield of 1859, The Buckwheat crop was about 16,500,000 the year when agricultural products were in- bushels, a slight falling off from the crop of 1869. AGRICULTURAL PRODUCTS OF THE SEVERAL STATES IN 1869.
WHEAT, RYE, DOMESTIC ANIMALS, AND BEANS.
65,780 21.489 20.720 28,864
8,438 363,217 1,965,214 140,028 89.902 49,081 11.827 388,346 531,148 346,915
39,407 49,246 965, 128
OATS, BUCKWHEAT, AND HAY.