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Senators 2. Immediately after they shall be assembled in consequence of the

first election, they shall be divided, as equally as may be, into three
classes. The seats of the senators of the first class shall be vacated
at the expiration of the second year, of the second class at the expira-
tion of the fourth year, and of the third class at the expiration of the

sixth year, so that one-third may be chosen every second year; and if Vacancies, vacancies happen, by resignation or otherwise, during the recess of

the legislature of any state, the executive thereof may make temporary
appointments until the next meeting of the legislature, which shall
then fill such vacancies.

3. No person shall be a senator who shall not have attained to the qualification

age of thirty years, and been nine years a citizen of the United States,
and who shall not, when elected, be an inhabitant of that state for

which he shall be chosen. Vice presi.

4. The vice president of the United States shall be president of the senate, but shall have no vote, unless they be equally divided.

5. The senate shall choose their other officers, and also a president pro tempore, in the absence of the vice president, or when he shall

exercise the office of president of the United States.
Try impeach 6. The senate shall have the sole power to try all impeachments.

When sitting for that purpose, they shall be on oath or affirmation.
When the president of the United States is tried, the chief justice
shall preside ; and no person shall be convicted without the concur-

rence of two-thirds of the members present.
Judgment on 7. Judgment in cases of impeachment shall not extend further than

to removal from office, and disqualification to hold and enjoy any office
of honor, trust, or profit, under the United States ; but the party con-
victed shall nevertheless be liable and subject to indictment, trial,
judgment, and punishment, according to law.


Senate to choose officers.




Elections, 1. The times, places, and manner of holding elections for senators
how held.

and representatives, shall be prescribed in each state by the legislature
thereof; but the congress may, at any time, by law, make or alter such

regulations, except as to the places of choosing senators.
Congress as 2. The congress shall assemble at least once in every year, and such
ally. meeting shall be on the first Monday in December, unless they shall

by law appoint a different day.

semble annu.


Elections, 1. Each house shall be the judge of the elections, returns, and
how judged.
Quorum in qualifications of its own members; and a majority of each shall con-
Senate and stitute a quorum to do business; but a smaller number may adjourn

from day to day, and may be authorized to compel the attendance of
absent members, in such manner and under such penalties as each
house may provide.

2. Each house may determine the rules of its proceedings, punish
its members for disorderly behaviour, and, with the concurrence of

two-thirds, expel a member. Journals of

3. Each house shall keep a journal of its proceedings, and from time each house. Yeas and to time publish the same, excepting such parts as may in their judg

ment require secrecy; and the yeas and nays of the members of either


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house, on any question, shall, at the desire of one fifth of those present, be entered on the journal.

4. Neither house, during the session of congress, shall, without the Adjournconsent of the other, adjourn for more than three days, nor to any other place than that in which the two houses shall be sitting,




1. The senators and representatives shall receive a compensation Compensafor their services, to be ascertained by law, and paid out of the treasury of the United States. They shall, in all cases, except treason, Privileges. felony, and breach of the peace, be privileged from arrest during their attendance at the session of their respective houses, and in going to or returning from the same; and for any speech or debate in either house, they shall not be questioned in any other place.

2. No senator or representative shall, during the time for which he Members not was elected, be appointed to any civil office under the authority of the United States, which shall have been created, or the emoluments whereof shall have been increased, during such time; and no person holding any office under the United States shall be a member of either house during his continuance in office.

eligible to office.




1. All bills for raising revenue shall originate in the house of repre- Revenue sentatives; but the senate may propose or concur with amendments, as on other bills.

2. Every bill which shall have passed the house of representatives Passing bills. and the senate, shall, before it become a law, be presented to the president of the United States; if he approve, he shall sign it; but if not, he shall return it, with his objections, to that house in which it shall have originated, who shall enter the objections at large on their journal, and proceed to reconsider it. If, after such reconsideration, twothirds of that house shall agree to pass the bill, it shall be sent, together with the objections, to the other house, by which it shall likewise be reconsidered, and if approved by two-thirds of that house, it shall become a law. But in all such cases, the votes of both houses shall be determined by yeas and nays, and the names of the persons voting for and against the bill shall be entered on the journal of each house respectively. If any bill shall not be returned by the president within ien days (Sundays excepted) after it shall have been presented to him, the same shall be a law in like manner as if he had signed it, unless the congress by their adjournment prevent its return, in which case it shall not be a law.

3. Every order, resolution, or vote, to which the concurrence of the Resolutions, senate and house of representatives may be necessary, (except on a

passed. question of adjournment,) shall be presented to the president of the United States; and before the same shall take effect, shall be approved by him, or being disapproved by him, shall be repassed by two-thirds of the senate and house of representatives, according to the rules and limitations prescribed in the case of a bill.

&c. how


Powers of congress.




Naturalization. Bankrupt. cies. Coin,

measures. Punish coun:

&c. Science and arts.



Declare war.

The congress shall have power

1. To lay and collect taxes, duties, imposts, and excises; to pay the debts and provide for the common defence and general welfare of the United States; but all duties, imposts, and excises, shall be uniform throughout the United States :

2. To borrow money on the credit of the United States :

3. To regulate commerce with foreign nations, and among the ral states, and with the Indian tribes :

4. To establish an uniform rule of naturalization, and uniform laws on the subject of bankruptcies throughout the United States :

5. To coin money, regulate the value thereof, and of foreign coin, weights and and fix the standard of weights and measures:

6. To provide for the punishment of counterfeiting the securities terfeiting. and current coin of the United States : Post offices, 7. To establish post-offices and post-roads :

8. To promote the progress of science and useful arts, by securing, for limited times, to authors and inventors, the exclusive right to their respective writings and discoveries :

9. To constitute tribunals inferior to the supreme court: To define Punish pira- and punish piracies and felonies committed on the high seas, and of

fences against the law of nations:

10. To declare war, grant letters of marque and reprisal, and make rules concerning captures on land and water:

11. To raise and support armies; but no appropriation of money to

that use shall be for a longer term than two years: Navy. 12. To provide and maintain a navy: Military 13. To make rules for the government and regulation of the land and

naval forces:

14. To provide for calling forth the militia to execute the laws of

the union, suppress insurrections, and repel invasions : Organize mi. 15. To provide for organizing, arming, and disciplining the militia,

and for governing such part of them as may be employed in the service of the United States, reserving to the states respectively, the appointment of the officers, and the authority of training the militia

according to the discipline prescribed by congress: Exclusive ju 16. To exercise exclusive legislation in all cases whatsoever, over risdiction.

such district (not exceeding ten miles square) as may, by cession of
particular states, and the acceptance of congress, become the seat of
government of the United States, and to exercise like authority over
all places purchased, by the consent of the legislature of the state in
which the same shall be, for the erection of forts, magazines, arsenals,
dockyards, and other needful buildings :-and,
17. To make all laws which shall be necessary


proper for carrying into execution the foregoing powers, and all other powers vested by this constitution in the government of the United States, or in any department or officer thereof.

Raise armies.


Call out the militia.


Make all laws neces.

sary, &c.


Importation of slaves af ter 1208,

1. The migration or importation of such persons as any of the states now existing shall think proper admit, shall not be prohibited by the congress prior to the year one thousand eight hundred and eight,

tion duty.

but a tax or duty may be imposed on such importation, not exceeding ten dollars for each person.

2. The privilege of the writ of habeas corpus shall not be suspend- Habeas cored, unless when, in cases of rebellion or invasion, the public safety pus. may require it.

3. No bill of attainder, or ex post facto law, shall be passed. Attainder.

4. No capitation or other direct tax shall be laid, unless in propor- Tax. tion to the census or enumeration herein before directed to be taken.

5. No tax or duty shall be laid on articles exported from any state. No exportaNo preference shall be given by any regulation of commerce or revenue to the ports of one state over those of another: nor shall vessels bound to or from one state, be obliged to enter, clear, or pay duties in another.

6. No money shall be drawn from the treasury, bùt in consequence Money, how of appropriations made by law: and a regular statement and account of the receipts and expenditures of all public money shall be published from time to time.

7. No title of nobility shall be granted by the United States, and no Titles of noperson holding any office of profit or trust under them, shall, without lowed." the consent of the congress, accept of any present, emolument, office, or title of any kind whatever, from any king, prince, or foreign state.



1. No state shall enter into any treaty, alliance, or confederation : Limitations grant letters of marque and reprisal; coin money; emit bills of credit; of the indivi make any thing but gold and silver coin a tender in payment of debts; dual states. pass any bill of attainder, ex post facto law, or law impairing the obligation of contracts; or grant any title of nobility.

2. No state shall, without the consent of the congress, lay any imposts or duties on imports or exports, except what may be absolutely necessary for executing its inspection laws; and the net produce of all duties and imposts, laid by any state on imports or exports, shall be for the use of the treasury of the United States, and all such laws shall be subject to the revision and control of the congress. No state shall, without the consent of congress, lay any duty of tonnage, keep troops or ships of war in time of peace, enter into any agreement or compact with another state, or with a foreign power, or engage in war, unless actually invaded, or in such imminent danger as will not admit of delay.


1. The executive power shall be vested in a president of the United Executive States of America. He shall hold his office during the term of four power. years, and, together with the vice-president, chosen for the same term, be elected as follows:

2. Each state shall appoint, in such manner as the legislature thereof Manner of may direct, a number of electors, equal to the whole number of sena-president tors and representatives to which the state may be entitled in the con- and vice pregress; but no senator or representative, or person holding an office of see amend trust or profit under the United States, shall be appointed an elector. ments, arti.

3. The electors shall meet in their respective states, and vote by ballot for two persons, of whom one at least shall not be an inhabitant of the same state with themselves. And they shall make a list of all the

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persons voted for, and of the number of votes for each ; which list they shall sign and certify, and transmit sealed to the seat of the government of the United States, directed to the president of the senate. The president of the senate shall, in the presence of the senate and house of representatives, open all the certificates, and the votes shall then be counted. The person having the greatest number of votes shall be the president, if such number be a majority of the whole number of electors appointed; and if there be more than one who have such majority, and have an equal number of yotes, then the house of representatives shall immediately choose, by ballot, one of them for president; and if no person have a majority, then, from the five highest on the list, the said house shall, in like manner, choose the president. · But, in choosing the president, the votes shall be taken by states, the representation from each state having one vote; a quorum for this purpose shall consist of a member or members from two-thirds of the states, and a majority of all the states shall be necessary to a choice. In every case, after the choice of the president, the person having the greatest number of votes of the electors, shall be the vice-president. But if there should remain two or more who have equal votes, the senate shall choose from them, by ballot, the vice-president.

4. The congress may determine the time of choosing the electors, and the day on which they shall give their votes; which day shall be

the same throughout the United States. Who may be 5. No person, except a natural born citizen, or a citizen of the elected presi: United States at the time of the adoption of this constitution, shall be

eligible to the office of president, neither shall any person be eligible to that office, who shall not have attained to the age of thirty-five years, and been fourteen years a resident within the United Staies.

6. In case of the removal of the president from office, or of his ses ihe, vice death, resignation, or inability to discharge the powers and duties of act as presi- the said office, the same shall devolve on the vice-president, and the

congress may, by law, provide for the case of removal, death, resignation, or inability, both of the president and vice-president, declaring what officer shall then act as president, and such officer shall act accordingly, until the disability be removed, or a president shall be elected.

7. The president shall, at stated times, receive for his services a compensa compensation, which shall neither be increased nor diminished during

the period for which he shall have been elected, and he shall not receive within that period any other emolument from the United States,

or any of them. Hisoath. 8. Before he enter on the execution of his office, he shall take the

following oath or affirmation:

9. "I do solemnly swear (or affirm) that I will faithfully execute the office of president of the United States, and will, to the best of my ability, preserve, protect, and defend, the constitution of the United States."

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President U.

1. The president shall be commander-in-chief of the army and navy States' pow- of the United States, and of the militia of the several states, when cal

led into the actual service of the United States; he may require the opinion, in writing, of the principal officer in each of the executive departments, upon any subject relating to the duties of their respective offices; and he shall have power to grant reprieves and pardons

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