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CONTENTS.

Page.

Introduction......

5

Summary of mineral production in the United States in 1908, compiled by

W. T. Thom...

7-59

Iron ores, pig iron, and steel, by E. C. Harder.

61-134

Iron-ore industry of United States..

63

Production by States...

64

Lake Superior district.

73

Foreign trade..

77

Cuba....

79

World's production of iron ore.

80

Occurrence of iron ores in the United States.

81

Eastern district..

81

Central district..

94

Western district.

109

Iron-ore reserves of United States

116

Iron and steel industry of United States..

123

Production of pig iron by States...

123

Production of steel..

125

Note on value of production of pig, in 1908, by W. T. Thom

127

Manganese ores, by E. c. Harder..

135-156

Sources of manganese.

136

Uses of manganese.

138

Manganese-ore industry.

139

Production....

139

Manganiferous ores.

141

Manganiferous zinc residuum.

142

Occurrence of manganese ores.

145

Ferromanganese and spiegeleisen.

155

Gold and silver, by Waldemar Lindgren and H. D. McCaskey

157-183

Production...

157

Imports and exports.

161

Mines report..

162

Copper, by B. S. Butler.

185-226

Production...

186

Stocks...

222

Imports and exports.

222

Consumption..

224

World's production.

226

Lead, by C. E. Siebenthal.

227-243

Production...

228

World's production.

236

Consumption.

238

Zinc, by C. E. Siebenthal.

245–273

Production...

246

Reduction..

251

World's production..

264

Consumption...

268

Gold, silver, copper, lead, and zinc in the United States (mine production)... 275–276

Prefatory note

275-276

Gold, silver, copper, lead, and zinc in the Western States (mine production). 277–586

Alaska, by A. H. Brooks..

277

Arizona, by V. C. Heikes..

286

California, by Charles G. Yale.

314

Colorado, by Charles W. Henderson.

360

Idaho, by Č. N. Gerry.

405

Montana, by V. C. Heikes..

435

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MINERAL RESOURCES OF THE UNITED STATES FOR

1908–PART I.

INTRODUCTION.

CHARACTER AND SCOPE OF REPORT.

The arrangement and scope of this report are practically the same as in the twenty-four preceding reports of the series Mineral Resources of the United States. Each report records the development of the mineral industries of the United States since the time covered by the preceding number of the series; the reports should therefore be consulted together. Each chapter is a census of the productive features of the industry under discussion. The statistics of the imports and exports of minerals, which form an essential part of the volume, are obtained through the courtesy of the Chief of the Bureau of Statistics, Department of Commerce and Labor.

The summary gives the principal statistical information recorded in this report.

In presenting these statistics all unnecessary duplication has been avoided. The coke product, for example, discussed in the following pages and amounting in 1908 to 26,033,518 short tons, valued at $62,483,983, is excluded from the tabular statement, as the quantity and value of the coal used in its manufacture are included in the statistics of coal production. Similarly, white lead, red lead, litharge, and orange mineral, whose average aggregate value for the last ten years has exceeded $15,000,000, are not given in the table, the base from which they are made being included in the output of pig lead. Zinc oxide, zinc-lead, sublimed blue lead, and sublimed white lead, made directly from the ores, and consequently not included in spelter or lead production, are tabulated. The production of pig iron and its value are given in the table as the best means of presenting the statistics of the production of iron in the first marketable condition. The statistics of the production of iron ores are treated in a separate chapter, but are not included in the general statement of mineral products. The quantity and value of the production of iron ores are also shown in a footnote to the table of mineral products. In like manner the value of clay products is given as representing the first marketable condition of the clay resources of the country. Inflation of valuation and all unnecessary duplication are thus avoided as far as practicable.

In accordance with a change in the law (sundry civil appropriation act, approved May 27, 1908) governing the publication of this report, it will henceforth appear in two volumes, the first containing the statistics of the metallic products, and the second the statistics of the nonmetallic products of the country.

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