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shouts in every part of the widely extended field. The mayor came forward and surrendered the town, and the national ensign was hoisted over the public buildings where the rebel flag had so long defiantly floated its treasonable folds. The rebels fled with great precipitation notwithstanding their oft-repeated boasts to immolate the Yankees if they ever ventured beyond the Tennessee. The pursuit of the fugitive enemy was immediate and the same day a cavalry force overtook his rear guard on Tuscumbia creek 8 miles south of Corinth. The retreat and pursuit was continued for ser: eral days with skirmisbing at various points, and finally ended in the occupation of Guntown and Baldwin by the federals, and Tupello by the confederates.

The lengthening list of regiments which Illinois added to the catalogue of battles in the siege of Corinth attained its greatest dimensions. The following array of numbers constitute a roll of honor which patriots and heroes willever revere: The 7th, 10th, 11th, 12th, 14th, 15th, 16th, 17th, 18th, 22d, 26th, 27th, 28th, 29th, 30th, 31st, 34th, 35th, 38th, 41st, 420, 430, 45th, 46th, 47th, 48th, 51st, 52d, 530, 55th, 57th, 60th, 64th, and 66th. Most of these were brigaded and officered as at Shiloh and Island No. 10, and advanced upon Corinth in Thomas' corps. Prominent among the many organizations which were distinguished in the fighting about the besieged city were a portion of the 2d, 4th, 7th and 11th cavalry, and the batteries of Waterhouse, Houghtaling, Bouton and Silverspare. Lieut. Baker, of Yates' sharp-shooters was the first to enter the rebel works, and Col. Stuart, of the 55th, was the first to hoist the federal flag over the captured city. Gen. Sherman thus alludes to Logan: “I feel under special obligations to this officer, who, during the two days he served under me, held the entire ground on my right extending down to the railroad. All the time he had in his front a large force of the enemy, but so dense was the forest he could not reckon their strength save what he could see on the railroad."

CHAPTER LIX.

1862ILLINOIS IN KENTUCKY, NORTHERN MISSISSIPPI

AND MIDDLE TENNESSEE.

Battles of Perryville, Bolivar, Britton's Lane, Iuka, Corinth and

Stone River.

Shortly after the reduction of Corinth important changes occurred in the Army of the West.

On the 27th of June, 1862, Pope left to take command of the Army of the Potomac. On the 23d of July Halleck, by order of the President, assumed command of the armies of the United States, and Grant occupied Northern Alabama and West Ten. nessee.

Buell, on the 10th of June, started eastward to counteract the designs of Bragg, who was collecting a large force for an offensive movement northward. One corps of his army was stationed at Knoxville, under the command of E. Kirby Smith, and two at Chattanooga under Polk and Hardee. The troops under the immediate command of Buell numbered 25,000, with an auxiliary force of 13,000, at different places in Northern Alabama and Middle Tennesse, under the command of the gallant Mitchell. Buell's first object was to repair the railroads which had previously been destroyed by raiding parties of rebel cavalry, and thus maintain ready access to his depot of supplies at Nashville. The perform. ance of this important work was entrusted to Mitchell, who soon restored the road between Nashville and Murfreesboro; but un. fortunately, Forrest, with 3,000 cavalry, immediately afterwards made a descent on the latter place, captured the small garrison, again destroyed the railroad and escaped with his prisoners and a large amount of booty to Chattanooga. Next the startling intelligence was received that the force under Smith, had burst through a gap of the Cumberland Mountains, for the purpose of invading Kentucky. Passing without opposition through the State, he apapproached within seven miles of Cincinnati, but finding the city prepared to receive him, he retired without attempting its capture.

When war exists one of the belligerents must be subdued before peace can be restored; and however prudently it may be conducted, the destruction of life and property is unavoidable. The forces employed if divested of the restraint common to regular military organizations, frequently forget the object of legitimate warfare, and plunder indiscriminately both friend and foe. Such was the character of the marauding parties which the rebels now employed as a means of obtaining supplies and avenging their imaginary wrongs. Frequently they dashed into a village or district and having seized the property of the inhabitants, if any dared to resist they were either shot or dragged into captivity. Lying in wait for railroad trains, they were not content with destroying the road and robbing the mails, but murdered the passengers. If dispersed at one point they suddenly appeared at another, and renewed their depredations, seriously interfering with the business of the country without leading to any decisive mili. tary advantages.

50—785

Almost simultaneously with the passage of the Cumberland Mountains by Smith, Bragg with an army of 60,000 men, crossed the Tennessee for a similar offensive movement. Buell had extended his line of operations along the Memphis and Charleston railroad to Huntsville, where he had established his headquarters. Owing to the manifold dangers which now beset bim, instead of penetrating farther eastward as contemplated, he found it necessary to return for the purpose of guarding the movements of Bragg. The latter proceeding by way of Pikeville, Sparta and Carthage, entered Kentucky on the 5th of September. During the march, Buell harrassed his rear; on the 17th drove his forces out of Mumfordsville, and deducing from his movements that he was aiming at Louisville, he hastened thither in advance.

The inhabitants were laboring under the most serious appre. hensions for the safety of the city, and when his advancing columns awoke them from their nightly slumbers, the cry“Buell has come,” was repeated as when his advent was greeted by the imperiled army at Shiloh. Anticipating an attack by the rebel army, a large number of fresh troops had been hurriedly pushed forward from Illinois, Indiana and Ohio for the protection of the city, when some misunderstanding arising between Gens. Davis and Nelson, as to whose command they belonged, the latter was shot and killed by the former. After the adjustment of this difficulty, Buell's army was reorganized, he being first and Thomas second in command, and its three corps being commanded by Generals A. M. McCook, Crittenden and C. C. Gilbert.

Battle of Perryville.—Thus officered and numbering near 100,000 men, the army on the 1st of October left Louisville in pur. suit of Bragg, who being unable to proceed farther northward, commenced returning. Buell following in his wake by way of Bardstown, heard there was a large force of the enemy at Perry. ville. He determined to move against him and accordingly ordered his three corps to advance without delay by different roads. On the 7th of October, 1862, Gilbert's corps moved along the Springfield pike to within 5 miles of Perryville when heavy skir. mishing commenced. Mitchell's, the leading division, was formed in line of battle across the road and Sheridan's division, containing the 36th, 44th, 73, 85th, 86th, 88th and 125th Ilinois, was shortly after brought up and stationed beyond Doctor's Creek on Mitchell's right. This movement brought McCook's brig. ade of Sherman's division, within 24 miles of the enemy's position and early in the morning of the 8th be deployed the 85th Illinois on his right, the 52d Ohio on his left, while the 125th Illinois was placed as a reserve, and the 86th Illinois pushed forward as pickets. The rebel pickets now commenced the contest by a severe fire on the 85th, which, without having previously been under fire, charged up the hill on which the enemy was posted, and drove him from his position. Exasperated at their discomfiture the rebels now massed their forces on the right and left of the brigade, and for an hour poured upon the devoted men a furious fire of shrapnel. Stubbornly, heroically they breasted the storm till Barrets 2d Illinois battery was brought into position when the rebels were three times driven from their guns, which at length were permanently silenced. The 125th Illinois had in the meanwhile been ordered up to support the battery and so efficiently was the task performed that the rebels retired leaving the federals in possession of the field which they had so heroically won.

In the meantime Jackson's and Rousseau's divisions, A. M. McCook's corps, the former containing the 34th, 80th, 89th and 123d Illinois and the latter the 19th, 24th and 39th Ill., were brought up and formed on Gilbert's left. Bragg fearing the arrival of Crittenden, deterioined to take advantage of his absence by an immediate assault with his entire force. Accordingly about 11 o'clock his batteries opened from 6 different positions, and were answered by the federal artillery, but no effect being produced on either side, the firing ceased. The lull, however, only presaged the coming storm. Again the rebel guns opened with redoubled fury and

. presently the dark masses of the enemy were seen emerging from the woods. Bragg had concentrated the flower of his army against the left center of the Union line, while Buckner massing another force, moved against Jockson's division further to the left. The latter gave way and Rousseau next becoming involved, for half an hour the fighting was terriffic and the carnage fearful. In the beat of the couflict the 24th Illinois was ordered up for the defense of a vulnerable point in the line, and although frequently assailed by overwhelming numbers, they tenaciously maintained their position. While the battle was thus raging on the left Gens. Mitchell and Sheridan attacked the enemy on the right and driving him from the field, ended the contest.

During the afternoon Mitchell's division, in which were the 21st, 25th, 35th, 38th, 420, 58th, 59th, 74th and 15th Illinois, had been moved up to the support of Gen. Sheridan, who was hard pressed by the enemy. Col. Carlin of the 38th Illinois, with a brigade, pushed forward on the right and upon ascending a hill, discovered a strong force of the enemy ready to hurl themselves against Sheridan's overtasked men. Ordering a charge his men met the advancing rebels with such irresistable momentum as to completely pierce their centre and put them to flight. He then pursued the fugitives a distance of two miles, when finding in the ardor of pursuit he had isolated himself from the other forces, he returned before the confused enemy could take advantage of his situation. While in this advanced position his own regiment, the 38th Illinois, captured an ammunition train of the enemy, and its guard, numbering 140 men.* As an evidence of the heroism with which the 59th and 75th exposed themselves and the deadly ordeal through which they passed, the former lost 153 out of 325, and the latter 221 out of 700. In another part of the field the 80th and 123d behaved with great gallantry, the first having 11 killed, 32 wounded, and 13 missing and the 2d 35 killed, 119 wounded and 35 missing. Mitchell's Report.

Other regiments, though not specially mentioned in the reports of the battle, fought as bravely, loved the cause as devotedly and are as much entitled to our respect and gratitude as those who have a more pretentious record. That none could have shunned danger is evident from the fatal effects of the battle, which McCook says, for the number engaged, was the bloodiest conflict of modern times. According to Buell's report, the entire federal loss in killed, wounded and missing was 4,000; that of the enemy being about the same. Had Crittenden's corps, which did not arrive till after the fighting was over, been present, the result might have been different.

As Bragg retreated it was supposed he would make a stand on Dick river, and Buell accordingly sent Crittenden forward to engage him in front while McCook and Gilbert were to turn his tlank and compel him to fight or surrender. The sagacious Confederate, however, suspecting the design of his adversary, evacuated his position and resumed his march. Possessing an accurate knowledge of the country and skilfully using the advantages which it afforded, he managed to elude the Union troops. The pursuit was continued as far as London, when its farther prosecution was deemed inexpedient. Bragg 'thus escaped laden with the rich spoils gathered in Kentucky; and Buell falling back to Nashville, was superseded by Rosecrans.

The Richmond authorities evidently supposed that the people of Kentucky were ready to espouse the cause of the confederacy if they could have some assurance of protection when the decisive step was taken. One object of the invasion was, therefore, to inspire the necessary confidence, and much disappointment was felt at the apathy with which these overtures were received, and, therefore, except a large amount of supplies Bragg carried with him to Tennessee, he derived no advantage from the expedition.

Battle of Bolivar. After the reduction of Corinth Grant's army occupied Northern Alabama. His forces having been seriously weakened by detailing a portion of them for the defense of Lou. isville, a strong rebel force of cavalry, under the command of Armstrong, undertook the capture of Bolivar, for the purpose of severing the railroad at that point and thus interrupting the federal lines of communication, Col. Crocker with a small Union force was in command of the town, and as soon as he learned the intentions of Armstrong, he dispatched, on the 30th of August, 1862, two companies of the 11th and four of the 2d Il. caralry, Cols. Puterbaugh and Hogg, and the 20th and 78th Ohio infantry, to give him battle. About noon Col. Leggett, who had charge of the force, met a large body of rebels, who immediately endeavored by a flank movement on the Middleburg road, to get in his rear. Here with the two companies of the 11th Ill. cavalry and some mounted infantry he engaged the enemy, and after an hour's fighting, drove him back. After the first struggle was over a portion of the Ohio infantry arrived, and Leggett, leaving a sufficient force for the protection of his left, massed the remainder of bis troops on the road where it was evident the enemy was making preparations for a second attack, for the purpose of gaining his rear. Hardly had this disposition of the forces been made, when

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