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a half a million of men would have volunteered to escort him through the rebellious city. Unexpected by the conspirators who had marked him for their prey, and his friends who were making preparations for his reception, he arrived in Washington on the morning of the 23d of February. On the 4th of March he was inaugurated president of the United States in the presence of a vast multitude who had assembled to witness the imposing spectacle. His inaugural address is a state paper of more than ordinary ability, and whatever may have been the suspcions previ. ously entertained in the South in regard to his policy after this expression of his views, the rebellion was wholly without a justifi. able pretext. While the most ample assurances are given of protection in the Union, he also refers to his obligations to maintain it, and his determination to do it. Its great length renders it impracticable to repeat it in full, but the following passages are characteristic of its spirit:

"Apprehensions seem to exist among the people of the Southern States that by the accession of a republican administration that their property and their peace and personal security are to be endangered. There has never been any reasonable cause for such apprehension. Indeed, the most ample evidence to the contrary has all the while existed and been open to their inspection. It is found in nearly all the public speeches of him who now addresses you. I consider that in view of the constitution and laws the Union is unbroken, and to the extent of my ability I will take care as the constitution expressly enjoins upon me that the laws of the Union be faithfully executed in all the States. Doing this I deem it only a simple duty on my part, and I shall perform it so far as practicable unless my rightful masters, the American people, shall withhold the requisite means, or shall in some other authoritative manner direct the contrary. Physically speaking, we cannot separate. We cannot move the respective sections from each other, nor build an impassable wall between them. A husband and wife may be divorced and go out of the presence and beyond the reach of each other, but the different parts of our country cannot do this. They cannot but remain face to face, and intercourse either amicable or hostile must contiue between them. Is it possible then to make that intercourse more advantageous or more satisfactory after separation than before? Can aliens make treatise more easily than friends can make laws among friends ? Suppose you go to war, you cannot fight always, and when after much loss on both sides, and no gain on either, you cease fighting the identical old questions are upon you. In your hands, my dissatisfied fellow countrymen, and not in mine, is the momentous issue of civil war. The gove ernment will not assail you. You can have no conflict without being yourselves the aggressors. You have no solemn oath registered in heaven to destroy the government, while I shall have the most solemn one to preserve, protect and defend it. I am loth to close. We are not enemies. but friends. We must not be enemies. Though passion may have strained it must not break our bonds of affection. The mystic chords of memory stretching from every battle field and patriot's grave to every living heart and hearth-stone all over this broad land will yet swell the chorus of the Union, when again touched, as surely they will be, by the better angels of our nature."

At the time of Mr. Lincoln's accession to power several members of the Union claimed that they had withdrawn from it, and styling themselves the “Confederate States of America,” had organized a separate government. The remaining slave States were convulsed with excitement, and traitors taking advantage of the magnanimity which the new administration would fain have exercised, with fiendish eagerness were endeavoring to precipitate them also into revolution. The confederate authorities, emboldened by this forbearance, and acting on the assumption of their independence, sent commissioners to Washington to amicably arrange all differences growing out of their separation from the United States. They, however, failed to receive any recognition, and were informed by Mr. Seward, Secretary of State, that the action of their States was an unjustifiable and unconstitutional aggression upon the authority of the federal government. The convention of Virginia being in session at the time, also sent com. missioners to ascertain from Mr. Lincoln the policy he intended to pursue in regard to the Confederate States. In reply, the president reaffirmed the opinion previously expressed in his inaugural that he would repossess the property and places belonging to the United States, and collect the duties on imports. He likewise informed then that he would not needlessly invade any State, yet when such conduct as the firing upon Fort Sumter rendered it necessary he would repel force by force.

This celebrated fortress was situated in Charleston harbor, and just prior to the assault had been occupied by Major Anderson as a place of greater strength and security than Fort Moultrie, from which he removed. Notwithstanding the fact that South Carolina was in open revolt, Mr. Buchanan had allowed the most formidable works to be erected around the fort. Had permission been granted to Major Anderson with bis heavy artillery he coulil have swept the adjacent shores and thus have prevented the preparations which he daily witnessed for his overthrow. As the batteries commanded the entrance to the harbor cut off supplies from the sea, and the hostile shore refused to furnish provisions, an attack for the reduction of the fort was wholly unnecessary. When, however, the preparations were completed, Beauregard, who had deserted the tiag of his country, hurriedly opened fire upon it, as if fearful that starvation might, by giving him peaceable possession, frustrate his desire for an opportunity to inaugurate civil war by a bloody assault. After a furious cannonade of 34 hours the fort was wrapped in flames, and Major Anderson and his small band of heroes were forced to capitulate.

Thus had been struck the first blow of the conflict which summoned vast armies into the field, brought State into collision with State, and drenched the land in fraternal blood. When the news of the bombardment and surrender reached the North, the whole country rocked with excitement. Longer forbearance was now impossible, and President Lincoln immediately issued a proclamation calling for 75,000 volunteers. The proclamation stated that combinations existed in several of the States too powerful to be suppressed by ordinary judicial proceedings, and that the force to be raised would be employed to repossess the property of the United States in the hands of the insurgents and enforce the observance of law. It also summoned congress to meet on the 4th of July to institute in view of the extraordinary condition of public affairs such measures as the safety of the nation might demand.

The details connected with raising the troops having been arranged by the war department, Gov. Yates was informed that the quota of Illinois was six regiments. On the 15th of April, the day on which the intelligence was communicated by Mr. Cameron,

the secretary of war, the governor issued the following proclamation :

I, Richard Yates, governor of the State of Illinois, by virtue of the authority vested in me by the constitution, hereby convene the legislature of the State, and the members of the 22d general assembly are hereby required to be and appear in their respective places in the capital on Tuesday, the 23d day of April A. D. 1861, for the purpose of enacting such laws and adopting such measures as may be deemed necessary upon the following subjects: The more perfect organization and equipment of the militia of the State and placing the same on the best footing to render assistance to the general government in preserving the Union, enforcing the laws, and protecting the property and rights of the people; also, the raising of such money and other means as may be required to carry out the foregoing object, and also to provide for the expense of such session."

General orders one and two were issued from headquarters at Springfield, the first commanded divisions, brigades and regiments to hold themselves in readiness for actual service, and the second providing for the immediate organization of six regiments.

The president's proclamation at the South was regarded as a declaration of war, and Davis issued a similar one calling for volunteers and granting letters of marque for privateers to prey on northern commerce. The •shouts of approval with which it was received everywhere in the north showed the people were greatly in advauce of the government as to the propriety of using military force. They had long writhed under the murderous stabs thirust by traitors at the vitals of the nation, and now when this re. straint was removed, and the time had come for action, the rebound of popular feeling and indignation was overwhelming. The prairies, hamlets and cities of Illinois became ablaze with excitement. Pulpits thundered with anathemas against the crime of treason, secular orators spoke eloquently of the flag which, as the symbol of the nation's majesty, had been so ruthlessly insulted, and newspapers teemed with proclamations and preparations for war. All ages, sexes and conditions as if moved by a common impulse partook of the enthusiasm. The aged and feeble again assumed the burdens of civil life that the young and vigorous might grapple with the sterner duties of war; the wealthy provided for the amilies of the indigent whose natural protectors were guarding the life of the nation. Fair woman laid the incense of her sympathy and devotion on the altar of her country; and even children, imbibing the inspiration, converted their play grounds into camp and parade grounds, and miniature drums and cannon became the common toys of their nursery.

A similar uprising occurred in all the loyal States of the Union, and men and money, the sinews of war, were furnished with lavish profusion. Within two weeks after the president issued his proclamation, beside a large surplus of rejected applicants, there were a hundred thousand men preparing for active operations, while more than thirty millions of dollars had been offered by private individuals, corporations, and legislatures to procure arins and munitions.

CHAPTER LV.

1861-1864-ILLINOIS IN THE REBELLION.

Unprecedented Success in Furnishing Men-Patriotic Efforts of

Women-Military Operations Within the State.

Enlistments.-Almost simultaneously with the call for troops enlistments commenced, and within ten days 10,000 volunteers offered service, and the sum of near $1,000,000 was tendered by patriotic citizens to procure supplies, for which the State, in the sudden emergency, had made no provision. At the time the requisition was made the military law of the State was imperfect, and in many respects in conflict with the regulations of the war department, while perhaps not more than 30 military companies were to be found in the entire State. Iu some of the larger towns and cities, however, there were a number of well-drilled companies which volunteered, and proved a valuable acquisition in the organization of the immense forces subsequently sent to the field. It was early thought that Cairo was in danger of seizure by the rebels, and these companies formed the nucleus of the force hurriedly gathered and sent thither for its defense. On the 19t11 of April, 1861, Simon Cameron, secretary of war, telegraphed Gov. Yates to take possession of this important strategic point as soon as a force could be raised for that purpose. The governor forth with sent a dispatch to Gen. Swift, of Chicago, to raise and equip as large a body of men as possible for immediate service, and sent a messenger by rail with full instructions for the occupation of Cairo. With commendable promptness this officer, on the 21st of the month, got on board the southern bound train of the Central railroad with four pieces of canuon and the following companies: Company A, Chicago Zouaves, Captain Hayden, 89 men; Company B, Chicago Zouaves, Captain Clybourne, 83 men; Chicago Light Artillery, Captain Smith, 150 men; Captain Harding's company, 80 men; Turner's Union Cadets, 97 men; and Lincoln Rifles, Captain Mihalotzy, 66 men. These were followed, on the 22d, by Captain Houghtelling's Light Artillery, of Ottawa, 86 men ; Captain Hawling's Light Artillery, of Lockport, and Captoin McAlister's Light Artillery, of Plainfield.

Of the volunteers who offered their services under the call of the governor only 6 regiments could be accepted under the quota of the State. These, in accordance with an act of the legislature, which met on the 23d, were designated by the numbers commel cing with 7 and ending with 12, as a mark of respect for the 6 regiments which had served in the Mexican war. The entire force

was styled the 1st Brigade of Illinois volunteers. The regulations of the war department required each regiment to consist of 1 colonel, 1 lieutenant-colonel, 1 major, 1 adjutant, 1 regimental quartermaster, 1 surgeon, 1 surgeon's mate, 1 sergeant-major, 1 drum. major,'1 fife-major, 10 captains, 10 lieutenants, 10 ensigns, 10 drummers, 10 fifers, 40 corporals, 40 sergeants and 640 privates. Tuus organized a régiment numbered 780 men, rank and file, and the entire brigade 4,680. Gen. Prentiss was placed in command, and proceeding to Cairo with the larger part of the force, he relieved Gen. Swift. The commanding officer of each regiment, the call under which it was organized, the time and place it was mustered into service, and the aggregate strength are given in the subjoind schedule, taken from the report of the adjutant general. There was a large surplus of men in camp, and such was the patriotic desire to enter the service that many of them wept when refused admission.

The legislature, anticipating another call for troops, authorized the formation of 10 additional regiments of infantry, 1 of cavalry, and a battalion of artillery. The law provided that one regiment should be furnished by each congressional district, and one by the State at large. Over 200 companies immediately volunteered, and from this large number the required force was selected and ordered into camp. The act creating the regiments had hardly passed the legislature before the president issued a call for 42,000 volunteers to serve for three years unless sooner discharged. The quota of Illinois under is call was only 6 regiments, and a messenger was sent to Washington to urge upon the war department the importance of accepting the entire force organized by the State. It was believed that more men would be needed, and as they were already in camp, and had made considerable proficiency in drill, to disband them would cause distrust in the wisdom of the government. As the result of persistent importunity the four

SCHEDULE_Showing statement of volunteer troops organized within the State, and sent to the field, commencing April

, 1861, and ending December 31, 1865, with number of regiment, name of original commanding officer, call under which recruited and organized, date of organization and muster into United States' service, pluce of muster, and the aggregate strength of each organization.

INFANTRY.

No.

Commanding officer at Call under which re. Date of organ: Place whero mus.
organization. cruited and organized. ization and tered into the

ganizat'n
since or
Agg.str'gth

muster into United States ser.
U. S. servicel vice.

6

May 24;

7 Col. John Cook Aug. 15, 1861

July 25, 1861 Cairo, Illinois..... 8 Rich'd J. Oglesby. 9 Eleazer A. Paine. 10 Jas. D. Morgan... 11 W. H. L. Wallace. 12 " John McArthur... 13 John B. Wyman.. May 15, 1861.

May 24, 1861. Dixon.. 14 John M. Palmer.

May 25, 1861. Jacksonville. 15 - Thos. J. Turner..

1861. Freeport.. 16 Rob't F. Smith...

Quincy 17 " Leonard F. Ross.. 18 " Mich'l K. Lawler. May 15, 1861.

May 28, 1861. Anna 19 John B. Turchin.. 20 Chas. C. Marsh.. May 15, 1861.

June 13, 1861 Joliet. 21 Ulysses S. Grant..

June 15, 1861 Mattoon 22 Henry Dougherty,

June 25, 1861 Belleville 23 Jas. Å, Mulligan Authorized by the Soc. June 18, 1861 Chicago. 24 Fred'k Hecker.. of War, July, 1861... July 8, 1861. Chicago..

Wm. N. Coler..

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989 1082

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