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there for the purpose of putting it in circulation. Statements were circulated to the effect that a reward had been offered for the destruction of the Warsaw Signal, a newspaper published at Warsaw, in opposition to Mormon interests, and that Mormons dispersed over the country threatened all persons who offered to assist the constable in the execution of the law, with the destruction of their property and the murder of their families. There were rumors also afloat that an alliance had been formed with the Western Indians, and in case of war they would be used in murdering their enemies. In short, if only one-half of these reports were true the Mormons must have been the most infamous people that ever existed, and if one half of them were false they must have been the worst slandered.

Previous to the arrival of the governor the whole body of the militia in Schuyler and McDonough counties had been called out, and armed forces commenced assembling in Carthage and Warsaw to enforce the service of civil process. After the forces bad appointed their officers, the governor, apprehensive that the Mormon leaders might be made the victims of popular fury, exacted a pledge from both officers and men that in the discharge of their duties they would, under all circumstances, keep within the pale of the law. All signified their willingness to co-operate with him in preserving order, promised to pursue a strictly legal course and protect the persons of the accused in case of violence. The constable and ten men were then sent to make the arrest, being instructed to inform the accused that if they peaceably submitted they would be protected, but if not, they must receive the consequences, as the whole force of the State, if necessary, would be called out to enforce submission.

In the meantime, Smith had declared martial law; bis followers residing in the country, were summoned to his assistance; the legion was assembled and under arms, and the entire city was one great military encampment, no ingress or egress being permitted except on the strictest examination. However, on the arrival of the constable and his escort, the mayor and members of the common council at once signified their willingness to surrender, and accompany them on the following morning to Carthage. Failing to make their appearance at the appointed time, the constable hastened away without attempting to make the arrest. It was subsequently ascertained that the cause of the hurried departure was the fear that the Mormons would submit and thus entitle themselves to the protection of the law. There were daring and active men traversing the country and making inflamatory speeches, with the hope that a popular movement might be inaugurated for the expulsion of the Mormons from the State. The constable and those who accompanied him were in the conspiracy, and endeavored, by the partial performance of their duty, to create a necessity for calling out an overwhelming force to effect this object. The artifice was, however, soon detected by the governor, and another opportunity given the accused to surrender. A requi. sition was also made on them for the return of the State arms, be. cause the legion to which they bad been entrusted bad used them illegally in the destruction of the press, and the enforcement of martial law as a means of preventing civil process. On the 24th of June, 1845, in obedience to the last summons, Joe Smith, his brother Hiram, the members of the city council and others, went to Carthage, and surrendered themselves prisoners to the constable, on the charge of riot. All entered into recognizance before a justice of the peace to appear at court, and were discharged. A new writ was, however, immediately issued and served on the two Smiths, and both were arrested and thrown into prison. The prophet, it is said, whether desirous of courting martyrdom or alarmed at the popular storm which threatened him, seemed to have a presentiment that he never would return to Nauvoo alive. According to the statement at Carthage, he remarked, "I am going like a lamb to the slaughter, but I have a conscience void of offence toward God and man."

The jail in which the prisoners were confined, was a stone building of considerable size, furnished with a suite of rooms for the jailer, cells for the close confinement of convicts, and a large apartment not so strong but more comfortable than the cells. T prisoners were first confined in the cells by the jailor, but at the remonstrance of the Mormons, and the advice of the governor, they were afterwards transferred to the large apartment, where they were more pleasantly situated, and where they remained till the occurrence of the tragedy in which they lost their lives. No serious apprehensions were entertained of an attack on the jail, nor was it supposed that the Smiths would make an effort to escape. At the time the prisoners were incarcerated, the forces at Carthage and Warsaw, amounted to 1700 men, most of whom were anxious to be led into Nauvoo to destroy the apparatus with which it was said the Mormons manufactuaed counterfeit money. It was also believed by the governor, that if an imposing demonstration of the State forces should be made, it might overaw the Mormons and exert a salutary influence in preventing the murders, robberies and burnings apprehended as the result of the proceed ings against their prophet. In accordance with this view, arrangements were made for the marching of the troops on the 27, of June, and Golden's Point near the Mississippi, and midway between Warsaw and Nauvoo, was selected as the place of rendezvous. Before, however, the movement was fully inaugurated, the governor discovered his mistake, and immediately countermanded his previous orders for the assembling of the forces.

It was observed, as the preparations for marching advanced, the excitement prevading the public mind correspondingly increased, and threats were occassionally made to destroy the city and expel the inhabitants from the State. Subsequent developments rendered it evident that an agreement had been made by some of the most daring and reckless spirits, to fire on the forces of the State when they arrived in Nauvoo, and afterwards attribute it to the Mormons, as a means of bringing on a general engagement. The city at that time contained a population of 12,000 to 15,000 inhabitants, many of whom were helpless women and children, and humanity shudders at the wanton destruction of life and property that must have resulted from such blind and obdurate fury. Besides, if the disposition had existed to precipitate upon the city a calamity of this kind, the forces of the State were inadequate to afford such protection to the adjacent country as would have been necessary.

After the surrender of the Smiths, at their request, Captain Singleton with a company from Brown county, was sent to take command of the Nauvoo legion and guard the city. According to his report, when the legion was called out for inspection, they assembled 2000 strong and were fully equipped with arms. This was after the public arms had been taken away, and now they were prepared with weapons of their own for any emergency. The State forces had three pieces of cannon, 1200 muskets and rations for two days, after which they would have been compelled to discontinue operations for the want of subsistence. It was therefore deemed advisable to abandon the enterprise as impracticable, and the forces with the exception of three companies were accordingly disbanded. Two of these were selected to guard the jail, and the remaining one was retained as an escort for the governor, who proposed to visit Nauvoo for the purpose of inquiring into the charges preferred against the inhabitants, and to warn them that if any secret violence should be committed by them on the persons or property of those who had assisted in the execution of the law, it would inevitably be followed by the most summary retribution.

Leaving Gen. Demning in command of the guards, on the 27th, of June, the governor accompanied by Col. Buckmaster, and Captain Davis' dragoons, departed for Nauvoo, eighteen miles distant. Before proceeding far, Col. Buckmaster informed the governor that while at Carthage some circumstances of a suspicious character induced him to believe that an attack upon the jail was meditated. The latter, however was incredulous. It was notorious that he had gone to Nauvoo, and it was not probable that while there any outrage would be committed on the Smiths, which would endanger his own safety and that of his companions. Nevertheless, to guard against all possible contingencies, a messenger was sent back to inform the guard of danger, and to insist on their defending the jail at the peril of their lives, till the governor returned. It was also decided, to defer to some future time the examination of the misdemeanors alleged against the Mormons, that the company might immediately return and render assistance, in case the jail shouldbe assaulted.

The parties arrived in Nauvoo about 4 o'clock on the 27th of June, and as soon as notice could be given, a large number of the inhabitants convened to hear a discourse from the goveruor. In the address delivered, the illegal action of their public functionaries was explained ; they were advised of the infamous reports rife in all the country respecting their conduct, and the consequent prejudice and hostility engendered in the public mind, and admonished that in future they would have to act with great circumspection, or their lives and the safety of their city would fall a sacrifice to popular indignation. During the delivery of the speech, some impatience and excitement was exhibited by the auditors at the various allegations made against them, which they persistently denied as untrue. They claimed to be a law abiding people, and carefully observed its provisions, that they might in turn have the benefit of its protection. After the conclusion of the address, the question, as to whether they would conform to the laws of the State, in opposition to the advice of their leaders, was submitted to a vote, which resulted unanimously in favor of the proposition. Their subsequent conduct, however, proved that

when guilty of the greatest extravagances, they would make the loudest professions of attachment to law and order.

The party left the city a short time before sundown, and bad not gone far before they met two messengers, who informed them that the Smiths had been assassinated about five o'clock that afternoon. All were astounded at the reception of this intelligence, and fearful apprehensions were entertained respecting the consequences likely to ensue from the massacre. The Mormous were an infatuated, fanatical people, not likely to be influenced by the motives which ordinarily govern the conduct of men, and a desultory war might be the result. To prevent the news reaching Nauvoo the messengers were ordered into custody, and the gor. ernor hastened to Carthage to be in readiness for the outburst of excitement and lawlessness that might follow the dissemination of the intelligence. A courier was also despatched to Warsaw to inform the citizens of the tragedy. They, however, appeared to understand the matter better than the messenger, and before his arrival had commenced removing their families across the river to guard against impending danger. The ensuing night they sent a committee to Quincy for help, and at an early hour on the following morning a large concourse of the citizens assembled to devise means of defense. At the meeting it was reported that the Mormons had attempted to rescue the Smiths; that a party of Missourians and others had killed them to prevent their escape; that the governor and his cortege, who were in Nauvoo at the time, had been attacked by the legion and forced to take refuge in a house, and that if assistance was not furnished within two days he would fall a victim to Mormon vengeance. A force of some 250 men was immediately raised, and by ten o'clock the same morning they embarked on a boat and steamed up to Nauvoo to assist in rescuing the governor. On arriving at the city the whole story proved a fabrication originated to intensify the excitement and cause a collision between the Mormons and State forces. Subsequent evidence also rendered it highly probable that the conspirators connected with the assassination contemplated involving the governor in the same misfortune. Circumstances warranted the conclusion that the assassins had arranged that the murder should occur while the governor was in Nauvoo; that the Mormons on hearing the catastrophe would suspect him as an accomplice, and at the first outburst of indig. nation put him to death as a means of retaliation. The motive for this treacherous attempt against the executive officer of the State was to arouse a spirit of opposition, and cause the extermination of the Mormons.

The governor arrived in Carthage about ten o'clock, and found the citizens in a state of consternation, some having left and others preparing to follow. One of the companies which had been left to guard the jail, departed before the attack was made, and many of the others left shortly afterward. General Deming, who was absent when the murder occurred, volunteered to remain and guard the town with the small force which remained, unless compelled to retire before superior numbers. The governor retired to Quincy and immediately issued orders for provisionally raising and equipping an imposing force, in case they should be needed.

CHAPTER XLII.

1844-6-MORMON WAR.

Manner of Smith's Death-Character of the Mormons-Apostles

A88ume the Government of the Church--Trial and Acquittal of the Assassins-Saints Driven from the Vicinity of Lima and Green Plains-Leading Mormons Retire Across the MississippiBattle at Nauvoo— Expulsion of the Inhabitants.

When the assassination of the Mormons became known, it ap peared that the force at Nauvoo, agreeably to orders, had marched . on the morning of the 27th in the direction of Golden's Point to form a connection with troops at that place, but after they had advanced about 8 miles they were met by a messenger from Carthage with an order to disband and return home; the gover. nor, who issued it, fearing he could not control the inflammable material he was collecting, determined to scatter it. About 150 of the men, instead of complying with the order, blackened their faces with powder, hurriedly started for Carthage and encamped some distance from the village. Here they learned that one of the companies left to guard the Smiths, had gone home and that the other, the Carthage Grays, was stationed in the square, 150 yards distant, and that Sergeant Franklin A. Worrel, with only 8 men, was detailed to watch the prisoners. As soon as messages could be interchanged it was agreed among the con. spirators that the guns of the guard should be charged with blank cartridges and fired on the assailants, when they should attempt to enter the jail.

Gen. Deming, who had been left in command, discovering the plot to assassinate the Smiths, and having been deserted by the prin. cipal part of the troops, retired from the village, lest an attempt should be made on his own life. After perfecting their scheme of murder, the assailants scaled the slight fence enclosing the jail, and immediately disarming the guards, who according to agree ment discharged their pieces, they ascended the flight of stairs leading to the room containing the prisoners. At the time the assault was made, two other Mormons, Richards and Tailor as visitors, were in the large apartment with the Smiths. Hearing the rush on the stairs, the imperilled men instinctively beld the door by pressing their weight against it. The attacking party thus denied entrance, fired upon the door, and the bullets passing through it, killed Hiram Smith, wlio falling, exclaimed "I am a dead man.” Tailor receiving 4 wounds, retreated under the bed, and Richards, after the door was burst open, secreted himself

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