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one of them, he was acquitted."* Thereupon the house of representatives, well convinced of his guilt, immediately passed a resolution by a two-thirds vote under the constitution to remove him from office by address; but this, too, when reported to the senate, failed in that body, and Judge Smith retained his seat upon the supreme bench of Illinois until he died about ten years afterward.t

When Lieutenant Governor Zadock Casey was elected to congress in 1832 he resigned his office and Gen. W. Lee D. Ewing, a senator, was chosen to preside over the senate. At the August election of 1834, governor Reynolds was also elected to congress, more than a year ahead, as was then the law, to succeed Mr. Slade; but shortly after, the incumbent died, when Reynolds was also chosen to serve out his unexpired term. Accordingly he set out for Washington in November of that year to take his seat in congress, and Gen. Ewing, by virtue of his office as president of the senate, became governor of this State for just 15 days, when, upon the meeting of the legislature, to which he sent his message as acting governor, he was relieved of his exalted station by the governor elect, Duncan, being sworn into office. This is the only time that such a conjuncture has happened in the history of the State.

*Ford's History. +See Senate Journals 1833, appendix, for full proceedings of this trial.


1827-1831-BLACK HAWK WAR.

1. Winnebago HostilitiesIndians unable to Resist the Encroach

ments of the Miners-Coalition with the Sioux-Attack on a SteamboatCompelled to sue for Peace.

2. Sacs and FoxesBlack Hawk-Keokuk-Sac VillagesInra

sion of the State-Militia and Regulars brought into Requisition -March to the Scene of Danger-Black Hawk compelled to enter into a Treaty of Peace.

The most frequent cause of the difficulties which from time to time have disturbed the peaceful relations of the white and red men, has resulted from a desire of the former to possess the hunting grounds of the latter. Intrusions upon Indian territory, led to the war with Pontiac and that of King Phillip, 11 years afterward, and at a later date, and farther westward, to the sanguinary contest with Tecumseh. The original emigrants from Europe and their descendants, requiring lands for cultivation, purchased large tracts from the Indians. As fast as these became populated others were required, till the savages, seeing their forests and hunting grounds rapidly disappearing, endeavored to re-possess them. The Europeans met them in arms, and as the result, they have been driven from river to river and from forest to forest till scarcely an abiding place is left them. The last effort to resist encroachments of this kind, was made by the Winnebagoes and the Sacs and Foxes, within the limits of Illinois.

Winnebago War.—During the latter part of Governor Edwards? administration, the Indians on the northwestern frontier manifested symptons of discontent. The dissatisfaction increased, and in the summer of 1827, culminated in what the writers of the time style the Winnebago war, an affray of no great magnitude but the precursor of the hostilities under Black Hawk, which filled the nation with alarm. This sudden ebulition of savage animosity, was the unjust occupation of their lands by the miners of Galena. At this period large number of adventurers from different States, were hastening to the lead mines, and in passing through the country of the Winnebagoes, purposely exasperated them with the in. tention of provoking hostilities and securing their lands by way of reprisal. The right of this tribe to the lands in question, was, how. ever, involved in doubt. By the treaty of 1804, the Sacs and Foxes

ceded to the United States all the land between the mouths of the Illinois and Wisconsin rivers. In 1816, that portion of the territority lying north of a line drawn west from the southern ex. tremity of Lake Michigan, was retroceded by the government to the Ottawas, Chippewas and Potawattomies, the Winnebagoes not being included in the grant. Subsequently, however, a war broke out among these tribes in regard to their respective boundaries, and in 1825 the commissioners of the United States interposed as mediators to re-adjust them and terminate hostilities. In the new arrangement, the right of the Winnebagoes to the land in the vi. cinity of the lead mines, seems to have been admitted, although they were not recognized in the preceding treaty.

But waiving the question of title, they had been in possession of the country for years, and believing it belonged to them, regarded the intrusion of the whites with the same intense jealousy and ill-will manifested by civilized men on similar occasions. Rich deposits of lead ore had been found in their territory, and Mr. Thomas, the agent at Galena, gave permission to the miners to procure large quantities of mineral, despite the remonstrances of the Winnebagoes. The savages at length, finding their complaints unheeded, attempted to eject the trespassers by force, but were themselves repelled and greatly exasperated at being unable to protect their property. Assistance from others was now their only alternative, and for this purpose they sent a delegation to ask the advice of their principal chiefs north of Prairie du Chien. Another object of their visit was to secure the co-operation of the Sioux, who had also become offended at the Americans and only waited an opportunity to wreak their vengeance upon the objects of their ill-will. Some of their countrymen had not long before surprised and murdered a number of the Chippewas in the vicinity of Fort Snelling, and the commandant immediately caused their arrest and had them delivered up to the injured tribe for merited punishment. The interposition of the American officer was prompted only by a sense of justice, yet Red Bird, the chief of the tribe, became greatly offended and secretly resolved to form a coalition with the Winnebagoes. Both tribes, therefore, had grievances to redress, and each found the other ready to strike a united blow against the common enemy.

Accordingly, while the Winnebagoes were in consultation with their chiefs, they were visited by a messenger of the Sioux, who after detailing the wrongs of his own tribe, resorted to falsehood to further exasperate his auditors against the Americans. He informed them that two Winnebago prisoners confined at Fort Snelling, had recently been cruelly murdered by the whites, under circumstances which demanded immediate and bloody retaliation. Notwithstanding the utter mendacity of this statement, the Winnebagoes, smarting under their treatment at the hands of the miners, were easily persuaded it was true, and resolved upon revenge, while the visitor assured them that as soon as they struck the first blow, his own tribe would assist them. They accordingly killed 2 white men, and a more justifiable pretext was not long wanting for them to strike another blow. On the 30th of July 1827, 2 keel boats, laden with supplies for Fort Snelling, landed at a large Winnebago encampment a short distance above Prairie du Chien. While here the Indians collected about the boats, doubtless for the purpose of plunder but were foiled in their designs. In the absence of other weapons the whites made them drunk, and taking advantage of their helpless condition, captured several squaws, and took them aboard for a purpose too base to mention. Before their intoxicated busbands became aware of the injury they had sustained, the boats and their squaws were too far up the river for pursuit, yet several hundred infuriate warriors now assembled with the determination of meting out to the aggressors the most severe punishment when they returned. In due time, the boats were seen descend. ing the river, but the crews aware that their misdeeds deserved castigation, had made preparation for defence. One of the boats passed by unobserved during the night, but the other, less fortunate, was assailed by an overwhelming force of savages, who fought with a determination only equalled by their passion for vengeance. The boat became grounded, and for a time the men on board seemed doomed. Directly in the face of a galling tire, the savages succeeded in lashing some of their canoes to the unmanageable craft, but when they attempted to board her, they were beaten back into the river, and finally retired from the contest. During the engagement the squaws escaped, and no doubt with the hearty consent of the boatmen, provided it might be the means of drawing after them their infuriate lords. Two of the Americans were killed, and so many others wounded, it was with difficulty that Captain Lindsey, who had charge of the boat, ran down to Galena, and made known the hostile attack. Dire alarm at the reception of the news spread among the miners, and in a short time not less than 3000 men, women and children fled to Galena for protection. Exaggerated reports spread rapidly over the country, and most of the settlements in the northern part of the State partook of the fear and excitement incident to an actual invasion. At Galena a committee of safety was formed, temporary defenses were erected, and in pursuance of an order from Gov. Edwards, the miners were formed into companies and equipped for action. A regiment was also raised in Sangamon and Morgan counties, and under the command of T. M. Neale, marched to the scene of danger. On his arrival, however, he found the war virtually at an end. Gen. Atkinson with 600 regulars and the Galena militia, under Gen. Dodge, had penetrated the enemy's country, as far as the portage of the Fox and Wisconsin, and compelled the hostile savages to sue for peace. The army returned from Prairie du Chien, with 7 of their principal men, among whom were Red Bird the chief of the Sioux, and Black Hawk who shortly afterward became the instigator of other and greater disturbances. They were all thrown into prison as abettors of the murderous attack on the boat, and suffered a long confinement before they were tried. As the result of the tardy trial, some were acquitted, and others convicted, and more than a year after their incarceration executed on the gallows.

In the meantime, Red Bird whose proud spirit could not endure the humiliation of confinement, sickened and died in prison. There was associated with the latter days of his life a romantic and melancholy interest, different from the usual phases of Indian character. He had always been the favorite of his own people and up to this illicit connection with the Winnebagoes the ardent and unalterable friend of the whites. Unlike other savage leaders, when his allies were pressed with a victorious force, be refused to desert them, and voluntarily gave himself up to suffer not only for his own misdeeds, but for the common offense of the tribe. Clad in a robe of skins, and bearing a white flag, he rode into camp, and with dauntless courage and an unclouded brow, placed himself in the hands of his enemy. Not even the restraints of prison life, although they impaired his health, could obscure the native vigor of his mind, and when called on by white men all the nobility of a great savage lit up his manly features. Incensed at the Americans because they had delivered his countrymen into the hands of their enemy, he was doubtless the secret instigator and ruling spirit of the war, although the Winnebagoes committed the overt acts. This tribe now completely humbled, in a subsequent talk with the federal authorities abandoned all their lands south of the Wisconsin river, to the insatiate grasp of the conquerors.

Hardly had the disturbances of the vanquished tribe ceased before the frontier inhabitants became embroiled in difficulties with the Sacs and Foxes. The first recognition of these Indians by the United States, was in a treaty concluded at Fort Harmer, in 1787, by Gov. St. Clair, wherein the government guaranteed them its protection. In 1804, Gov. W. H. Harrison was instructed by president Jefferson to institute negotiations with them for the purchase of lands, and shortly afterward a treaty was ratified with them, by which their beautiful country on Rock river was divested of the Indian title. Again in 1830, a third treaty was entered into, by the terms of which they were to remove from the lands which they had sold to the United States, east of the Mississippi, and peaceably retire across the river.

At this time, Keokuk and Black Hawk were the two principal chiefs of the nation. The latter was born at the principal village of his tribe, on Rock river, in 1767. Possessing no here. ditary rank, his chieftainship was due to the native vigor of his character, and great success in war. In early youth he distinguished himself as a brave; and in the many fierce conflicts of his subsequent life with the Osages and Cherokees, he never lost a battle. When the war of 1812, broke out between the United States and England, he offered his services to the Americans, which from motives of humanity they declined. He however, soon found patrons among the British, who regardless of the bru. tal attrocities of savage warfare, furnished his men with arms. At the instance of their mercenary agents, he succeeded in collecting 200 braves, and repaired to Green Bay, where he met Col. Dixon and a large body of Indians assembled from the axljacent tribes. Of the interview which followed between him and the British officer, he says: “He received me with a hearty shake of the hand, and presented me to the other officers who shook my hand cordially, and seemed much pleased with my men. After I was seated, Col. Dixon said: "Gen. Black Hawk, I sent for you to explain what we are going to do, and the reasons that have brought us here. Your English father has found out that the Americans want to take your country from you, and has sent me and his braves to drive them back. He has likewise sent a large quantity of arms and ammunition, and we want your warriors to

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