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The pursuits of the people during territorial times, were mainly agricultural, varied by hunting and trapping. Few merchants were required to supply the ordinary articles of consumption not produced or manufactured at home. Coffee, tea, and sugar did not then generally enter into the daily meals of the family. terials for personal wear were either grown, or taken in the chase, and manufactured into garments by wife or daughter, the merchant supplying only some of the dye stuff to color the wool, flax or cotton. Foreign manufactured boots and shoes, or hats and caps, were worn but by few-home-made moccasins and raccoon caps supplying the place. Mechanics in pursuit of their trades, are seldom pioneers, and every settler was his own carpenter. The houses, mostly log cabins, were built without glass, nails, hinges or locks; the furniture, too, modeled in the same rude fashion, was made by the same hand. Yokes for oxen, and barness for horses, the carts and wagons in daily use-without tires, boxes or iron—whose woeful creakings, for the want of tar, which was not imported, might be heard at a great distance, all were manufactured as occason required by self-taught artiti

cers. *

commencing on the morning of the 16th of December, 1811. They were severest in the neighborhood of New Madrid, where, on the Tennessee side, a few miles back of tbe river, the earth sunk in many places 50 and 60 feet, carrying with it great trees left standing erect, producing what is known as the Reel-foot lake.-Rambler in North America.

*As an instance of the ready ingenuity of the times, it is related of James Lemon, a well known pioneer of Monroe county, an old style Baptist preacher, and a farmer by occupation, who manufactured the harness for bis teams as occasion required, that being employed plowing a piece of stubble ground one day, on turning out for dinner he left the harness on the beam of the plough, as was his wont. His son, not differing from the proverbial ministere'boys perhaps, who had assisted him by removing the straw from the clogging plow with a pitchfork, remained behind long enough to conceal one of the collars, that he might have a playing spell while his father was occupied in making another. But bis plot failed; on returning after dinner and missing the collar, his father, reflecting for a few minutes, promptly divested hlmself of bis leather breeches, stuffed the legs with etubble, straddled them across the neck of the horse for a collar, and plowed the remainder of the day bare-legged, requiring the assistance of the truantly inclined boy all tho time. At this day, to provide for such a mispap, half-day would bave been spent in going to town after another collar, and the boy would probaby have gained his point.-From Ford's History of Illi


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Our Northern Boundary-First Constitutional Convention and Some

thing of the Instrument Framed-Governor Bond--Lieutenant-
governor MenardMeeting of the Legislature and Election of
State OfficersFirst Supreme Court-Hard Times and First State
Bank-Organization of Counties.

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By the year 1818, owing to her rapid increase of population,
Illinois aspired to a position among the sisterhood of sovereign
States. Accordingly, the territorial legislature, in session at Kas-
kaskia in January of that year, prepared and sent to Nathaniel
Pope, our delegate in coungress, their petition praying for the
admission of Minois into the Union on an equal footing with the
original States. The petition was promptly presented, and the
committee on territories in due time reported a bill for the admission
of Illinois with a population of 40,000. The ordinance of 1787
required 60,000. Mr. Pope, looking to the future of this state,
succeeding in amending the bill as it came from the hands of the
committee, in several essential features. One of these was to ex-
tend the northern boundary of the State to the parallel of 42
degrees 30 minutes north latitude. The 5th section of the ordi.
nance of 1787, required that at least three States be formed out
of the Northwest territory-defining the boundary of the western
State by the Mississippi, the Ohio and the Wabash rivers, and a
line running due north from Post Vincennes, on the last named
stream, to Canada. This included the present States of Illinois
and Wisconsin. But, by a proviso, it was reserved “that if con-
gress shall hereafter find it expedient, they shall have authority
to form one or two States in that part of said territory which lies
north of an east and west line drawn through the southerly bend of
Lake Michigan." The line of 42 deg. 30 min. extended the boundary
50 miles farther north. To the vigilance of Nathaniel Pope,
therefore, are we indebted for a coast on Lake Michigan to this
extent: for the site occupied by the present mighty city of Chi-
cago; for the northern terminus of the Illinois and Michigan
canal, and for the lead mines of Galena-all of which come
within that extension. It was upon the above quoted language
of the ordinance of 1787, which was declared a compact to remain

forever unalterable, that Wisconsin subsequently based her claim to the 14 northern counties of this State.

While the foregoing were paramount considerations with the people of Illinois, others were urged with much force and entire effectiveness upon congress, acting for the nation at large. Even at that day statesmen had not failed to mark the inherent weak. ness, and consequent easy dissolution, of confederated republics. The late civil war had not then demonstrated the strength and unity of the American confederation through the loyalty of the people. European statesmen had entertained no other thought than that at the first internal hostile trouble, the bonds of the Union would be broken and scattered to the winds. It was easily shown that the geographical position of Illinois made her the key in the western arch of States. The southern extremity of Illinois penetrated far between the slaves States down to the main Mississippi, affording an outlet to the Gulf the year round, and skirted with hundreds of miles of navigable rivers on either side; to give her, therefore, a fair coast on the lake would also unité her interests through the strong bonds of trade and commerce with the north and east. Linking thus the north and the south by her geographical position and the ties of intercourse, her interests must be conservative, and she would ever exert a controlling influence upon the perpetuity of the Union. This view has been amply verified in the late war by the prompt occupation of Cairo, and the rally of her near 200,000 sons to the national standard.

Another amendment was, that the three-fifths of the 5 per cent fund from the sale of public lands, applied to the construction of public works in other States carved out of the northwest territory, should instead be devoted by the legislature to the encouragement of education; one-sixth of which to be exclusively bestowed on a college or university. These important amendinents were suggested and urged by Mr. Pope without instruction, but they received the ready sanction of the people, and to-day we are realizing the full fruition of his foresight.* The bill became a law April 18, 1818.

"Nathaniel Pope was an able lawyer, and in his official relations was ever faithful to his trusts. His first appearance in Illinois, as we have seen, was as secretary of the territory: In 1816, he was elected delegate to congress and procured the enabling act for the admission of Mlinois as a State. Subsequently he was appointed United States district judge, in which capacity heserved for many years, residing in Springfield. He died in 1850,

[NOTE -The question of our northern boundary agitated the people of the section concerned for many years, entering into their political conflicts and exercising an important influence upon their local affairs. Many of the old settlers down to a Jate date, condemned this striking departure from the ordinance of 1787, which fixed the present line 50 miles further north. Boundary meetings at various places in the 14 northern counties continued to be held from time to time, showing the feeling to be deep and wide spread. We note the proceedings of a large meeting held at Oregon City, January 22, 1842, as showing the grounds of complaint, and the purpose of the people to either belong to Wisconsin or set up for themselves:

Resolved, That in the opinion of this meeting, that part of the northwest territory, which lies north of an 'east and west line through the southerly bend or extreme of Lake Michigan,' belongs to and of right ought to be a part of the State or States which have been or may be formed north of said line."

Wisconsin was yet a territory. They resolved further that the ordinance of 1787 could not be altered or changed without the consent of the people of the original States and of the northwest territory ; that as part of the people of said territory. they would not so consent; that the lines designated in the orainance were better suited to the geographical situation and local interests of their region; that they were decidedly opposed to place any of the territory north of sa id line within the jurisdiction of a State south of it: that they recommended the legislature of Wisconsin to apply for admission into the Union, claiming the line of the ordinance as

In pursuance of the enabling act a convention was called to draft the first constitution of the State of Illinois, which assembled at Kaskaskia in July, 1818, and completed its labors by signing the constitution on the 26th of August following. We subjoin the names of the delegates, and the counties which they represented, in the order of their organization:

St. Clair county-Jesse B. Thomas, John Messinger, James Lemon, jr.

Randolph-George Fisher, Elias Kent Kane.

Madison-Benjamin Stephenson, Joseph Borough, Abraham Prickett.

Gallatin-Michael Jones, Leonard White, Adolphus Frederick

Johnson-Hezekiah West, Wm. McFatridge.
Edwards-Seth Gard, Levi Compton.
White-Willis Hargrave, Wm. McHenry.
Monroe-Oaldwell Carns, Enoch Moore.
Pope—Samuel O'Melveny, Hamlet Ferguson.
Jackson-Conrad Will, James Hall, jr.
Crawford-Joseph Kitchell, Edward N. Cullom.
Bond-Thomas Kilpatrick, Samuel G. Morse.
Union-Win. Echols, John Whitaker.
Washington-Andrew Balkson.*
Franklin-Isham Harrison, Thomas Roberts.

Jesse B. Thomas was chosen president, and Wm. C. Greenap secretary of the convention.

The constitution was not submitted to a vote of the people for their approval or rejection; nor did the people have much to do with the choice or election of officers generally under it, other than that of governors, the general assemblies, sheriffs and coroners. Notwithstanding the elective franchise was in a blazon manner extended to all white male inhabitants above the age of 21, having a residence in the State of 6 months next preceding any election, which it will be perceived included aliens and possibly invited immigration, there was scarcely an office left to be filled by its exercise.

The electors or people were not trusted with the choice of State officers, other than mentioned; nor of their judges, either supreme, circuit, or probate; nor of their prosecuting attorneys, county or circuit clerks, recorders, or justices of the peace; the appointment of nearly all these being vested in the general assembly, which body was not slow to avail itself of the powers thus conferred to their full extent. The language of the schedule was, “an auditor of public accounts, an attorney general, and such other officers of the State as may be necessary, may be appointed by the general assembly, whose duties may be regulated by law." It is said to have been a question for many years, in view of this language, what was an officer of the State.” The governors were for a time allowed to appoint State's attorneys, recorders, State commissioners, bank directors, &c., but the legislatures afterward vested by law the appointment of all these and many more in themselves. Occasionally, when in full political accord, the governor would be allowed the appointing power pretty freely, to perhaps be shorn of by a succeeding legislature. In the administration of Duncan, who had forsaken Jackson and incurred the displeasure of the dominant party, the governor was finally stripped of all patronage, except the appointment of notaries public and public adıninistrators. It was a bad feature of the constitution; it not only deprived the people of their just rights to elect the various officers as at present, but led hordes of place hunters to repair to the seat of government at every session of the legislature, to besiege and torment members for office. Indeed, this was the chief occupation of many an honorable member. Innumerable intrigues and corruptions for place and power were thus indulged.

their southern boundary: that they disclaimed any intention to absolve themselves from any pecuniary responsibility created by the legislature of Illinois on account of the internal improvement system, etc. The resolutions were a lopted unanimously. A.committee of 9 was appointed io proceed to Madison, with full power to consult with the governor and the legislature of Wisconsin territory. Governor Doty and the legislature gave them their assurances of earnest co-operation in petitioning congress toward the end in view. But nothing ever came of all tho clamor. The essential point was, whether the acts of the congress of the confederated States are of such binding force that a congress of the United States cannot annul or amend them -whether the former possessed a higher power than the latter. *Bankson's colleague died during the session of the couvention

To the governor was denied the veto power; but he, jointly with the four supreme judges, was constituted a council to revise all bills passed, before they should become laws. For this purpose the judges were required to attend at the seat of government during the sessions of the legislature, without compensation. The validity of all laws was thus decided in advance. If the council of revision, or a majority, deemed it improper for any bill to become a law, their objections were to be noted in writing; but the bill might, notwithstanding, be passed over their objections by a majority and become a law. While the executive is commonly a co-ordinate branch of the law-making power, here he was entirely stripped; and while the judicial departinent is never thus vested, here it was clothed with a quasi legislative prerogative.

The constitution was about the first organic law of any State in the Union to abolish imprisonment for debt. It did not prohibit the legislature from granting divorces; and this was a fruitful source of legislation, as the old statutes abundantly testify. But its worst feature, perhaps, was the want of a limitation against the legislature loaning or pledging the faith and credit of the State in aid of, or to the undertaking of, any public or private enter. prise; or to the aid of any individuals, associations, or corporations. The absence of such most necessary limitations, caused her repeated connections afterward with banking schemes, and her undertaking the vast system of internal improvement in 1837, all of which proved detrimental to her credit, harrassing and expensive to her finances, and came near bankrupting and completing her ruin. Of the members of the convention, Elias Kent Kane, afterward a senator in congress, is mentioned with commendation as a leading spirit, and as largely stamping the constitution with its many exceğlencies.

(“During the sitting of the convention the Rev. Mr. Wiley and congregation, of a sect called Covenanters, in Randolph county, sent in their petition asking that body to declare in the constitution, that "Jesus Christ was the head of the government, and ibat the Holy Scriptures were the only rule of faith and practice." The petition was not treated with any attention, wherefore the Covenanters have never fully recognized the State government. They have looked upon it as “an heathen and unbaptized government, which denies Christ; for which reason they have constantly refused to work the roads, serve on juries, hold any office, or do any other act showing that they recognized the government. For a long time they refused to vote, and never did until the election of 1824, when the question was, whether Illinois should be made a slave

a State, when they voted for the first time, and unanimously against slavery."--Governor Ford's History.)

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