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Let them give thanks whom the Lord For at his word the stormy wind hath redeemed : and delivered from the ariseth : which lifteth up the waves hand of the enemy i

thereof. And gathered them out of the lands, They are carried up to the heaven, from the east, and from the west : from and down again to the deep : their soul the north, and from the south.

melteth away because of the trouble. They went astray in the wilderness They reel to and fro, and stagger like out of the way : and found no city to a drunken man : and are at their wit's dwell in ;

end. Hungry and thirsty : their soul faint- So when they cry unto the Lord in ed in them.

their trouble : he delivereth them out So they cried unto the Lord in their of their distress. trouble : and he delivered them from For he maketh the storm to cease : So their distress.

that the waves thereof are still. He led them forth by the right way : Then are they glad, because they are that they might go to the city where at rest : and so he bringeth them unto they dwelt.

the haven where they would be. o that men would therefore praise O that men would therefore praise the the Lord for his goodness': and declare Lord for his goodness : and declare the the wonders that he doeth for the chil- wonders that he doeth for the children dren of men !

of men ! For he satisfieth the empty soul : That they would exalt him also in the and filleth the hungry soul with good congregation of the people : and praise ness.

him in the seat of the elders ! Such as sit in darkness, and in the Who turneth the floods into a wilshadow of death : being fast bound in derness : and drieth up the watermisery and iron ;

springs. Because they rebelled against the A fruitful land maketh he barren: words of the Lord : and lightly regard- for the wickedness of them that dwell ed the counsel of the most Highest ; therein.

He also brought down their heart Again, he maketh the wilderness a through heaviness : they fell down, and standing water : and water-springs of there was none to help them.

a dry ground. So when they cried unto the Lord in And there he setteth the hungry : their trouble : he delivered them out of that they may build them a city to their distress.

dwell in ; For he brought them out of darkness, That they may sow their land, and and out of the shadow of death : and plant vineyards : to yield them fruits brake their bonds in sunder,

of increase. O that men would therefore praise the He blesseth them, so that they mulLord for his goodness : and declare the tiply exceedingly : and suffereth not wonders that he doeth for the children their cattle to decrease. of men !

And again, when they are minished, For he hath broken the gates of and brought low : through oppression, brass : and smitten the bars of iron in through any plague, or trouble ; sunder.

Though he suffer them to be evil inFoolish men are plagued for their of- treated through tyrants : and let them fence : and because of their wicked- wander out of the way in the wilderness.

Their soul abhorred all manner of Yet helpeth he the poor out of misery : meat ; and they were even hard at and maketh him housholds like a flock death's door.

of sheep: So when they cried unto the Lord in The righteous will consider this, and their trouble : he delivered them out of rejoice : and the mouth of all wickedtheir distress.

ness shall be stopped. He sent his word, and healed them : Whoso is wise will ponder these and they were saved from their de- things : and they shall understand the struction.

loving-kindness of the Lord. O that men would therefore praise the Glory be to the Father, and to the Lord for his goodness : and declare the Son : and to the Holy Ghost; wonders that he doeth for the children As it was in the beginning, is now, of men !

and ever shall be : world without end. That they would offer unto him the Amen. sacrifice of thanksgiving : and tell out his works with gladness!

Collects of Thanksgiving. They that go down to the sea in O MOST blessed and glorious

Lord ships : and occupy their business in God, who art of infinite goodness great waters;

and mercy ;. We thy poor creatures, These men see the works of the Lord : whom thou hast made and preserved, and his wonders in the deep.

holding our souls in life, and now

ness ;

FORMS OF PRAYER TO BE USED AT SEA.

rescuing us out of the jaws of death, The sea roared : and the stormy wind humbly present ourselves again before lifted up the waves thereof. thy Divine Majesty, to offer a sacrifice We were carried up as it were to of praise and thanksgiving, for that heaven, and then down again into the thou heardest us when we called in our deep : our soul melted within us, be trouble, and didst not cast out our cause of trouble ; prayer, which we made before thee in Then cried we unto thee, O Lord : our great distress : Even when we gave

and thou didst deliver us out of our all for lost, our ship, our goods, our lives, distress. then didst thou mercifully look upon Blessed be thy Name, who didst not us, and wonderfully command a deli- despise the prayer of thy servants : verance ; for which we, now being in but didst hear our cry, and hast saved safety, do give all praise and glory to Us. thy holy Name; through Jesus Christ Thou didst send forth thy commandour Lord. Amen.

ment : and the windy storm ceased, and

was turned into a calm. Or this:

O let us therefore praise the Lord for O MOST mighty and gracious good his goodness and declare the wonders God, thy mercy is over all thy

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the children of men. works, but in special manner hath been extended toward us, whom thou hast so

Praised be the Lord daily : even the powerfully and wonderfully defended.

Lord that helpeth us, and poureth his Thou hast shewed us terrible things,

benefits upon us. and wonders in the deep, that we might

He is our God, even the God of whom see how powerful and gracious a God

cometh salvation : God is the Lord by thou art ; how able and ready to help whom we have escaped death. them that trust in thee. Thou hast Thou, Lord, hast made us glad shewed us how both winds and seas

through the operation of thy hands : obey thy command; that we may learn,

and we will triumph in thy praise. even from them, hereafter to obey thy

Blessed be the Lord God : even the voice, and to do thy will. We therefore Lord God, who only doeth wondrous bless and glorify thy Name, for this thy things; mercy in saving us, when we were

And blessed be the Name of his Maready to perish. And, we beseech thee, jesty for ever : and let every one of us make us as truly sensible now of thy say, Amen, Amen. mercy, as we were then of the danger : Glory be to the Father, and to the And give us hearts always ready to

Son : and to the Holy Ghost; express our thankfulness, not only by As it was in the beginning, is now, words, but also by our lives, in being

and ever shall be : world without end. more obedient to thy holy command

Amen. ments. Continue, we beseech thee, this thy goodness to us ; that we, whom

2 Cor. xiii. thou hast saved, may serve thee inaboli; THE grace of our Lord Jesus Christ, our life; through Jesus Christ our Lord lowship of the Holy Ghost, be with us and Saviour. Amen.

all evermore, Amen. An Hymn of Praise and Thanksgiving after a dangerous Tempest.

After Victory or Deliverance from an O us

Enemy. Lord, for he is gracious : and his mercy endureth for ever.

A Psalm or Hymn of Praise and Thanks Great is the Lord, and greatly to be

giving after Victory. praised; let the redeemed of the Lord If the Lord

had not been on our side, :

now may we say : if the Lord himthe merciless rage of the sea.

self had not been on our side, when men The Lord is gracious and full of com- rose up against us ; passion : Blow to anger, and of great They had swallowed us up quick : mercy.

when they were so wrathfully displeasHe hath not dealt with us according

ed at us. to our sins : neither rewarded us ac- Yea, the waters had drowned us, and cording to our iniquities.

the stream had gone over our soul : the But as the heaven is high above the deep waters of the proud had gone over earth : 80 great hath been his mercy our soul. towards us.

But praised be the Lord : who hath We found trouble and heaviness : WO not given us over as a prey unto them. were even at death's door.

The Lord hath wrought : a mighty The waters of the sea had well-nigh salvation for us. covered us : the proud waters had well- We gat not this by our own sword, nigh gone over our soul,

neither was it our own arm that saved

us : but thy right hand, and thine arm, prove this great mercy to thy glory, the and the light of thy countenance, be- advancement of thy Gospel, the honour cause thou hadst a favour unto us. of our Sovereign, and, as much as in us

The Lord hath appeared for us : the tieth, to the good of all mankind. And, Lord hath covered our heads, and made we beseech thee, give us such a sense us to stand in the day of battle.

of this great mercy, as may engage us The Lord hath appeared for us : the to a true thankfulness, such as may Lord hath overthrown our enemies, appear in our lives by an humble, holy, and dashed in pieces those that rose up and obedient walking before thee ali against us.

our days, through Jesus Christ our Therefore not unto us, O Lord, not Lord ; to whom with thee and the Holy unto us : but unto thy Name be given Spirit, as for all thy mercies, so in parthe glory.

ticular for this Victory and Deliverance, The Lord hath done great things for be all glory and honour, world without us : the Lord hath done great things end. Amen. for us, for which we rejoice.

2 Cor. xiii. Our help standeth in the Name of the Lord : who hath made heaven and THE grace of our Lord Jesus Christ, earth.

and the love of God, and the fellowBlessed be the Name of the Lord :

ship of the Holy Ghost, be with us all from this time forth for evermore,

evermore. Amen. Glory be to the Father, and to the Son : and to the Holy Ghost;

At the Burial of their Dead at Sea. As it was in the beginning, is now, and ever shall be : world without end. The Office in the Common PrayerAmen.

book may be used; only instead of

these words (We therefore commit his After this Hymn may be sung the Te

body to the ground, earth to earth, &c.] Deum.

say,

E therefore commit his body to the Then this Collect. O ALMIGHTY God, the Sovereign looking for the resurrection of the body,

Commander of all the world, in (when the Sea shall give up her dead,) whose hand is power and might which and the life of the world to come, none is able to withstand ; We bless through our Lord Jesus Christ; who at and magnify thy great and glorious his coming shall change our vile body, Name for this happy Victory, the whole that it may be like his glorious body, glory whereof we do ascribe to thee, according to the mighty working, who art the only giver of Victory. And, whereby he is able to subdue all things we beseech thee, give us grace to ima to himself.

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INTRODUCTION TO THE ORDINAL. THE EARLY ORDINALS.-The existence from the first origin of the Christian Church of a constituted Order or Orders of the Ministry is beyond all possibility of historic doubt. The Apostles, ordained and commissioned by Our Lord Himself, held from the beginning a supreme place in such Ministry. By them the lower Orders of Presbyters and Deacons were undoubtedly instituted; even if the old tradition be rejected, which finds the germ of the Presbyterate also in Our Lord's appointment of the Seventy.

It is equally beyond all historic doubt, that, while the choice of such Ministers belonged to the whole body of the Church, the Confirmation and solemn Ordination of those chosen have always belonged to the Apostles, and their successors in the Ministry, by an authority tracing itself up to Christ Himself, and not derived directly from the Congregation.

Hence from very early times forms of Service for this solemn Or. dination and Mission grew up in the Church, gradually developing themselves into greater fulness and elaborateness of Ceremonial both in the East and the West. The essentials of Ordination are perfectly simple. They are merely what the Apostles themselves used-Imposition of hands with Prayer and Benediction, and solemn mission in the Name of Jesus Christ. But round these, as was natural, many forms of Examination, Prayer, and Ordination, and much significant Ceremonial gathered, with considerable variety in different ages and portions of the Church. In the East we find existing the Greek, the Coptic, the Jacobite, the Maronite and Nestorian Ordinals; all having common substance and independent varieties. In the West, the form which prevailed was that of the Roman Church, especially as found in the Sacramentaries of Leo I., Gelasius, and Gregory the Great. In England, before the Reformation, the Ordinals are found with variation in the different Uses-the Sarum Use being the predominant form.

THE FORMATION OF OUR SERVICES.-Our Service of 1549 was taken, as usual, from the ancient Services, with much alteration, especially in the hortatory portions, and much ritual simplification. Thus in the Ordination of Deacons, the Investiture with the Stole was omitted; in the Ordination of Priests, the Investiture with Stole and Chasuble and the anointing and blessing of the hands; in the Consecration of Bishops, the anointing of the head and hands, and the delivery of the ring and the Mitre. Variations were also made in the prayers and in the formula of Ordination. But substantially the order and general character of the Service remained the same.

The Service has passed through three phases.

In 1519 Cranmer and certain other Bishops were appointed to revise the old form, and the results of their labours were published in 1550.

In 1552 a further Revision took place at the time of the Revision of the Prayer Book, omitting in the Ordination of Priests the delivery of the Paten and Chalice, and in the Consecration of Bishops the delivery of the Pastoral Staff; and in the Ordination of Priests and Deacons the direction that the Candidates should appear in Ecclesiastical habits. Otherwise no considerable change was made.

The Ordinal remained unaltered till 1662, when it was carefully revised and some changes of no great importance, but generally tending to greater solemnity, were introduced. Many objections had been made to the special formula used in the Ordination of Priests and Consecration of Bishops; but little attention was paid to these.

THE PREFACE. THE THREE ORDERS.-The Preface defines the position of the Church of England in relation to the Three Orders of the Ministry. In Art. xxiii., “On Ministering in the Congregation, two fundamental principles are laid down; first, that the Ministry is not merely a function, to be assumed by any Christian, but that it belongs to a regularly constituted Order, of men “lawfully called and sent to execute the same "next, that the call and mission of given them in the Congregation to call and send Ministers into the Lord's Vineyard." In this Preface, written in 1552, and virtually sanctioned by Art. xxxvi., the Church asserts that historically from the Apostles' time, this Order of the Ministry has been threefold, and that the call and mission to that Ministry (which Art. xxxvii. declares in no sense to belong to the Royal Supremacy) has rested properly with the Bishops, although in the Ordination of Priests the Priests present take a subsidiary part. To this ancient rule, traced up to Apostolic times, without theorizing on the principle of Apostolical Succession, or pronouncing on the practice of other Christian bodies, she declares her stedfast adhesion in this case as in all others desiring to follow the guidance of the Primitive Church--and refuses to allow any to minister within her own borders, unless ordained according to that rule.

THE HISTORICAL QUESTION.-The historical assertion, on which her rule is based, is absolutely unquestioned as regards Priests and Deacons. The existence of Presbyters in the Church at Jerusalem is recognised from the first (in Acts xi. 30 & xv. 4, 6, 23); the ordination of Presbyters in Gentile Churches

is described as a matter of course (in Acts xiv. 23 & xx. 17); the Pastoral Epistles are full of the work and qualifications of the Order. No record is given of the institution of this Order, and some ancient authorities suggest (without any historic certainty, but with much probability) that its germ was to be found in the Seventy, appointed by Our Lord (Luke X. 1) to a lower kind of Apostolate. The Diaconate is clearly traceable to the Institution of the Apostles (in Acts vi. 1-6); in which the Seven were chosen by the people, but ordained by the Apostles; and from that time has continued unbroken.

The Episcopate alone has been questioned; and even here the question is confined within narrow limits. For, first, it is perfectly certain that the name "Bishop " (or Overseer) is in the New Testament attached as a descriptive title to the office of Presbyter (see Acts xx. 17, 28; Tit. i. 5–7; 1 Tim. iii. 1-7); and hence it is evident that the Episcopal Order did not appear as a fully de. veloped and distinct Order so long as the Apostolate remained. Next, it is equally certain that, from the middle of the 2nd century onwards, the distinctive existence of the Episcopate, as the highr

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