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nevertheless, not my will, but thine be done. And there appeared an angel unto him from heaven, strengthening him. And being in an agony, he prayed more earnestly; and his sweat was as it were great drops of blood falling down to the ground. And when he rose up from prayer, and was come to his disciples, he found them sleeping for sorrow, and said unto them, Why sleep ye? rise and pray, lest ye enter into temptation. And while he yet spake, behold, a multitude, and he that was called Judas, one of the twelve, went before them, and drew near unto Jesus to kiss him. But Jesus said unto him, Judas, betrayest thou the Son of Man with a kiss? When they who were about him saw what would follow, they said unto him, Lord, shall we smite with the sword? And one of them smote the servant of the high priest, and cut off his right ear. And Jesus answered and said, Suffer ye thus far. And he touched his ear, and healed him. Then Jesus said unto the chief priests, and captains of the temple, and the elders who were come to him, Be ye come out as against a thief, with swords and staves? When I was daily with you in the temple, ye stretched forth no hands against me: but this is your hour, and the power of darkness. Then took they him, and led him, and brought him into the high priest's house and Peter followed afar off. And when they had kindled a fire in the midst of the hall, and were set down together, Peter sat down among them. But a certain maid beheld him, as he sat by the

fire, and earnestly looked upon him, and said, This man was also with him. And he denied him, saying, Woman, I know him not. And after a little while another saw him, and said, Thou art also of them. And Peter said, Man, I am not. And about the space of one hour after, another confidently affirmed, saying, Of a truth this fellow also was with him; for he is a Galilean. And Peter said, Man, I know not what thou sayest. And immediately, while he yet spake, the cock crew. And the Lord turned, and looked upon Peter; and Peter remembered the word of the Lord, how he had said unto him, Before the cock crow, thou shalt deny me thrice. And Peter went out, and wept bitterly. And the men that held Jesus mocked him, and smote him. And when they had blindfolded him, they struck him on the face, and asked him, saying, Prophesy, who is it that smote thee? And many other things blasphemously spake they against him. And as soon as it was day, the elders of the people, and the chief priests, and the scribes, came together, and led him into their council, saying, Art thou the Christ? tell us. And he said unto them, If I tell you, ye will not believe: and if I also ask you, ye will not answer me, nor let me go. Hereafter shall the Son of Man sit on the right hand of the power of God. Then said they all, Art thou then the Son of God? And he said unto them, Ye say that I am. And they said, What need we any further witness? for we ourselves have heard of his own mouth.

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temporal judgment, sent in order that they should "not be condemned"), and is "guilty" in respect "of the body and blood of the Lord," which he does not "discern," that is, distinguish from common food. This sin had already been visited by judgments of sickness and death. St. Paul urges them to repent of it without delay, and promises to order whatever else is needful hereafter. It is natural to conjecture that from this time the separation of the Holy Communion from the Agape began by Apostolic authority.

THE GOSPEL is the second part of the "Passion of St. Luke," in which, still more than in the first, he gives a narrative quite independent of the others, of special pathetic beauty, containing many details unrecorded by them, and apparently drawn from a far nearer point of view.

Thus (a) BEFORE PILATE, he records to us the formal accusation, clenched by the false statement of "forbidding to give tribute to Cæsar" (see Luke xx. 20), which produced Pilate's public enquiry, "Art Thou the King of the Jews;" next (b) the attempt of Pilate to get rid of responsibility by SENDING OUR LORD TO HEROD ANTIPAS, who was in all probability in the same palace; the vulgar curiosity of Herod (see Luke ix. 9), which desired to see a miracle wrought, and his mockery of his silent Prisoner, arraying him in scorn in a gorgeous robe" (which may perhaps have been the "scarlet robe" of mockery in the Prætorium); (c) again, he implies the object of THE SCOURGING, which otherwise might have seemed a wanton cruelty, in


Pilate's words, "I will chastise Him, and let Him go;" although he does not narrate the actual scourging itself. (d) On the WAY TO THE CROSS he tells us of the company of mourners that followed, and of Our Lord's words, heard only by them and by the soldiers, "Daughters of Jerusalem, weep not for me, but weep for yourselves and your children," foretelling the utter destruction to come on the "dry tree" of the Jewish dispensation. (e) At the moment of THE FIRST AGONY OF THE ACTUAL CRUCIFIXION, he preserves to us the prayer of infinite forgiveness,


Father, forgive them; for they know not what they do," which would be heard by those to whom they especially applied the Roman soldiers nailing Him to the Cross; (f) UNDER THE CROSS ITSELF he alone records the repentance of one of the robbers crucified with Him (who had first, it would seem, joined the railing against Him), and the almost superhuman faith, which saw in the Crucified the Lord of Glory, and received the special blessing, " This day shalt thou be with me in Paradise ;" and, only noting the fact of the loud cry (not the Hebrew words, which would be unintelligible to a Gentile), adds the last low utterance, "Father, into Thy hands I commend my spirit ;" and finally, (g) gives literally THE CRY OF CENTURION, "Truly this was a righteous man" (probably "the Righteous One;" see Acts iii. 14 & vii. 52 & xxii. 14), which the other Evangelists translated into the equivalent Jewish term, "the Son of God."


The whole indicates the eyewitness of one who stood near

houses to eat and to drink in? or despise ye the church of God, and shame them that have not? What shall I say to you? shall I praise you in this? I praise you not. For I have received of the Lord that which also I delivered unto you, That the Lord Jesus, the same night in which he was betrayed, took bread; and when he had given thanks, he brake it, and said, Take, eat; this is my body, which is broken for you: this do in remembrance of me. After the same manner also he took the cup, when he had supped, saying, This cup is the new testament in my blood: this do ye, as oft as ye drink it, in remembrance of me. For as often as ye eat this bread, and drink this cup, ye do shew the Lord's death till he come. Wherefore, whosoever shall eat this bread, and drink this cup of the Lord, unworthily, shall be guilty of the body and blood of the Lord. But let a man examine himself, and so let him eat of that bread, and drink of that cup. For he that eateth and drinketh unworthily eateth and drinketh damnation to himself, not discerning the Lord's body. For this cause many are weak and sickly among you, and many sleep. For if we would judge ourselves, we should not be judged. But when we are judged, we are chastened of the Lord, that we should not be condemned with the world. Wherefore, my brethren, when ye come together to eat, tarry one for another. And if any man hunger, let him eat at home; that ye come not together unto condemnation. And the rest will I set in order when I come.

The Gospel. St. Luke 23. 1. THE

IE whole multitude of them arose, and led him unto Pilate. And they began to accuse him, saying, We found this fellow perverting the nation, and forbidding to give tribute to Cæsar, saying, That he himself is Christ a King. And Pilate asked him,

saying, Art thou the King of the Jews? And he answered him, and said, Thou sayest it. Then said Pilate to the chief priests, and to the people, I find no fault in this man. And they were the more fierce, saying, He stirreth up the people, teaching throughout all Jewry, beginning from Galilee to this place. When Pilate heard of Galilee, he asked whether the man were a Galilean. And as soon as he knew that he belonged unto Herod's jurisdiction, he sent him to Herod, who himself was also at Jerusalem at that time. And when Herod saw Jesus he was exceeding glad; for he was desirous to see him of a long season, because he had heard many things of him; and he hoped to have seen some miracle done by him. Then he questioned with himn in many words; but he answered him nothing. And the chief priests and scribes stood and vehemently accused him. And Herod with his men of war set him at nought, and mocked him, and arrayed him in a gorgeous robe, and sent him again to Pilate. And the same day Pilate and Herod were made friends together; for before they were at enmity between themselves. And Pilate, when he had called together the chief priests, and the rulers, and the people, said unto them, Ye have brought this man unto me, as one that perverteth the people: and behold, I, having examined him before you, have found no fault in this man touching those things whereof ye accuse him: No, nor yet Herod: for I sent you to him; and lo, nothing wor-. thy of death is done unto him. I will therefore chastise him, and release him. For of necessity he must release one unto them at the feast. And they cried out all at once, saying, Away with this man, and release unto us Barabbas:

(who for a certain sedition made in the city, and for murder, was cast into prison.) Pilate therefore, willing to release Jesus, spake again to them. But they cried,

the Cross, and seems to point to a Roman informant. According to common tradition, the Third Gospel belongs to the time of St. Paul's imprisonment at Cæsarea, the great Roman garrison city. Could the centurion himself have gone on to the logical conclusion of his confession, and, as a Christian, been the witness of all these things to the Evangelist?

THE PROPER LESSONS are (Hosea xiii. 1-15, xiv.) the closing utterances of Hosea, the prophet of the fall of the kingdom of Israel; first pleading with Israel God's former mercies,

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This beautiful name, of old standing, is peculiar to the English Church. In ancient times the day was called the "Day of the Cross,' "the Pasch of the Cross," the Great Parasceve ("Preparation"), and the like. From the earliest days it has been observed as a day of strict fasting, penitence, and prayer, with special thanksgiving for the Atonement, and special intercession for all men. The singing of the "Reproaches (expanding Mic. vi. 3-5), and the Adoration of the Cross, were added in later times. The Holy Communion, consecrated on the previous day, was received in silence (the "Mass of the Presanctified"). At the Reformation, when reservation was forbidden, the practice of both consecrating and receiving undoubtedly came in; "showing forth the Lord's death" most appropriately on the day of the Passion.

and the people's continued sin; then promising " ransom from the power of the grave," and restoration through faith and penitence to fruitfulness and true wisdom by the healing mercy of God; next (John xvii.), Our Lord's Great Intercession for the knowledge of God, the Unity in Christ with God and with one another, and the final glory with Him, which are the essential blessings of His Church; and (John xiii. 1-36) the record of the washing of the disciples' feet after the Last Supper, the warning of the Betrayal, and the new commandment" of Love (all belonging to this day).

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THE COLLECTS (all taken from the Sarum Missal) are a portion of the Collects of Intercession found in the Sacramentary of Gelasius.

(a) The First is for the whole Church, as the family of God, redeemed to the adoption of Sonship by the Betrayal, the Condemnation, and the Passion of the true Son of God.

(b) The Second, taking for granted the indwelling of the Holy Spirit in the Church as a whole, prays for each member that he may serve God according to his call, and in his appointed service.

(c) The Third (a combination with much variation of three ancient Collects for Heretics, Jews, and Pagans) prays for all Jews and Turks (worshippers of One God, but not of the Lord Jesus Christ), then for Infidels (worshippers of false gods or of no God), and Heretics, that

saying, Crucify him, crucify him. And he said unto them the third time, Why, what evil hath he done? I have found no cause of death in him: I will therefore chastise him, and let him go. And they were instant with loud voices, requiring that he might be crucified and the voices of them and of the chief priests prevailed. And Pilate gave sentence that it should be as they required. And he released unto them him that for sedition and murder was cast into prison, whom they had desired; but he delivered Jesus to their will. And as they led him away, they laid hold upon one Simon a Cyrenian, coming out of the country, and on him they laid the cross, that he might bear it after Jesus. And there followed him a great company of people, and of women, which also bewailed and lamented him. But Jesus, turning unto them, said, Daughters of Jerusalem, weep not for me, but weep for yourselves, and for your children. For behold, the days are coming, in the which they shall say, Blessed are the barren, and the wombs that never bare, and the paps which never gave suck. Then shall they begin to say to the mountains, Fall on us; and to the hills, Cover us. For if they do these things in a green tree, what shall be done in the dry? And there were also two other, malefactors, led with him to be put to death. And when they were come to the place which is called Calvary, there they crucified him; and the malefactors, one on the right hand, and the other on the left. Then said Jesus, Father, forgive them, for they know not what they do. And they parted his raiment, and cast


The Collects. ΑΙ LMIGHTY God, we beseech thee graciously to behold this thy family, for which our Lord Jesus Christ was contented to be

lots. And the people stood beholding; and the rulers also with them derided him, saying, He saved others; let him save himself, if he be Christ, the chosen of God. And the soldiers also mocked him, coming to him, and offering him vinegar, and saying, If thou be the King of the Jews, save thyself. And a superscription also was written over him in letters of Greek, and Latin, and Hebrew, THIS IS THE KING OF THE JEWS. And one of the malefactors, which were hanged, railed on him, saying, If thou be Christ, save thyself, and us. But the other answering rebuked him, saying, Dost not thou fear God, seeing thou art in the same condemnation? And we indeed justly; for we receive the due reward of our deeds, but this man hath done nothing amiss. And he said unto Jesus, Lord, remember me when thou comest into thy kingdom. And Jesus said unto him, Verily I say unto thee, To-day shalt thou be with me in paradise. And it was about the sixth hour and there was a darkness over all the earth until the ninth hour. And the sun was darkened, and the vail of the temple was rent in the midst. And when Jesus had cried with a loud voice, he said, Father, into thy hands I commend my spirit: and having said thus, he gave up the ghost. Now when the centurion saw what was done, he glorified God, saying, Certainly this was a righteous man. And all the people that came together to that sight, beholding the things that were done, smote their breasts, and returned. And all his acquaintance, and the women that followed him from Galilee, stood afar off, beholding these things. Friday.

betrayed, and given up into the hands of wicked men, and to suffer death upon the cross, who now liveth and reigneth with thee and the Holy Ghost, ever one God, world without end. Amen.

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