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of misery. He cometh up, and is cut against us. And lead us not into temptdown, like a flower ; he fleeth as it ation ; But deliver us from evil. Amen. were a shadow, and never continueth

Priest. in one stay.

In the midst of life we are in death : ALMIGHTY God, with whom do live of whom may we seek for succour, but of thee, O Lord, who for our sins art

hence in the Lord, and with whom the justly displeased ?

souls of the faithful, after they are deYet, o Lord God most holy, O Lord

livered from the burden of the flesh, most mighty, O holy and most merciful

are in joy and felicity; We give thee Saviour, deliver us not into the bitter

hearty thanks, for that it hath pleased

thee to deliver this our brother out of pains of eternal death, Thou knowest, Lord, the secrets of

the miseries of this sinful world ; beour hearts ; shut not thy merciful ears

seeching thee, that it may please thee, to our prayer ; but spare us, Lord most

of thy gracious goodness, shortly to acholy, o God most mighty, o holy and complish the number of thine elect, and merciful Saviour, thou most worthy

to hasten thy kingdom ; that we, with Judge eternal, sutfer us not, at our last

all those that are departed in the true hour, for any pains of death, to fall

faith of thy holy Name, may have our from thee.

perfect consummation and bliss, both in

body and soul, in thy eternal and everI Then, while the earth shall be cast lasting glory; through Jesus Christ our upon the Body by some standing by, Lord. Amen. the Priest shall say,

The Collect. FORASMUCH as it hath pleased Almighty God of his great mercy

to O MERCIFUL God, the Father of our take unto himself the soul of our dear

Lord Jesus Christ, who is the rebrother here departed, we therefore com

surrection and the life in whom whomit his body to the ground; earth to

soever believeth shall live, though he earth, ashes to ashes, dust to dust ; in

die ; and whosoever liveth, and believsure and certain hope of the Resurrec

eth in him, shall not die eternally ; who tion to eternal life, through our Lord

also hath taught us, by his holy Apostle Jesus Christ; who shall change our vile

Saint Paul, not to be sorry, as men body, that it may be like unto his glori- without hope, for them that sleep in ous body, according to the mighty

him ; We meekly beseech thee, oʻFaworking, whereby he is able to subdue ther, to raise us from the death of sin all things to himself.

unto the life of righteousness; that,

when we shall depart this life, we may Then shall be said or sung, rest in him, as our hope is this our broI HEARD a voice from heaven, saying ther doth ; and that, at the general Re

unto me, Write, From henceforth surrection in the last day, we may be blessed are the dead which die in the found acceptable in thy sight; and reLord : even so saith the Spirit ; for they ceive that blessing, which thy well-berest from their labours.

loved Son shall then pronounce to all ? Then the Priest shall say,

that love and fear thee, saying, Come,

ye blessed children of my Father, reLord, have mercy upon us.

ceive the kingdom prepared for you Christ, have mercy upon us.

from the beginning of the world : Grant Lord, have mercy upon us.

this, we beseech thee, o merciful FaOUR. Father, which art in heaven,

ther, through Jesus Christ, our Medi

ator and Redeemer. Amen. dom come, Thy will be done in earth, THE grace of our Lord Jesus Christ, As it is in heaven. Give us this day our

and daily bread. And forgive us our tres- ship of the Holy Ghost, be with us all passes, As we forgive them that trespass evermore. Amen.

call with those on the right hand ground. The reality of the diffito the Kingdom of the Father. culty cannot be doubted; but it is

These two most beautiful Col. hard to know how it can be satis. lects evidently suppose the dead factorily met. In the Service of to have died in the Communion 1549 these Collects contained of the Church of Christ, and in more distinct prayer for the the profession of Christian faith. souls of the dead, and were preIn them, therefore, lies the chief faced by a series of Versicles, in difficulty of the use of the Ser. which it was prayed that "God vice over those who have lived a would deliver their souls from notoriously immoral and ungodly the gates of hell.". The special life; because they do not merely Communion Service was also abstain from all judgment of added, with Ps. xlii. as an Inthe dead (which all would desire troit, our present Second Col. to do), but express a positive hope lect as the Collect, the Epistle and thankfulness, on which we from 1 Thess. iv. 13--18, and the dare not venture without solid Gospel from John vi. 35-39.

THE CHURCHING OF WOMEN. The use of some such Service after childbirth is most ancient, both in the East and in the West; and it is possible that it may have been borrowed from the older Jewish observance, involving the double idea of Purification and of Thanksgiving. Our present Service is taken from the Service for the “ Purification of Women” in the Sarum Manual; and the old title was retained in 1549, but changed to the “Thanksgiving of Women" in 1552.

PLACE AND TIME OF SERVICE. It was directed in the Manual that the Service should be performed at the Church door; and at the close the Priest took the woman by the hand, and led her into the Church with the words, “Enter into the Temple of God, that thou mayest have eternal life. In 1549 the place was changed to "near the Quire door;” in 1552 to "nigh unto the place where the Table standeth;” in 1662 the present vaguer direction was substituted. The phrase decently apparelled” has been thought to contain a reference to the old practice of wearing a veil. The time at which the Service should take place is not laid down; but both custom, and inference from the closing Rubric, suggest that it should come just before the Communion Service.

The PSALM. - Till 1662 the a Collect, partly of thanksgiving, cxxist Psalm was used (which partly of prayer, for holy life Psalm, with the cxxviiith, was here and eternal glory hereafter. used in the old Service). In 1662

The final RUBRIC in 1549 dithe present alternative Psalms

rected that the child's Chrisom, were substituted. The cxvith

or white garment, should be at Psalm is one of thankgiving for deliverance from danger and

this time presented, with the

"offering” (a thank-offering for sorrow by God's mercy; the

the Service of God). The direccxxvii th a thanksgiving for do- tion as to the Holy Communion mestic blessing, especially the is as in the Marriage Service. In blessing of children.

both ideas of the Ordinance, as Then the SERVICE OF PRAYER a restoration to the privilege of opens, as usual, with the Kyrie worship, and as a Thanksgiving, and Lord's Prayer; next includes the attendance at the Holy Comthe same Versicles as in the munion is certainly most

« Marriage Service; and ends with venient," i.e., appropriate.

con.

THE THANKSGIVING OF WOMEN AFTER CHILD-BIRTH,

COMDONLY CALLED,

THE CHURCHING OF WOMEN.

The Woman, at the usual time after her Delivery, shall come into the Church decently apparelled, and there shall kneel down in some convenient place, as hath been accustomed, or as the Ordinary shall direct : And then the Priest

shall say unto her, FORASMUCH as it hath pleased Ali 1 eat the bread of carefulness : for so he

mighty God of his goodness to give giveth his beloved sleep. you safe deliverance, and hath preserv- Lo, children and the fruit of the ed you in the great danger of Child- womb : are an heritage and gift that birth; you shall therefore give hearty cometh of the Lord. thanks unto God, and say,

Like as the arrows in the hand of the

giant : even so are the young children. (S Then shall the Priest say the 116th Happy is the man that hath his quiver Psalm.)

full of them : they shall not be ashamed Dilexi quoniam.

when they speak with their enemies in

the gate. I AM well pleased that the Lord hath of

Glory be to the Father, and to the That he hath inclined his ear unto

Son : and to the Holy Ghost; me : therefore will I call upon him as

As it was in the beginning, is now, long as I live.

and ever shall be : world without end.

Amen. The snares of death compassed me round about : and the pains of hell gat

Then the Priest shall say, hold upon me.

Let us pray. I found trouble and heaviness, and I

Lord, have mercy upon us. called upon the Name of the Lord : 0

Christ, have mercy upon us. Lord, I beseech thee, deliver my soul.

Lord, have mercy upon us. Gracious is the Lord, and righteous : yea, our God is merciful.

in The Lord preserveth the simple : I

Hallowed be thy Name. Thy king. was in misery, and he helped me.

dom come. Thy will be done in earth,

As it is in heaven. Give us this day our Turn again then unto thy rest, O my soul : for the Lord hath rewarded thee.

daily bread. And forgive us our tresAnd why? thou hast delivered my

passes, As we forgive them that tressoul from death : mine eyes from tears,

pass against us. And lead us not into and my feet from falling.

temptation ; But deliver us from evil : I will walk before the Lord : in the

For thine is the kingdom, The power, land of the living.

and the glory, For ever and ever. Amen. I believed, and therefore will I speak;

Min. O Lord, save this woman thy but I was sore troubled : I said in my

servant : haste, All men are liars.

Ans. Who putteth her trust in thee. What reward shall I give unto the

Min. Be thou to her a strong tower ; Lord : for all the benefits that he hath

Ans. From the face of her enemy. done unto me?

Min. Lord, hear our prayer. I will receive the cup of salvation : Ans. And let our cry come unto thee. and call upon the Name of the Lord.

Minister. Let us pray. I will pay my vows now in the presence of all his people in the courts of O ALMIGHTY. God; we give thee the Lord's house, even in the midst of

for thee, O Jerusalem. Praise the Lord.

vouchsafed to deliver this woman thy Glory be to the Father, and to the servant from the great pain and peril of Son : and to the Holy Ghost;

Child-birth; Grant, we beseech thee, As it was in the beginning, is now,

most merciful Father, that she, through and ever shall be : world without end, thy help, may both faithfully live, and Amen.

walk according to thy will, in this life

present; and also may be partaker of Or, Psalm 127. Nisi Dominus.

everlasting glory in the life to come ;

through Jesus Christ our Lord. Amen. their labour is but lost that build it.

The Wornan, that cometh to give her Except the Lord keep the city : the

Thanks, must offer accustomed Offerwatchman waketh but in vain.

ings; and, if there be a Communion, It is but lost labour that ye haste to it is convenient that she receive the rise up early, and so late take rest, and holy Communioni.

THE COMMINATION. The former part of this Service-the “Commination" properly so called-was composed in 1549; the latter part is borrowed from the Benedictio Cinerum appointed in the old Manual for Ash Wednesday. In 1549 the Service was fixed for Ash Wednesday only; in 1552 for “divers times in the year; "in 1662 the present direction was substituted. The introduction of the Commination-which is (be it observed) not an invoking of God's curse on sin, but simply a warning that it must rest on sin, till penitence follows-was, no doubt, thought seasonable at the time when compulsory Auricular Confession was passing away, especially to meet a certain tendency to neglect God's Law, on pretence of the sufficiency of faith alone. Hence its austere severity, breathing perhaps the spirit of the old Testament (from which most of its language is drawn) more than the New

In the RUBRIC the word “reading pew was introduced in 1662, for the first time recognising its existence (traceable since 1569) in the Church.

(A) THE COMMINATION ITSELF.

rule, and on Private Confession

and Absolution as the exception. The INTRODUCTION refers to

Of the primitive discipline of public

the COMMINATION SENConfession and Penance inflicted TENCES the first seven are selecton notorious offenders, especially

ed from Deut. xxvii. 15-26, the at the opening of Lent, with a

solemn roll of curses to be proview to Absolution and restora

nounced from Mount Ebal. They tion to Communion at Easter.

condemn the breach of the vaThis gradually gave place, first, to

rous Commandments of the Seprivate Confession (beginning in

cond Table. The eighth is, from the case of sins of which it was

Jer. xvii. 5, against the ungodli. a scandal to speak) to a Priest

ness of a mere worldly life; and specially appointed as a “Peni

the ninth is directed against an tentiary;" and then to system

agglomeration of the various sins atic Private Confession and

of the flesh, condemned everyAbsolution, made a regular part

where in Holy Scripture. The of Christian life, and a necessary

Amen" at the end of eachpreparation for Holy Commu- since they are declarations and nion, and exalted to the dignity

not imprecations-must be taken of a Sacrament. When this was

to mean "So it is,” not“ So be abolished as obligatory, the Re

it," "affirming the curse of God formers of the 16th century,

to be due." It will be observed being stern upholders of discip

that the denunciation is only of line, desired (as this Exhorta. impenitent sinners, and that, tion shows) to return to the

stern as it is, it is intended to substance of the primitive prac

lead up to the most gracious tice. Finding this impracticable, promises of pardon to repentthey inserted this solemn Ser.

ance. vice of Warning; falling back, The EXHORTATION, although at the same time, on the General it is really a succession of quotaConfession and Absolution as a tions from Holy Scripture, yet

A COMMINATION,

OR DENOUNCING OF GOD'S ANGER AND JUDGMENTS AGAINST

SINNERS,

With certain Prayers, to be used on the first Day of Lent, and at other times,

as the Ordinary shall appoint.

1 After Morning Prayer, the Litany ended according to the accustomed man.

ner, the Priest shall, in the Reading-Pew or Pulpit, say, BRETHREN, in the Primitive Church Min. Cursed is he that taketh reward

there was a godly discipline, that, to slay the innocent. at the beginning of Lent, such persons Ans. Amen. as stood convicted of notorious sin were Min. Cursed is he that putteth his put to open penance, and punished in trust in man, and taketh man for his this world, that their souls might be defence, and in his heart goeth from the saved in the day of the Lord ; and that Lord. others, admonished by their example, Ans. Amen. might be the more afraid to offend. Min. Cursed are the unmerciful, for

Instead whereof, (until the said dis- nicators, and adulterers, covetous percipline may be restored again, which sons, idolaters, slanderers, drunkards, is much to be wished,) it is thought and extortioners. good, that at this time in the presence Ans. Amen. of you all) should be read the general sentences of God's cursing against im

Minister. penitent sinners, gathered out of the seven and twentieth Chapter of Deuter- NOW seeing that all they are accurs

ed (as the prophet David beareth onomy, and other places of Scripture ;

witness) who do err and go astray from and that ye should answer to every the commandments of God; let us Sentence, Amen: To the intent that, be

(remembering the dreadful judgment ing admonished of the great indignation hanging over our heads, and always of God against sinners, ye may the ra

ready to fall upon us) return unto our ther be moved to earnest and true re- Lord God, with all contrition and meekpentance; and may walk more warily

ness of heart; bewailing and lamenting in these dangerous days; fleeing from

our sinful life, acknowledging and consuch vices, for which ye affirm with

fessing our offences, and seeking to your own mouths the curse of God to be due.

bring forth worthy fruits of penance. For now is the ax put unto the root of

the trees, so that every tree that bringCURSED is the man that maketh

any carved or molten image, to wor

eth not forth good fruit is hewn down,

and cast into the fire. It is a fearful ship it.

thing to fall into the hands of the liv1 And the people shall answer and say,

ing God : he shall pour down rain upon

the sinners, snares, fire and brimstone, Amen.

storm and tempest ; this shall be their Min. Cursed is he that curseth his portion to drink. For lo, the Lord is father or mother.

come out of his place to visit the wickAns. Amen.

edness of such as dwell upon the earth. Min. Cursed is he that removeth his But who may abide the day of his comneighbour's land-mark.

ing? Who shall be able to endure when Ans. Amen.

he appeareth ? His fan is in his hand, Min. Cursed is he that maketh the and he will purge his floor, and gather blind to go out of his way.

his wheat into the barn ; but he will Ans. Amen.

burn the chat with unquenchable fire. Min. Cursed is he that perverteth the The day of the Lord cometh as a thief judgment of the stranger, the father- in the night : and when men shall say, less, and widow.

Peace, and all things are safe, then shali Ans. Amen.

sudden destruction come upon them, as Min. Cursed is he that smiteth his sorrow cometh upon a woman travailneighbour secretly.

ing with child, and they shall not esAns. Amen.

cape. Then shall appear the wrath of Min. Cursed is he that lieth with his God in the day of vengeance, which neighbour's wife.

obstinate sinners, through the stubAns. Amen.

bornness of their heart, have heaped

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