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Secondly, in God the Son, who hath Question. What is thy duty towards redeemed me, and all mankind.

God? Thirdly, in God the Holy Ghost, who Answer. My duty towards God, is to sanctifieth me, and all the elect people believe in him, to fear him, and to love of God.

him with all my heart, with all my Question.

mind, with all my soul, and with all You said, that your Godfathers and my strength; to worship him, to give Godmothers did promise for you, that him thanks, to put my whole trust in you should keep God's Commandments. him, to call upon him, to honour his Tell me how many there be ?

holy Name and his Word, and to serve Answer. Ten.

him truly all the days of my life. Question. Which be they?

Question. What is thy duty towards Answer.

thy Neighbour ?

Answer. My duty towards my NeighTHE same, which God spake in the twentieth Chapter of Exodus, say

bour, is to love him as myself, and to do ing, I am the Lord thy God, who

to all men, as I would they should do brought thee out of the land of Egypt,

unto me : To love, honour, and succour out of the house of bondage.

my father and mother : To honour and I. Thou shalt have none other gods obey the Queen, and all that are put in but me.

authority under her : To submit myself II. Thou shalt not make to thyself to all my governours, teachers, spiritual any graven image, nor the likeness of pastors and masters : To order myself any thing that is in heaven above, or lowly and reverently to all my betters : in the earth beneath, or in the water

To hurt no body by word nor deed : To under the earth. Thou shalt not bow be true and just in all my dealing : To down to them, nor worship them: for I

bear no malice nor hatred in my heart : the Lord thy God am a jealous God, and

To keep my hands from picking and visit the sins of the fathers upon the stealing, and my tongue from evilchildren, unto the third and fourth ge- speaking, lying, and slandering : To neration of them that hate me, and

keep my body in temperance, soberness, shew mercy unto thousands in them and chastity: Not to covet nor desire that love me, and keep my command- other men's goods; but to learn and laments.

bour truly to get mine own living, and III. Thou shalt not take the Name of to do my duty in that state of lite, unto the Lord thy God in vain : for the Lord which it shall please God to call me. will not hold him guiltless that taketh

Catechist. his Name in vain. IV. Remember that thou keep holy

My good Child, know this, that thou

art not able to do these things of thythe Sabbath-day. Six days shalt thou

self, nor to walk in the Commandments labour, and do all that thou hast to do; but the seventh day is the Sabbath of

of God, and to serve him, without his the Lord thy God. In it thou shalt do

special grace; which thou must learn

at all times to call for by diligent prayer. no manner of work, thou, and thy son, and thy daughter, thy man-servant,

Let me hear therefore, if thou canst say

the Lord's Prayer. and thy maid-servant, thy cattle, and the stranger that is within thy gates.

Answer. For in six days Lord made

UR Father, which art in heaven, is, and rested the seventh day; where

dom come. Thy will be done in earth, fore the Lord blessed the seventh day, As it is in heaven. Give us this day our and hallowed it.

daily bread. And forgive us our tresV. Honour thy father and thy mother, that thy days may be long in the land against us. And lead us not into tempta

passes, As we forgive them that trespass which the Lord thy God giveth thee. tion ; But deliver us from evil. Amen. VI. Thou shalt do no murder.

Question. What desirest thou of God VII. Thou shalt not commit adultery. in this Prayer ? VIII. Thou shalt not steal.

Answer. I desire my Lord God our IX. Thou shalt not bear false witness

heavenly Father, who is the giver of all against thy neighbour. X. Thou shalt not covet thy neigh

goodness, to send his grace unto me, bour's house, thou shalt not covet thy ship him, serve him, and obey him, as

and to all people; that we may worneighbour's wife, nor his servant, nor we ought to do. And I pray unto God, his maid, nor his ox, nor his ass, nor that he will send us all things that be any thing that is his.

needful both for our souls and bodies; Question.

and that he will be merciful unto us, What dost thou chiefly learn by these and forgive us our sins; and that it Commandments ?

will please him to save and defend Answer. I learn two things : my duty us in all dangers ghostly and bodily ; towards God, and my duty towards my and that he will keep us from all sin Neighbour.

and wickedness, and from our ghostly

ousness forbidden the resolution outward sign and semblance. of CONTENT to hold our own, “to In our use it is restricted to learn and labour to get our own means of grace in the Church living,” and “to do our duty in appointed by Christ Himself; our station,” as that “to which but within this limitation it has God has called us.'

something of the ancient am

biguity. For it first defines a (IV.) THE LORD'S PRAYER AND Sacrament as only the “outward ITS EXPLANATION.

and visible sign of an inward and For the LORD'S PRAYER seo

spiritual grace given to us, Morning Service. The Opening which sign is“ordained of Christ ADMONITION dwells emphatically

Himself as a means whereby wę

receive the same on PRAYER, as being for child

grace,

and hood the first means of grace

a pledge to assure us thereof;" consciously recognised.

and yet in the next answer it de

olares that in a Sacrament there The EXPLANATION differs much in the fulness of its various parts.

are two parts-both the sign or

dained and the grace given. It Thus (a) it enlarges the address

is in the latter and wider sense Our Father which art in Hea

that the word Sacrament is ven," and dwells on the desire of

Of His needful grace, implied but

almost universally used.

Sacraments thus not expressed in the Prayer it

defined, it

states that there are Two self ; (6) briefly summarizes the first three petitions in Worship,

only as generally” (universally) Service, and active Obedience,

necessary to salvation," " Bapand reduces to the simple "as

tism and the Supper of the we ought to do” the suggestive Lord;" thereby placing these

two sacred Ordinances of Our beauty of “On earth as in Hea

Lord Himself alone on a footing ven; (c) then again interprets the petition "for daily bread

of supreme sacredness, refusing

to class with them the other as desire of "all things need.

“five commonly called Sacraful” (in this life)" both for our

ments" in mediæval times, souls and bodies;” (d) simply “ Confirmation, Penance,

Or repeats “ Forgive us our sins,

ders, Matrimony, Extreme but fully explains “Lead us not

Unction” (see Art. xxv.). Of into temptation” as a prayer for

these the Church of England safety and defence in all dan.

estimates each on its own merits gers” that they may not be

(as will be seen in the Occasional como expands the simple “Deliver: Services); but declares none ance from evil". into keeping tion."

generally necessary to salvafrom “ sin and wickedness,” the

The Catechism then proEvil One, "our ghostly enemy,"

ceeds on each of the Sacraments

to define the outward sign, the and “everlasting death fruits of sin; and (e) emphasizes

spiritual grace given by God, the “Amen

and the spiritual preparation as an expression of trust in God's mercy and good

needed for its due reception. ness.” It is strange that the (2) On BAPTISM see the Bapcondition of forgiveness (“as we tismal Service, and compare forgive," &c.) is altogether Art. xxvii. omitted.

It may here be noted (a) tbat

in the definition of the grace (V.) THE EXPLANATION OF THE SACRAMENTS.

of Baptism, the technical word

Regeneration is explained (1) The DEFINITION OF SACRA- (from Rom. vi. 4, 11; Eph. ii. S MENTS narrows the ancient ap. --5) as "a death unto sin and a plication of the phrase. In early new birth unto righteousness, Christian times it was used with whereby we pass from a fallen a wide generality of almost any condition under God's wrath to sacred thing, which involved an a "state of salvation”under His underlying mysterious signifi- grace - an explanation which cance; either including the thing sums up with singular completeitself as a whole, or only its ness the whole doctrine of Bap

as the

66

enemy, and from everlasting death. stedfastly believe the promises of God And this I trust he will do of his mercy made to them in that Sacrament. and goodness, through our Lord Jesus Question. Why then are Infants bapChrist. And therefore I say, Amen, So tized, when by reason of their tender be it.

age they cannot perform them? Question.

Answer. Because they promise them

both by their Sureties; which promise, How many Sacraments hath Christ when they come to age, themselves are in ?

bound to perform. Answer. Two only, as generally ne- Question. Why was the Sacrament of cessary to salvation, that is to say, Bap- the Lord's Supper ordained ? tism, and the Supper of the Lord.'

Answer. For the continual rememQuestion. What meanest thou by this brance of the sacrifice of the death of word Sacrament?

Christ, and of the benefits which we reAnswer. I mean an outward and visi - ceive thereby. ble sign of an inward and spiritual Question. What is the outward part grace given unto us, ordained by Christ or sign of the Lord's Supper ? himself, as a means whereby we receive Answer. Bread and Wine, which the the same, and a pledge to assure us Lord hath commanded to be received. thereof.

Question. What is the inward part, or Question. How many parts are there thing signified ? in a Sacrament?

Answer. The Body and Blood of Christ, Answer. Two; the outward visible which are verily and indeed taken and sign, and the inward spiritual grace. received by the farthful in the Lord's

Question. What is the outward visible Supper. sign or form in Baptism ?

Question. What are the benefits where Answer. Water ; wherein the person of we are partakers thereby ? is baptized In the Name of the Father, Answer. The strengthening and reand of the Son, and of the Holy Ghost. freshing of our souls by the Body and

Question. What is the inward and Blood of Christ, as our bodies are by the spiritual grace ?

Bread and Wine. Answer. A death unto sin, and a new Question. What is required of them birth unto righteousness : for being by who come to the Lord's Supper? nature born in sin, and the children of Answer. To examine themselves, wrath, we are hereby made the children whether they repent them truly of their of grace.

former sins, stedfastly purposing to lead Question. What is required of persons a new life ; have a lively faith in God's to be baptized ?

mercy through Christ, with a thankful Answer. Repentance, whereby they remembrance of his death; and be in forsake sin ; and Faith, whereby they charity with all men.

I The Curate of every Parish shall diligently upon Sundays and Holy-days,

after the second Lesson at Evening Prayer, openly in the Church instruct and examine so many Children of his Parish sent unto him, as he shall think convenient, in some part of this Catechism. And all Fathers, Mothers, Masters, and Dames, shall cause their children, Servants, and Apprentices, (which have not learned their Catechism,) to come to the Church at the time appointed, and obediently to hear, and be ordered by the Curate, until such time as they have learned all that is here appointed for them to learn So soon as Children are come to a competent age, and can say, in their Mother Tongue, the Creed, the Lord's Prayer, and the Ten Commandments; and also can answer to the other questions of this short Catechism; they shall be brought to the Bishop. And every one shall have a Godfather, or a Godmother,

as a Witness of their Confirmation. 1 And whensoever the Bishop shall give knowledge for Children to be brought

unto him for their Confirmation, the Curate of every Parish shall either bring, or send in writing, with his hand subscribed thereunto, the names of all such persons within his Parish, as he shall think fit to be presented to the Bishop to be confirmed. And, if the Bishop approve of them, he shall confirm them in manner foilowing.

tism as contained in Holy Scrip. inward part or thing signified" ture; (b) that (owing probably --the Body and Blood of Christ, to composition at different times) mystically but really given to us there is a verbal, though not a and next to the benefits, or real, discrepancy with the earlier grace, which we receive thereby; part of the Catechism as to the (b) that great stress is laid on requisites for Baptism; which the real reception of the Body are here two-Repentance and and Blood of Christ by the faithFaith, whereas in the Baptismal ful, i.e., on condition of faith Vow they are three-Renuncia. (comp. Art. xxviii.,. xxix.); (c) tion, Faith, and Obedience; (c) that the spiritual benefits are that the difficulty as to Infant described practically (and symBaptism is here explicity recog. bolized by the physical effects of nised and answered, while in the the Bread and

Wine) as spiritual Service it is tacitly set aside by strength (of edification) and spithe command of Christ to

suf

ritual refreshment (of revival), fer the little children to come to without the deeper references Him."

(as in the Prayer of Access) to (3) On the LORD'S SUPPER, see

the cleansing by remission of the Service of Holy Communion,

sins, and to the Indwelling of and compare Art. xxviii.-xxxi.

Christ in us; (d) that the re

quirements laid down for comIt is to be noted here (a) that, ing to the Holy Table add to the instead of the single reference, Repentance and Faith, required as in Baptism, to an “inward for Baptism, the active energy of and spiritual grace," there is a Love, in thankfulness to God double reference, first, to "the and charity to man.

The Rubrics following the Catechism.- (a) The direction for PUBLIC CATECHIZING of Children contemplates strictly only ex. amination in the Catechism; but in practice it has been extended to other examination by question and answer, and may, indeed, be regarded as now developed into the general Catechetical or rudimentary instruction given in any form in Church or School. Till 1662 it was ordered to be given "half an hour before Even Song," so that it need not have gone on, as now, in the presence of the congregation. In 1549 it was to be " once in six weeks at least." Subsequent alterations have enjoined greater frequency.

(6) The order for bringing children to CONFIRMATION till 1662 directed that the Bishop, by himself or by deputy, should“ appose, i.e., examine the children, besides requiring the certificate of the Parish clergyman. The age is to be a competent age," or what is called in the Confirmation Service " years of discretion," that is, of thoughtful distinction between good and evil. It will evidently vary according to character, education, and circumstances, as will also the amount of knowledge-based on the Catechism-which may rightly be required.

THE ORDER OF CONFIRMATION.

INTRODUCTION. The rite of CONFIRMATION, tracing its origin to the very earliest history of the Church, has yet passed through many variations in its administration and use.

ITS FIRST ORIGIN is undoubtedly to be found in the laying on of hands by the Apostles, twice recorded in the Acts (viii. 12–17; xix. 4, 5, 6), and referred to as a well-known practice in Heb. vi. 2. This imposition of hands with prayer, immediately following Baptism, is in both cases described as a means of receiving the gift of the Holy Ghost, and it conveyed the special spiritual gifts of tongues and prophecy. It is not recorded (although it may have taken place) after the great Baptism of the Day of Pentecost; and the account given in Acts viii. 12 indicates that, unlike Baptism, its administration was confined to the Apostles themselves.

IN THE EARLY CHURCH, by a natural development from this Apostolic practice, Confirmation was looked upon as a kind of completion of Baptism, administered by the Bishops alone, and considered not as a regeneration, but as a strengthening and confirming of the regeneration of Baptism. The rite of anointing with the consecrated Chrism, which became a regular part of the ordinance, assumed a greater prominence than even the imposition of hands itself, so that the ordinance itself was known as the Unction” (and the "Seal")-probably connected in thought with the “anointing of Our Lord with the Holy Ghost” (Acts x. 38) following His baptism--and it has been thought that to this name and idea allusions may be traced in Holy Scripture itself i2 Cor. i. 21; 1 John ii. 20). It continued as a rule immediately to follow Baptism, as, indeed, it still follows it in the Eastern Church.

THE DISSOCIATION FROM BAPTISM in the Western Church appears to have been due to two causes. First, the administration of Baptism, originally confined (except in case of emergency) to the great Baptismal Seasons of Easter and Pentecost, and then conducted in the presence and under the direction of the Bishop, was extended to other times, when the Bishop, who alone could confirm, was frequently absent. Secondly, the growth of Infant Baptism, superseding Adult Baptism as the rule of the Church, probably suggested the idea that a rite, which signified establishment in grace, and was even called perfectio, was hardly in a strict sense applicable to the baptized infant. Accordingly we find directions given, in Canons of Councils and otherwise, that those baptized by a deacon or presbyter should be brought to a Bishop to be confirmed, and that bishops should traverse their dioceses at stated intervals for Confirmation; and by degrees the practice of leaving a space of some years between Baptism and Confirmation grew up. Thus dissociated from Baptism, the rite assumed a greater independent importance. It was commonly called a

Sacrament, though never put on a level with the Two great Sacraments, and was used with especial solemnity for the receiving into the Church of those who had been baptized from heretics.

SUBSEQUENT HISTORY.-Finally the rite of Confirmation, without losing the prominence of its true ancient idea, as a strengthening by the gift of the Holy Ghost of those who, after being baptized, had grown up to rears of discretion, was also used, since the “Church thought fit so to order,” for the subsidiary purpose of a

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