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(c) The Gospel is John iii. 1-8, the opening of Our Lord's discourse to Nicodemus on Regeneration.

(d) The Exhortation thereon dwells, first, on the declaration of Our Lord; next, on His command to His Apostles in Mark xvi. 16; then on St. Peter's exhortation to Baptism on the Day of Pentecost (Acts ii. 38-40), and his teaching on Baptism in 1 Pet. iii. 21; and makes our confidence in Our Lord's willingness to receive the candidates dependent on their “truly repenting and coming to Him by faith.

(e) The Baptismal Vow is taken by the Candidates themselves " in the presence of the Sponsors as their witnesses."

(f) The Thanksgiving in the Post-Baptismal Service is altered, so as to resemble the Thanksgiving following the exhortation on the Gospel, except in praying, not that those baptized "may be born again,” but that being born again ... they may continue God's servants and attain His promises."

The Final Exhortation is addressed, with some modifications, partly to the Sponsors, partly to the newly baptized.

The Rubrics after the Service direct that Confirmation shall follow Baptism as soon as may be, so that the newly baptized may be admitted to the Holy Communion ; and that the Service shall be used only when those presented shall have come to years of discretion and have been duly instructed, as for Confirmation. Otherwise the Service for Infants is still to be used.

THE CATECHISM. ITS MEANING AND HISTORY.-To “catechize" is properly to give systematic and rudimentary instruction in any form, and this word is especially applied in ecclesiastical usage to the instruction given to those who are preparing for Adult Baptism or Confirmation. Most frequently it signifies instruction in the form of question and answer; and in this sense it takes two chief forms-first, the drawing out in clearness from the learner's mind by leading questions the knowledge which is already in some degree possessed and imperfectly grasped ; and next (as in the “ Catechism”) the use of a form of set questions and answers committed to memory, as a manual of elementary knowledge, and a basis for

further instruction. The nucleus of our Catechism is clearly the Creed, the Lord's Prayer, and the Ten Commandments, taught from time immemorial as the model of Faith, Devotion, and Practice. These were contained in the various “ Primers” issued in the Church of England (see Introduction to the Prayer Book), and it was again and again ordered that the parish priests should teach them in English to the people. As composed in 1519, the Catechism ended with the explanation of the Lord's Prayer. It may have been in some slight measure suggested by a Catechism in the Consultatio, but was mainly original. The latter part on the Sacraments, which is more technical and scholastic in form, was added in 1604 at the request of tho Puritan Divines in the Hampton Court Conference, and is said to have been composed by Bishop Overall. It is perhaps fitter for those who are actually preparing for Confirmation than for young children.

SUBSTANCE. -The Catechism, as it now stands, falls naturally into the following divisions :

(1) Exposition of the Baptismal Covenant.
(2) The Creed and its explanation.
(3) The Ten Commandments and their explanation.
(4) The Lord's Prayer and its explanation.
(5) The doctrine of the Sacraments.

and also did rise again the third day: N. Father, and of the Son, and of the

believe God's holy Word, and obediently Christ, for the forgiveness of our sins, keep his commandments.

did shed out of his most precious side

both water and blood, and gave comThen shall the Priest demand of each

mandment to his disciples, that they of the persons to be baptized, severally,

should go teach all nations, and bapthese Questions following:

tize them in the Name of the Father, Question.

the Son, and the Holy Ghost; Regard, DOST OST thou renounce the devil and

we beseech thee, the supplications of all his works, the vain pomp and this congregation ; sanctify this Water glory of the world, with all covetous

to the mystical washing away of sin; desires of the same, and the carnal de

and grant that the persons now to be sires of the flesh, so that thou wilt not

baptized therein may receive the fulness follow, nor be led by them?

of thy grace, and ever remain in the Answer. I renounce them all.

number of thy faithful and elect chilQuestion.

dren, through Jesus Christ our Lord.

OST thou believe in God the Father
Almighty, Maker of heaven and

Then shall the Priest take each pegearth?

son to be baptized by the right hand, And in Jesus Christ his only-begotten

and placing him conveniently by the Son our Lord ? And that he was con- Font, according to his discretion, ceived by the Holy Ghost; born of the shall ask the Godfathers and GodmoVirgin Mary ; that he suffered under thers the Name; and then shall dip Pontius Pilate, was crucified, dead, and

him in the water, or pour wuter upon buried ; that he went down into hell, him, saying,

I baptize that he ascended into heaven, and sitteth at the right hand of God the Father Holy Ghost. Amen. Almighty ; and from thence shall come

I Then shall the Priest say. again at the end of the world, to judge the quick and the dead ?

WE E receive this person into the conAnd dost thou believe in the Holy

gregation of Christ's flock; and do Ghost; the holy Catholick Church ; the

* sign him with the sign Communion of Saints; the Remission

Here the Priest

of the Cross, in token of sins; the Resurrection of the flesh ;

that hereafter he shall shall make a Cross and everlasting life after death? not be ashamed to con- upon the person's

fess the faith of Christ

forehead, Answer. All this I stedfastly believe.

crucitied, and manfully to fight under Question.

his banner, against sin, the world, and WILT thou be baptized in this faith? the devil; and to continue Christ's Answer. That is my desire.

faithful soldier and servant unto his Question.

life's end. Amen. WILT , thou then obediently keep Then shall the Priest say, ments, and walk in the same all the SEEING now, dearly beloved bre

thren, that these persons are regedays of thy life?

nerate, and grafted into the body of Answer. I will endeavour so to do,

Christ's Church, let us give thanks unto God being my helper.

Almighty God for these benefits, and Then shall the Priest say,

with one accord make our prayers unto

him, that they may lead the rest of their O MERCIFUL God, grant that the old life according to this beginning. buried, that the new man may be raised 1 Then shall be said the Lord's Prayer, up in them. Amen.

all kneeling. Grant that all carnal affections may die in them, and that all things belong OUR Father, which art in heaven,

Hallowed be thy Name. Thy kinging to the Spirit may live and grow in dom come. Thy will be done in earth, them. Amen.

As it is in heaven. Give us this day our Grant that they may have power and

daily bread. And forgive us our tresstrength to have victory, and to tri

passes, As we forgive them that trespass umph, against the devil, the world, and against us. And lead us not into temptthe flesh. Amen.

ation; But deliver us from evil. Amen. Grant that they, being here dedicated to thee by our office and ministry, may WE also be endued with heavenly virtues,

heavenly Father, that thou hast and everlastingly rewarded, through

vouchsafed to call us to the knowledge thy mercy, o blessed Lord God, who

of thy grace, and faith in thee; In. dost live, and govern all things, world

crease this knowledge, and confirm this without end. Amen.

faith in us evermore. Give thy Holy

Spirit to these persons; that, being now ALMIGHTY, everliving God, whose born again, and made heirs of everlast

ing salvation, through our Lord Jesus (I.) EXPOSITION OF THE BAP- the principles of Faith and ObeTISMAL COVENANT.

dience, there is no exposition of In this it is to be noted (a)

the various sins renounced as the that the whole starts not from

works of "the devil, the world,

and the flesh.” For children abstract doctrine, but from the child's own individual conscious

there should be knowledge of ness of his Baptismal adoption

evil, not as a positive and subin Christ, signified by the very

stantive thing, but simply as the existence of his Christian

negation of the good which has name; (b) that in accordance

been positively taught, and

their conwith the whole Scriptural idea of brought home to Covenants with God, it begins

sciences and hearts. It is sufwith God's blessings actually

ficient for them to know that given to him, and, only after

“the works of the devil” signify these have been fully explained,

evil in itself - the evil which dwells on his corresponding duty

Christ came to destroy (1 John to God; (c) that it teaches the

iii. 8); that in" the pomps" (the child simply to accept with

outward show) and the vanity" thankfulness his share in the

(the empty transitoriness) of Christian Covenant, as given

the world," so far as it is him by the call of God, and to

“wicked," lies temptation from pray to continue therein.

without to “idolatry,” by substi. The answer N. or M." ap

tution of fear and love of men for pears to be a corruption of the

fear and love of God; and that N. or NN.(nomen or nomina)

“the lusts of flesh” imply tempin the Latin.

tation from within to negative or The statement of the BAPTIS.

positive evil. MAL BLESSINGS begins with the

The BAPTISMAL OBLIGATION personal relation of the child to is next accepted thankfully as Christ as a member of Him

a fact. Such obligation to vows, (1 Cor. xii. 27); that is, as having

to which the child has given no that close individual unity with consent, is justified, because the Him, which is again and again en

vows simply embody his natural forced by different metaphors in

duty to God in Christ, and his Holy Scripture (see John xv. 1

highest spiritual interest in this 6; Gal. iii. 27-29; Eph. i. 23; ii. 20

world and the next. The Bap-22, &c.), and which the teaching

tismal condition is a "state of of the Baptismal Service brings

salvation - a state (that is) out so plainly. Then from this

carrying with it justification in are made to branch out the two

the blood of Jesus Christ, and consequent relations to God and the gift of sanctification, to be Man-the “sonship to God” by

realized by conscious acceptance,

as adoption in His dear Son (Rom. soon as such acceptance is viii. 14-17; Eph. v. 1, 2), and the

possible. “inheritance"-that is, participation both present and future

(II.) THE CREED AND ITS of the Kingdom of Heaven,"

EXPLANATION. which implies the Communion For the history and substance of Saints in all who are made of the APOSTLES' CREED, see one in the Lord Jesus Christ Morning Service. It is nata(John xvii. 11, 21). In all there rally used in the Catechism, as is appeal to the spirit of Love- containing in the simplest and love to the Saviour, love to Our most easily intelligible form the Father, love to all as brethren in rudiments of Christian faith; His family--which is naturally and it is for the child the key characteristic of childhood; and and guide to the study of Holy this appeal rightly precedes all Scripture. consideration of the detailed In the EXPLANATION we may duties which arise from it.

again note (a) the personal indi. On the BAPTISMAL Vow see viduality of view, impressed on the Baptismal Service. It may, the child, in relation to Creation, however, be here noted that. Redemption, and Sanctification; while full exposition is given of (6) the confidence with which, as

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part and duty also, being made the children of God and of the light, by faith in Jesus Christ, to walk answerably to your Christian calling, and as becometh the children of light ; remembering always that Baptism representeth unto us our profession; which is, to follow the example of our Saviour Christ, and to be made like unto him ; that as he died, and rose again for us ; so should we, who are baptized, die from sin, and rise again unto righteousness; continually mortifying all our evil and corrupt affections, and daily proceeding in all virtue and godliness of living.

Christ, they may continue thy servants,
and attain thy promises; through the
same Lord Jesus Christ thy Son, who
liveth and reigneth with thee, in the
unity of the same Holy Spirit, everlast-
ingly. Amen.
1 Then, all standing up, the Priest

shall use this Exhortation following;
speaking to the Godfathers and God-

mothers first. FORASMUCH as these porsons have

promised in your presence to renounce the devil and all his works, to believe in God, and to serve him; ye must remember, that it is your part and duty to put them in mind, what a solemn vow, promise, and profession they have now made before this congregation, and especially before you their chosen witnesses. And ye are also to call upon them to use all diligence to be rightly instructed in God's holy Word ; that so they may grow in grace, and in the knowledge of our Lord Jesus Christ, and live godly, righteously, and soberly in this present world. (1 And then, speaking to the new bap

tized persons, he shall proceed, and

Baptism put on Christ, it is your

1 It is expedient that every person, thus

baptized, should be confirmed by the Bishop so soon after his Baptism as conveniently may be ; that so he may

be admitted to the holy Communion. 1 If any persons not baptized in their

infancy shall be brought to be baptized before they come to years of discretion to answer for themselves; it may suffice to use the Office for Publick Baptism of Infants, or (in case of extreme danger) the Office for Private Baptism; only changing the word [Infant] for (Child or Person] as occasion requireth,




Christ our Saviour. And I pray unto WHAT is your Name ?

God to give me his grace, that I may Answer. N. or M.

continue in the same unto my life's end. Question Who gave you this Name? Answer. My Godfathers and Godmo

Catechist. thers in my Baptism ; wherein I was

Rehearse the Articles of thy Belief. made a member of Christ, the child of

Answer. God, and an inheritor of the kingdom I BELIEVE in God the Father Alof heaven.

mighty, Maker of heaven and earth: Question. What did your Godfathers And in Jesus Christ his only Son our and Godmothers then for you?

Lord, Who was conceived by the Holy Answer. They did promise and vow Ghost, Born of the Virgin Mary, Sufferthree things in my name. First, that I ed under Pontius Pilate, Was crucified, should renounce the devil and all his dead, and buried, He descended into works, the pomps and vanity of this hell; The third day he rose again from wicked world, and all the sinful lusts of the dead, He ascended into heaven, the flesh. Secondly, that I should be- And sitteth at the right hand of God the lieve all the Articles of the Christian Father Almighty; From thence he shall Faith. And thirdly, that I should keep come to judge the quick and the dead. God's holy will and commandments, I believe in the Holy Ghost; The holy and walk in the same all the days of Catholick Church ; The Communion of

Saints ; The Forgiveness of sins ; The Question. Dost thou not think that Resurrection of the body ; And the Life thou art bound to believe, and to do, as everlasting. Amen. they have promised for thee?

Question. What dost thou chiefly learn Answer. "Yes verily; and by God's in these Articles of thy Belief? help so I will And I heartily thank our Answer. First, I learn to believe in heavenly Father, that he hath called me God the Father, who hath made mo, to this state of salvation, through Jesus and all the world.

toy life.

born again in Baptism, the child changed into the positive duty, is taught to claim for himself based on love, which is “the ful. Redemption, Election (to Chris- filling of the Law" (Rom. xiii. tian privilege), and Sanctifica- 9, 10); (b) that their scope is extion - this confidence of tone tended from actions to words according exactly with the decla- and thoughts, which are idenrations of the Baptismal Service; tical with actions in essential (c) the omission of all reference principle. (unless it be implied in the words

Thus in the Duty TOWARDS elect people of God”) to the last Articles on the Church and

God, the First Commandment, which is the basis of all

the rest, its privileges — probably as involving subjects too abstract and is expanded into the “FAITH IN general for childish comprehen

God," and, as flowing from this,

“the fear and loveof God, sion.

“with all the heart, mind, soul, (III.) THE TEN COMMANDMENTS

and strength" (see Matt. xxii. AND THEIR EXPLANATION.

37, 38); the Second, from prohibi

tion of Idolatry, is changed to The TEN COMMANDMENTS are positive injunction of WORSHIP given according to the version " to worship Him, to give Him in the narrative of Exodus xx., thanks, to call upon Him”); with which may be compared the the Third similarly to positive remarkable variations of the ver- REVERENCE to “His Holy Name sion of Deut. v. 6-21. It has and His Word ; the Fourth been held by many authorities (with remarkable breadth of inthat the "Commandments writ- terpretation) is explained as bidten on the tables of stone” were ding us to true SERVICE “all the Commandments themselves, the days of our life,” both by without the explanations and work and by rest and worshipreasons given, as in the Second, in this embodying the spirit of Third, Fourth, and Fifth Com- the Commandment as distinct mandments. (In this shorter from the letter. form they were quoted in 1549.)

Again, the DUTY TOWARDS MY By revelation in the Com

NEIGHBOUR Opens with a general mandments God reveals Himself not in His Omnipotence, but

declaration (preparatory to the in His essential Righteousness,

special Commandments) of the

GOLDEN RULE-" to love my binding together for ever Re

neighbour as myself, and to do ligion and Morality. By the

to all as I would they should do preface claiming, obedience in

unto me.' Then the Fifth Comvirtue of His deliverance of the

mandment is extended from people, He reveals Himself as a God of Love and Mercy.

parents to all authorities, na

tional, domestic, and spiritual, The division made of the first

and made to enjoin the general four and the last six Command

duty of REVERENCE to all above ments-is the old Hebrew divis

us; the Sixth Commandment sion, and the division, moreover, from the extreme act of murder corresponding best to the true

to the LOVE, which forbids all distinction of subject. In some hurt in deed or in word, all ancient Christian writers a less

malice and hatred in heart; the accurate division is made, into

Seventh changed from prohibithree for the First table and

tion of Adultery to command seven for the Second-the 1st and 2nd Commandments being Chastity; the Eighth to prohibi

of TEMPERANCE, Soberness, and united in one, and the 10th Com

tion of literal “picking” (pilfermandment divided.

ing) and stealing, adds the com. In the EXPLANATION may be mand of truth and JUSTICE in all noted two principles amply dealings; the Ninth from the sanctioned by Our Lord's teach- law against deliberate perjury, ing in the Sermon on the Mount passes to the TRUTHFULNESS (Matt. v. 17-48)-(a) that the which forbids all "evil-speak. generally negative character of ing, lying, and slandering; the the original Commandments is Tenth contrasts with the covet.

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