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After the Gospel is read, the Minister And in Jesus Christ his only-begotten shall make this brief Exhortation Son our Lord ? And that he was conupon the words of the Gospel

ceived by the Holy Ghost ; born of the BELOVED, ye hear in this Gospel the Virgin Mary, that he suffered under

Pontius Pilate, was crucitied, dead, and commanded the children to be brought buried; that he went down into hell, unto him ; how he blamed those that and also did rise again the third day; would have kept them from him ; how that he ascended into heaven, and sithe exhorted all men to follow their in- teth at the right hand of God the Father nocency. Ye perceive how by his out- Almighty; and from thence shall come ward gesture and deed he declared his again at the end of the world, to judge good will toward them ; for he embrac- the quick and the dead ? ed them in his arms, he laid his hands And dost thou believe in the Holy upon them, and blessed them. Doubt ye Ghost; the holy Catholick Church; the not therefore, but earnestly believe, that Communion of Saints; the Remission he hath likewise favourably received of sins; the Resurrection of the flesh; this present Infant; that he hath em- and everlasting life after death? braced him with the arms of his mercy; Answer. All this I stedfastly believe. and (as he hath promised in his holy

Minister. Word) will give unto him the blessing of eternal life, and make him partaker WILT, thou then obediently keep of his everlasting kingdom. Wherefore, we being thus persuaded of the good ments, and walk in the same all the will of our heavenly Father, declared by days of thy life? his Son Jesus Christ, towards this In- Answer. I will. fant, let us faithfully and devoutly give

Then the Priest shall say, thanks unto him, and say the Prayer which the Lord himself taught us :

WE receive this Child into the

congregation of Christ's flock, OUR in ,

*and do sign him with Hallowed be thy Name. Thy king

Here the Priest the sign of the Cross,

shall make a Cross in token that hereafter dom come. Thy will be done in earth,

upon the Child's As it is in heaven. Give us this day our


he shall not be ashamdaily bread. And forgive us our tres

ed to confess the faith passes, As we forgive them that tres

of Christ crucified, and manfully to fight pass against us. And lead us not into

under his banner, against sin, the world, temptation ; But deliver us from evil. and the devil; and to continue Christ's Amen.

faithful soldier and servant unto his

life's end. Amen.

. heavenly Father, we give thee

Then shall the priest say, humble thanks, that thou hast vouch- EEING now, dearly beloved brecafed to call us to the knowledge of thy thren, that this Child is by Baptism grace, and faith in thee; Increase this regenerate, and grafted into the body of knowledge, and confirm this faith in us Christ's Church, let us give thanks unto evermore. Give thy Holy Spirit to this Almighty God for these benefits; and Infant, that he, being born again, and with one accord make our prayers unto being made an heir of everlasting salva- him, that he may lead the rest of his tion,

through our Lord JesusChrist, may life according to this beginning. continue thy servant, and attain thy pro

Then shall the Priest say, mise ; through the same our Lord Jesus Christ thy Son, who liveth and reigneth WE yield thee most hearty thanks, with thee and the Holy Spirit, now and

most merciful Father, that it hath

pleased thee to regenerate this Infant for ever. Amen.

with thy Holy Spirit, to receive him for Then shall the Priest demand the

thine own Child by adoption, and to Name of the Child; which being by incorporate him into thy holy Church. the Godfathers and Godmothers pro- And humbly we beseech thee to grant, nounced, the Minister shall say, that he being dead unto sin, and living , ,

unto righteousness, and being buried renounce thedevil and all his works,

with Christ in his death, may crucify the vain pomp and glory of this world, the old man, and utterly abolish the with all covetous desires of the same,

whole body of sin: and that, as he is and the carnal desires of the flesh, so made partaker of the death of thy Son, that thou wilt not follow, nor be led by he may also be partaker of his resurrecthem ?

tion; so that finally, with the residue Answer. I renounce them all.

of thy holy Church, he may be an inhe

ritor of thine everlasting kingdom; Minister.

through Jesus Christ our Lord. Amen. Do OST thou believe in God the Father Then, all standing up, the Minister

Almighty, Maker of heaven and shall make this Exhortation to the earth ?

Godfathers and Godmothers.

ligence, and of Conversion in (see Rom. vi. 6; Gal. v. 24; case of wilful neglect or sin. Rom. viii. 13; Col. iii. 5); next,

that he may have effectually THE LORD'S PRAYER following the new life of positive energy might perhaps (as in the Post- of righteousness (see Rom. vi. Communion Office) have appro- 5); lastly, that he may come to priately ended with the Doxo- the eternal kingdom of Heaven. logy, as beginning a Service of Thanksgiving


the Sponsors urges their duty THE THANKSGIVING again (a) in respect of the child ; first, to dwells on the Regeneration of see that he is duly instructed, the Infant, with its results in publicly in the Church by Ser the gift of individual sonship mons, and privately in the Creed, to God, and the inclusion in Lord's Prayer, and Ten Com the corporate life of the Church. mandments, as the basis of right The gift is absolute, so far Faith, Devotion, and Practice, as Justification is concerned. and in all other needful teach. Hence the Rubric at the end ing built upon this foundation: as to the salvation of baptized next, to see that he is trained Infants. But since actual Sanc. in godliness and virtue by growtification is in those who grow ing into the likeness of Jesus up to consciousness conditional Christ, both by mortification of on assent of will, there follows sin and by positive energy of (6) prayer for the child, first, righteousness; lastly, to take that he may crucify and mor- care that in due course he is tify the fleshly power of sin brought to Confirmation.

THE RUBRICS.--The first, as to the Salvation of Infants, was in 1662 transferred to this place from the Preface to the Confirmation Service. It is drawn from a declaration put out in 1536, and published in “ the Institution of a Christian Man" in 1537. But in its original form it added the words "and otherwise not,” most happily omitted from it in the Prayer Book.

The xxxth Canon referred to in the Second Rubric, dwells on the primitive use of the sign of the Cross, and on the insufficiency of the plea of past abuse to take away necessarily the use of what is in itself harmless or good; and then goes on to explain that it is no integral part of the Sacrament, nor held absolutely essential for the reception into the Church.

THE OFFICE OF PRIVATE BAPTISM OF INFANTS. THE OPENING RUBRICS.--The first two declare-what was till 1669 embodied in the title of the Service-that Public Baptism, as soon as possible after birth, is the right and normal condition of things, and that Private Baptism is to be allowed only in case of necessity. Even in this case it was constantly opposed by the Puritan party in the Church, and distinctly objected to at the Savoy Conferencethe objection, of course, indicating a very different idea as to the general necessity of Baptism from that which is laid down in the Prayer Book.

The Third lays down the regulations for such Private Baptism

(a) As to the MINISTER of Baptism. (1) In the old Sarum Manual it is declared : “ It is not lawful for a layman or woman to baptize, except in case of necessity; but it is added that the Priest is to teach frequently to his people the essentials of Baptism, so that “if necessity present itself, they may know how to baptize Infants

80 should we, who are baptized, die mised by you his sureties to renounce from sin, and rise again unto rightethe devil and all his works, to believe ousness; continually mortifying all our in God, and to serve him; ye must re- evil and corrupt affections, and daily member, that it is your parts and duties proceeding in all virtue and godliness to see that this Infant be taught, so soon of living. as he shall be able to learn, what a solemn vow, promise, and profession he But if they which bring the Infant to hath made by you. And that he may the Church do make such uncertain know these things the better, ye shall answers to the Priest's questions, as call upon him to hear Sermons; and that it cannot appear that the Child chiefly ye shall provide, that he may was baptized with Water, In the Name learn the Creed, the Lord's Prayer, and of the Father, and of the Son, and of the Ten Conımandments, in the vulgar the Holy Ghost, (which are essential tongue, and all other things which a parts of Baptism,) then let the Priest Christian ought to know and believe to baptize it in the form before appointhis soul's health ; and that this Child

for Publick Baptism of Infants ; may be virtuously brought up to lead a saving that at the dipping of the godly and a Christian life ; remember

Child in the Font, he shall use this ing alway, that Baptism doth repre

form of words. sent unto us our profession; which is, I thou art not already baptized, I Christ, and to be made like unto him ; ther, and of the Son, and of the Holy that, as he died, and rose again for us, Ghost. Amen.


AND ABLE TO ANSWER FOR THEMSELVES. When any such persons, as are of riper years, are to be baptized, timely notice shall be given to the Bishop, or whom he shall appoint for that purpose, a week before at the least, by the Parents, or some other discreet persons; that 80 due care may be taken for their Examination, whether they be sufficiently instructed in the Principles of the Christian Religion; and that they may be exhorted to prepare themselves with Prayers and Fasting for the receiving of this holy Sacrament. And if they shall be found it, then the Godfathers and Godmothers (the people being assembled upon the Sunday or Holy-day appointed) shall be ready to present them at the Font immediately after the second Lesson, either at Morning or Evening Prayer, as the Curate in his discretion shall think fit. 1 And standing there, the Priest shall ask, whether any of the persons here pre

sented be baptized, or no: If they shall answer, No; then shall the Priest say

thus, DEARLY beloved, forasmuch as all | ALMIGHTY and everlasting God, who (and that which is born of the flesh is and his family in the ark from perishing flesh,) and they that are in the flesh by water ; and also didst safely lead tho cannot please God, but live in sin, com- children of Israel thy people through the mitting many actual transgressions ; Red Sea, figuring thereby thy holy Bapand that our Saviour Christ saith, None tism ; and by the Baptism of thy wellcan enter into the kingdom of God, ex- beloved Son Jesus Christ, in the river cept he be regenerate and born anew of Jordan,didst sanctify the element of WaWater and of the Holy Ghost; I beseech ter to the mystical washing away of sin; you to call upon God the Father, through We beseech thee, for thine infinite merour Lord Jesus Christ, that of his boun- cies, that thou wilt mercifully look upon teous goodness he will grant to these these thy servants, wash them and sanctipersons that which by nature they can- fy them with the Holy Ghost, that they, not have; that they may be baptized being delivered from thy wrath, may be with Water and the Holy Ghost, and re- received into the ark of Christ's Church; ceived into Christ's holy Church, and be and being stedfast in faith, joyful made lively members of the same. through hope, and rooted in charity, Then shall the Priest say,

may so pass the waves of this trouble

some world, that finally they may come Let us pray.

to the land of everlasting life, there to (f And here all the Congregation shall reign with thee world without end ; leneel.)

through Jesus Christ our Lord. Amen.

in due ecclesiastical form;" and that, if children be baptized by lay hands with water

in the Name of the Holy Trinity, no rebaptism is to take place. These regulations express the principle gradually recognised in the early Church (although not without hesitation and objection, especially in the case of women), that Lay Baptism is to be held irregular but valid. (2) In the Prayer Book till 1604 the matter was left perfectly open, it being directed that anyone of those present might baptize, without any notice of irregularity in Lay Baptism. (3) In 1604, on the request of the Puritan party (on this point supported by the King), it was ordered that Baptism should be by the “lawful Minister,” and in 1662 this phrase was defined as “the Minister of the Parish, or in his absence any other lawful Minister.” But it is made clear by the directions as to conditional rebaptism, and it has, indeed, been legally determined, that this regulation does not invalidate Lay Baptism, but simply establishes the old rule, Fieri non debuit : factum valet.

(6) As to the FORM OF BAPTISM. Till 1662 the direction was simply to "call on God for His grace, and say the Lord's Prayer, if time will suffer," and then to baptize. The present directions were substituted in 1662.

The fourth Rubric directs public certificate by the Priest of the Private Baptism by himself, or examination by him into the minister and nature of the Private Baptism. The former of these was directed in 1604; the latter alone was found up to that date. It will be noted that the examination is confined to two pointsevidence of the fact of Baptism, and evidence of Baptism in due form, by water and in the Name of the Holy Trinity. Only in defect of these is conditional Rebaptism allowed.

THE OFFICE FOR THE RECEPTION OF THE CHILD.-After the preliminary declaration that all has been “ well done and according to true order," and that the Baptism is therefore valid, the Service takes up the Office of Public Baptism at the Gospel, and follows it, generally, to the end, with the verbal changes necessary, and the omission of the Baptism itself and the Prayers immediately preceding. But (perhaps accidentally) it preserves the old place of the Lord's Prayer after the Exhortation on the Gospel, instead of transferring it to the Post-Baptismal Service. Till 1662 the Creed was also recited here, as in the Service of Public Baptism of 1549; and the Service itself was shorter, omitting the signing with the Cross and the declaration of Regeneration.

THE OFFICE OF PUBLIC BAPTISM OF ADULTS. The Preface to the Prayer Book in 1662 declares that this Service was inserted because " by the growth of Anabaptism ... it is become necessary," and "may be useful for the baptizing of Natives in our Plantations and others converted to the faith.' It was drawn up by a Committee of Convocation, chiefly by Bishop Griffith of St. Asaph, on the pattern of the Office for Public Baptism of Infants, with the following modifications :-

(a) The opening Rubric directs notice to be given to the Bishop, or his delegate, that care may be taken to see that the Candidates be (as for Confirmation) duly instructed in the principles of Christianity, and exhorted to prepare themselves by Prayer and Fasting.

(6) The opening Exhortation recognises in them the existence not only of original sinfulness but of actual sin.


LMIGHTY and immortal God, the benefit we reap thereby. For which

aid of all that need, the helper of cause Saint Peter the Apostle, when all that flee to thee for succour, the life upon his first preaching of the Gospel of them that believe, and the resurrec- many were pricked at the heart, and tion of the dead ; We call upon thée for said to him and the rest of the Apostles, these persons, that they, coming to thy Men and brethren, what shall we do? holy Baptism, may receive remission of replied and said unto them, Repent, and their sins by spiritual regeneration. Re- be baptized every one of you for the receive them, O Lord, as thou hast promis- mission of sins, and ye shall receive the ed by thy well-beloved Son, saying, Ask, gift of the Holy Ghost. For the promise and ye shall receive; seek, and ye shali is to you and your children, and to all tind; knock, and it shall be opened that are afar off, even as many as the unto you: So give now unto us that Lord our God shall call. And with ask ; let us that seek find; open the many other words exhorted he them, gate unto us that knock; that these per- saying, Save yourselves from this unsons may enjoy the everlasting benedic

toward generation. For (as the same tion of thy heavenly washing, and may Apostle testifieth in another place) even come to the eternal kingdom which Baptism doth also now save us, (not thou hast promised by Christ our Lord. the putting away of the filth of the tiesh, Amen.

but the answer of a good conscience to1 Then shall the people stand up, and

wards God,) by the resurrection of Jethe Priest shall say,

sus Christ. Doubt ye not therefore, but

earnestly believe, that he will favourHear the words of the Gospel, written ably receive these present persons, truly

hy Saint John, in the third Chapter, repenting, and coming unto him by beginning at the first Verse

faith; that he will grant them remission THEI THERE was a man of the Pharisees, of their sins, and bestow upon them the

named Nicodemus, a ruler of the Holy Ghost; that he will give them the Jews. The same came to Jesus by night, blessing of eternal life, and make them and said unto him, Rabbi, we know partakers of his everlasting kingdom. that thou art a teacher come from God; Wherefore we being thus persuaded for no man can do these miracles that of the good will of our heavenly Father thou doest, except God be with him. towards these persons, declared by his Jesus answered and said unto him, Son Jesus Christ ; let us faithfully and Verily, verily I say unto thee, Except devoutly give thanks to him, and say, a man be born again, he cannot see the kingdom of God. Nicodemus saith unto him, How can a man be born heavenly Father, we give thee when he is old ? Can he enter the se

humble thanks, for that thou hast cond time into his mother's womb, and

vouchsafed to call us to the knowledge be born? Jesus answered, Verily, verily

of thy grace, and faith in thee: Increase I say unto thee, Except a man be born

this knowledge, and confirm this faith of water and of the Spirit, he cannot

in us evermore. Give thy Holy Spirit to enter into the kingdom of God. That these persons, that they may be born which is born of the flesh is flesh; and again, and be made heirs of everlastthat which is born of the Spirit is spirit. ing salvation; through our Lord Jesus Marvel not that I said unto thee, Ye Christ, who liveth and reigneth with must be born again. The wind bloweth thee and the Holy Spirit, now and for where it listeth, and thou hearest the

ever. Amen. sound thereof; but canst not tell whence it cometh, and whither it goeth : so is

Then the Priest shall speak to the every one that is born of the Spirit. persons to be baptized on this wise : After which he shall say this Exhor. WELL-BELOVED, who are come

hither desiring to receive holy tation followiny.

Baptism, ye have heard how the conBELOVED, ye hear in this Gospel

the gregation hath prayed, that our Lord express words of our Saviour Christ, Jesus Christ would vouchsafe to receive that except a man be born of water and you and bless you, to release you of your of the Spirit, he cannot enter into the sins, to give you the kingdom of heaven, kingdom of God. Whereby ye may per- and everlasting life. Ye have heard also, ceive the great necessity of this Sacra- that our Lord Jesus Christ hath promisment, where it may be had. Likewise, ed in his holy Word to grant all those immediately before his ascension into things that we have prayed for ; which heaven, (as we read in the last Chapter promise he, for his part, will most surely of Saint Mark's Gospel,) he gave com- keep and perform. mand to his disciples, saying, Go ye Wherefore, after this promise maie into all the world, and preach the Gos- by Christ, must also faithfully, for pel to every creature. He that believeth your part, promise in the presence of and is baptized shall be saved ; but he these your Witnesses, and this whole that believeth not shall be damned. congregation, that ye will renounce the Which also sheweth unto us the great devil and all his works, and constantly

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