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sion of sins, in the gift (in germ) sive questions the Creed itself of sanctification, and in the re- thus originating in Baptismal ception to membership of the Profession, but being handed Kingdom of Heaven. It then down by oral tradition, and not bids the Sponsors promise for the committed to writing (comp. child, until he come of age to take 1 Pet. iii. 21). It is, of course, the promise on himself, that he understood that the faith prowill do man's part in this cove- fessed is not merely the Credo nant, as being his bounden duty Deum, the belief of the intellect and his highest happiness. In the that God is, nor even the Credo form of their answers their im- Deo, the belief that His Revelapersonation of the child himself tion in Christ is true, but the is so distinctly marked, that it Credo in Deum, the belief of heart was made ground of objection at as well as mind, throwing the the Savoy Conference; and (till whole soul in trust upon God in 1662) this was even more striking, Christ. because the words "in the name of this child” were not found.

THE VOW OF OBEDIENCE is not The whole marks distinctly the

found in the ancient forms, nor conditionality of growth in the

was it introduced into our Ser.

vice till 1662. It is, of course, sanctifying grace of Baptism in all who come to age of freedom implied in the Vow of Renunciaand responsibility.

tion in its full scope, for it is but

the positive side of the duty THE RENUNCIATION. In there implied. So in the Cateancient times this renunciation chism the requisites for Baptism, was simply of Satan, made with covering the whole of the Bapa picturesque vividness by turn- tismal Vow, are given simply as ing to the West as the region of Repentance and Faith. But darkness, and crying out in three here, as in the earlier part of the separate utterances, “Irenounce Catechism, it is thought well to thee, Satan," "and thy works,"; bring it out explicitly; in order "and thy pomp and worship.' to remind men that renuncia. A similar three-fold division of tion of sin is best carried out, the answer in relation to the not by mere watching and strive devil, the world, and the flesh ing against sin, but by the addi. was preserved in the Service of tionał force of positive obedience 1549. But in this later form we in love. have a fuller conception of the

THE ACCEPTANCE OF BAPTISM evil to be renounced ; for by

is intended once more to bring “the devil and his works” (see

out the need of free adhesion of 1 John iii. 8) we understand evil

the soul, under the guiding grace in itself; by “the world,” the temptations to evil from with

of God, in order to lay hold of

His salvation. The child cannot out; by “the flesh," the proneness to evil through lusts within.

yet make it, but he can put no

bar in the way of God's mercy; The three describe, not different

and, as he grows up, he grows up classes of sins, but different as

(see Catechism) in the thankful pects of sin as such.

acceptance of what has been THE PROFESSION OF FAITH.- done and promised for him, and In the ancient Services this pro- so the grace given him in germ fession was made in similar form, gradually developes to perfecturning to the East, as the region tion. of ligbt, and an

separate interrogations, in relation to each

(C) THE BAPTISM ITSELF. Article

or group of Articles suc- THE PRAYERS, of which the cessively. The three-fold ques- first is taken in substance from tion and answer corresponding a Gallican Missal, and the se. to the three paragraphs of the cond taken in substance from Creed were preserved in 1549. the old Benedictio Fontis, were The substance of the Apostles' still used in 1549 as a distinct Creed is, indeed, first found in service at the changing of the early Latin writers under the water in the Font before any form of answers to these succes. Baptism took place therein. In

N.

ness of thy grace, and ever remain in pleased thee to regenerate this Infant the number of thy faithful and elect with thy Holy Spirit, to receive him for children ; through Jesus Christ our thine own Child by adoption, and to Lord. Amen.

incorporate him into thy holy Church. Then the Priest shall take the Child And humbly we beseech thee to grant, into his hands, and shall say to the that he, being dead unto sin, and living Godfathers and Godmothers,

unto righteousness, and beiny buried Name this Child.

with Christ in his death, may crucify And then naming it after them (if

the old man, and utterly abolish the they shall certify him that the Child whole body of sin ; and that, as he is may well endure it) he shall dip it

made partaker of the death of thy Son, in the Water discreetly and warily, he may also be partaker of his resurrecsaying,

tion; so that finally, with the residue N.

of thy holy Church, he may be an inheI baptize thee In the Name of the

ritor of thine everlasting kingdom; Holy Ghost. Amen.

through Christ our Lord. Amen. But if they certify that the Child is weak, it shall suffice to pour Water

Then, all standing up, the Priest shall

say to the Godfathers and Godmoupon it, saying the foresaid words,

thers this Exhortation following. I baptize thee In the Name of the

FORASMUCH, as this Child hath proHoly Ghost. Amen.

mised by you his sureties to renounce I Then the Priest shall say,

the devil and all his works, to believe

in God, and to serve him; ye must reWE receive this Child into the member, that it is your parts and duties congregation of Christ's flock, to see that this Infant be taught, so soon

*and do sign him with as he shall be able to learn, what a so• Here the Priest the sign of the Cross, shall make a Cross in token that hereafter

lemn vow, promise, and profession, he upon the Child's he shall not be asham

hath here made by you. And that he forehead.

may know these things the better, ye ed to confess the faith shall call upon him to hear Sermons ; of Christ crucified, and manfully to tight and chiefly ye shall provide, that he under his banner, against sin, the world, may learn the Creed, the Lord's Prayer, and the devil; and to continue Christ's and the Ten Commandments, in the faithful soldier and servant unto his

vulgar tongue, and all other things life's end. Amen.

which a Christian ought to know and Then shall the Priest say,

believe to his soul's health ; and that EEING now, dearly beloved bre

this Child may be virtuously brought up thren, that this Child is regenerate,

to lead a godly and a Christian life; and grafted into the body of Christ's

remembering always, that Baptism doth Church, let us give thanks unto Al

represent unto us our profession; which mighty God for these benefits; and with is, to follow the example of our Saviour one accord make our prayers unto him,

Christ, and to be made like unto him ; that this Child may lead the rest of his that, as he died, and rose again for us, life according to this beginning.

so should we, who are baptized, die

from sin, and rise again unto righteThen shall be said, all kneeling;

ousness; continually mortifying all our OUR Fathers

which art in heaven, evil and corrupt atfections, and daily Hallowed be thy Name. Thy king proceeding in all virtue and godliness dom come. Thy will be done in earth, of living As it is in heaven. Give us this day our daily bread. And forgive us our tres

Then shall he add and say, passes, As we forgive them that tres

VE are to take care that this Child be pass against us. And lead us not into temptation ; But deliver us from evil.

firmed by him, so soon as he can say the Amen.

Creed, the Lord's Prayer, and the Ten Then shall the Priest say, Cornmandments, in the vulgar tongue, WE yield the hearty thanks, most and be further instructed in the Church

merciful Father, that it hath Catechism set forth for that purpose. IT is certain by God's Word, that Children which are baptized, dying before

they To take away all scruple concerning the use of the sign of the Cross in Baptism : the true explication thereof, and the just reasons for the retaining of it, may be seen in the xxxth Canon, first published in the Year MDCIV.

as

an

1552 they were shortened and from its parents into the arms transferred to their

present

of Christ's mercy, to be made position.

one with Him. (6) The giving The former Prayer, for those

of the personal name to the about to be baptized, seems in

child shows that he is now re. its four petitions to cover the garded as having a separate in. whole area of Christian life ; (a) dividuality in the Covenant of as beginning in the burial with

God. (c) The immersion or Christ of the old nature and the sprinkling with water signifies raising up of the new (see Col.

the washing away of natural ii. 12); (6) continuing in the corruption in the blood of constant mortification of the Christ. (d) The Baptism “into" flesh and growth of the spirit;

(not "in") the Name of the (c) showing itself in victory over

Holy Trinity signifies the en. the Devil, the world, and the

tering into Communion with flesh, which is the fulfilment of

the Godhead, through unity with the Baptismal Vow; (d) ending Christ our Mediator, by which in the being endued (or clothed)

the child becomes a member with heavenly perfection in the

of Christ, ' a child of God," likeness of Christ (see 2 Cor. v.

“elect, and sanctified by the 2–4), and in the consequent Holy Ghost.” enjoyment of everlasting bliss in The Rubric still directs the Him.

old practice of Immersion as The latter Prayer (correspond

the rule, sprinkling ing to the Consecration Prayer exception in consideration of in the Communion Service) is weakness. The ancient form for the blessing of God on the was undoubtedly that of Im. ordinance which Christ Himself mersion, generally a three-fold instituted. (a) In its preamble

Immersion (as directed in the it has two references, the first

old Sarum Manual and in the mystical (see John xix. 34, 35;

Prayer Book of 1549), which had 1 John v. 6--8) to the shedding

a far closer accordance with the from Our Lord's pierced side symbolism both of Burial and both of water and blood, taken

Resurrection, and of perfect clearly as symbolic of the cleans

cleansing of the whole man. ing from sin, not in water only,

This form accorded with Eastbut in the Atoning Blood of the ern custom: for it the ancient Saviour; the second plain and

Baptisteries were built. But practical, to the command given from comparatively early times, before His Ascension to make especially in the West, from conall nations His disciples by Bap

siderations of climate and contism in the Name of the Holy venience, and possibly for the Trinity, on which alone our

avoidance of scandal, the Affu. faith in the grace of Baptism sion of Water, originally suprests. (6) Its prayer corresponds plementary to the Immersion, to this preamble, for it asks first,

became a not unfrequent subthat the water may, in virtue

stitute for it; and has gradually of that Atonement, be "sanc

come, in despite of old custom tified to the mystical washing

and the literal directions of the away of sin” (this clause was Rubric, to prevail almost uni. inserted in 1662), and then that versally. The variation of custhe child to be baptized there.

tom does not touch the essenin may receive the fulness

tials of Baptism, which are of the promised grace, and,

simply the use of water in the having received, may so use it,

Name of the Holy Trinity. as to remain for ever among In 1549 two ceremonies were God's faithful and elect chil. preserved in this place. dren.

(a) The very ancient cereTHE BAPTISM, simple as it is mony of putting on of the in ritual, is in every point sig. White Garment (the “Chrinificant. (a) The taking the som") considered as "& token of child into the arms of the the innocency which by God's Priest denotes its being taken grace in this holy Sacrament

PRIVATE BAPTISM OF CHILDREN

IN HOUSES.

The Curates of every Parish shall often admonish the people, that they defer not the Baptism of their Children longer than the first or second Sunday next after their birth, or other Holy-day falling between, unless upon a great and

reasonable cause, to be approved by the Curate. 1 And also they shall warn them, that without like great cause and necessity

they procure not their Children to be baptized at home in their houses. But when need shall compel them so to do, then Baptism shall be administered on this fashion: First let the Minister of the Parish (or, in his absence, any other lawful Mi. nister that can be procured) with them that are present call upon God, and say the Lord's Prayer, and so many of the Collects appointed to be said before in the form of Publick

Baptism, as the time and present exigence will suffer. And then, the Child being named by some one that is present, the Minister shall pour Water upon it, saying these words;

I baptize thee In the Name of the
N. Father, and of the Son, and of the


whom was this Child baptized?

Who was present when this Child Holy Ghost. Amen.

was baptized ?

Because some things essential to this I Then, all kneeling down, the Minister shall give thanks unto God, and say,

Sacrament may happen to be omitted

through fear or haste, in such times of WE yield the hearty thanks,

most extremity ; therefore I demand further merciful Father, that it hath pleas- of you, ed thee to regenerate this Infant with With what matter was this Child thy Holy Spirit, to receive him for thine

baptized ? own Child by adoption, and to incor- With what words was this Child porate him into thy holy Church. And

baptized ? we humbly beseech thee to grant, that as he is now made partaker of the death of And if the Minister shall find by the thy Son, so he may be also of his resur- answers of such as bring the Child, rection, and that finally, with the re- that all things were done as they sidue of thy Saints, he may inherit thine ought to be; then shall not he chris. everlasting kingdom; through the same ten the Child again, but shall receive thy Son Jesus Christ our Lord. Amen. him as one of the flock of true Chris

tian people, saying thus, 1 And let them not doubt, but that the Child so baptized is lawfully and suffi- I CERTIFY you, that in this case all

is well done, and according unto due ciently baptized, and ought not to be baptized again. Yet nevertheless, if

order, concerning the baptizing of this the Child, which is after this sort

Child; who being born in original sin, baptized, do afterward live, it is ex- and in the wrath of God, is now, by the pedient that it be brought into the laver of Regeneration in Baptism, reChurch, to the intent that, if the Mi. ceived into the number of the children of nister of the same Parish did himself God, and heirs of everlasting life : forour baptize that child, the Congregation Lord Jesus Christ doth not deny his may be certified of the true Form of grace and mercy unto such Infants, but Baptism, by him privately before most lovingly dotb call them unto him, used: In which case he shall say thus,

as the holy Gospel doth witness to our

comfort on this wise. I CERTIFY you, that according

to the due and prescribed Order of the

St. Mark x. 13. Church, at such a time, and at such a place, before divers witnesses I bap- THEY brought young children to tized this Cbild.

Christ, that he should touch them ;

and his disciples rebuked those that But if the Child were baptized by any

brought them. But when Jesus saw it, other lawful Minister, then the mic

he was much displeased, and said unto nister of the Parish, where the Child

them, Suffer the little children to come tas born or christened, shall examine and try whether the Child be lawful

unto me, and forbid them not ; for of ly baptized, or no. In which case, if

such is the kingdom of God. Verily I those that bring any Child to the say unto you, Whosoever shall not reChurch do answer, that the same ceive the kingdom of God as a little Child is already baptized, then shall child, he shall not enter therein. And the Minister examine them further, he took them up in his arms, put his saying,

hands upon them, and blessed them.

THE

of Baptism is given to thee, and it was thought necessary and for a sign whereby thou to give in the xxx th Canon art admonished as long as of 1604 an elaborate explanathou livest to give thyself to tion and defence of it on the innocency of living. The ground of ancient authority innocency given is clearly the and intrinsic reasonableness.

putting on Christ” in Baptism (see Gal. iii. 27).

(D) THE Post-BAPTISMAL

SERVICE. (1) The later, but still ancient ceremony of Anointing (which This portion of the Service in the old Services preceded was added in 1552; the Old Serthe putting on of the Chrisom), vices and the Prayer Book of with the prayer, Almighty 1549 having nothing after the God, who hath regenerated thee Baptism except the final Exby Water and the Holy Ghost hortation to the Sponsors. In

vouchsafe to anoint thee the use of the Lord's Prayer, with the unction of His Holy with the Thanksgiving followSpirit and bring thee to the ing, it is not unlike the Postinheritance of everlasting life.” Communion Office.

Both ceremonies, which, The opening EXHORTATION though beautiful and signifi

declares unhesitatingly that the cant, are not essential to Bap- children brought to Christ actism, were abolished in 1552. cording to His ordinance re

ceive the benefits of the ChrisTHE RECEPTION OF

tian Covenant, and are therefore CHILD.-This ceremony origi- regenerate, as being “grafted innally preceded Baptism in the to the body of Christ's Church, old Services and in the Prayer and so partaking of His InBook of 1549. It was transferred dwelling Presence, which is the to this place with much appro- Life Eternal. Comp. Art. xxvii., priateness in 1552.

and the equivalent phrase in It has no sacramental cha- the Catechism declaring Bapracter, but by a beautiful sym- tism “ a death unto sin and a bolism it represents two things; new birth unto righteousness. first (a) the acknowledgment of It should be noted that REthe child, as made by Baptism GENERATION (applied to Bapa member of the visible Church tism in Tit. iii. 5) implies, like of Christ (an "inheritor of the the natural birth with which it Kingdom of Heaven "); next is compared, first, a complete the solemn dedication of the change of condition, by being child, signed in token of alle brought into the Covenant of giance with the Sign of the unity with Christ, and so being Cross, to be a soldier under the justified in His blood; and next, banner of Christ crucified in the germ of a new life of grace the great battle of life.

or sanctification, which is gra

dually developed with the true The use of the SIGN OF THE humanity of the child, and be. CROSS in this Service is the comes his in actual energy, only survivor of many uses (arising in proportion as he grows up in out of most natural and an- the faith and repentance of the cient custom) in the old Baptismal Vow. The phrase is Services, as, for example, in therefore even more applicable Confirmation, Holy Commu- to Infant than to Adult Bapnion, Ordination, Consecration tism, to which, indeed, the of Churches and Altars, and Scriptural word "Resurrection" Extreme Unction. Its reten- (see Rom. vi. 3-11; Col. ii. 12, tion (as the closing Rubric of 13) is more suitable, as implying this service shows) excited the the passage at once into a fullmost vehement protest and op- grown newness of life. It will be position of the Puritan party, observed that the doctrine of Repartly in dislike to all ceremo- generation implies the need of nial, partly in horror of what continual growth, and therefore

as supposed to be "Popish;' of periods of Revival after neg

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