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that fuch a Service could not make men acceptable to God. On these points the Cause seems chiefly to have refted; and the Fathers thought that They had done enough to justify Themselves for embra cing a Religion in which no Sacrifices were offered but the spiritual ones of Prayer, and Praise, and Thanksgiving, when they had cited the Authorities of the Wifeft and Ableft Heathens, who had exprefsly declared against all other Service or Worship but that of the Mind.
Thus, e.g. Because Porphyry had confeffed, "That you ought not to burn Incenfe, or to facrifice, to the God of "all; nor ought you to imagine Those to be Gods who take pleasure in the Sacrifice of Animals": That "it is "the most unrighteous thing in the world "to Sacrifice Living Creatures: That "it is impious, and deteftable, and preju
dicial, and therefore it cannot be pleafing
* Ομολογεί μὴ δεῖν τὸ καθόλες μηδὲν μήτε θυμιάν, μήτε θύειν τῷ ἐπὶ πᾶσι θερμή χρήναι θεὸς ὑπολαμβάνειν τοὺς ταις διὰ ζώων θυσίαις χαίροντας. Είναι γάρ φησι πάντων ἀδικώτατον τὸ ζωοθυτειν, καὶ ἀνόσιον, και μυσαρόν, και βλα βερόν, και δια τετο μηδὲ θεοῖς προσφιλές Eufeb. Prap Evang. 1. iv. c. 10.
* to the Gods' to offer Sacrifice ; Because, I fay, He had made this Confeffion, The Chriftian Apologist readily laid hold of This to juftify the Worfhip of the One God and Father of all * "with a Mind free from all Malice; and "with a Body adorned with the Orna"ment of Chastity and Temperance; and "with the bolding of right Notions, wor
thy of God and fuitable to his Nature; "and above all thefe," fays he, "we
pray that we may with a right Difpofition keep up and maintain that Godli
nefs which our Saviour commanded, << even unto Death." And no doubt fo far he reasoned right from his Adverfary's confeffions,-That if it was deteftable and impious to facrifice living creatures, it could not be blameable to abstain from fuch a Worship, or to use That only of an upright Heart and a pure Mind.
Eufebius goes on to cite from Porphyry
* Νῷ πάσης κεκαθαρμένω κακίας, και σώματι τὸν ἐξ ἁγε νείας καὶ σωφροσύνης κόσμον περιβεβλημένῳ, δόγμασί τε ὀρθοῖς καὶ θεοπρεπέσι, καὶ ἐπὶ πᾶσι τέτοις, διαθέσει γνησία την ὑπὸ τὸ Σωτῆρος ἡμῶν παραδοθεῖσαν ευσέβειαν μεχρι και θα νάτε φυλάττειν ευχόμεθα. Ibid.
a paffage in which he says, that * «. "thing material can be otherwife than " impure to an immaterial Being." And at length he concludes, that fince Porphyry acknowledges, "that They are no Gods who take pleasure in Sacrifices, therefore neither the Aerial, nor Caeleftial, nor Ætherial, nor Subterref "trial Deities, were Gods; no nór Apollo
himself, who had by his Oracle com"manded Sacrifice." Porphyry, who had pleaded for all these Sorts of Deities, could not with any pretence evade the force of this reasoning: And the Chriftians could not but triumph over their Adverfaries and Calumniators.
But ftill a difficulty remained, which Eufebius did not meddle with; and That was in relation to the Jewish Sacrifices. Porphyry's Arguments were levelled against all Animal Sacrifices: and confequently They might be urged very justly by Chrif
* Ουδέν ἔνυλον ὁ μὴ τῷ αύλῳ ἐυθύς ἐσιν ἀκάθαρτον. c. II. † Ουκ ἦν ἄρα Θεός, ἐδέ τις ἀψευδῆς καὶ ἀγαθὸς δαίμων, ὁ τὰς δὲ ἁιμμάτων λοιβάς τε και κνίσσας μικρῷ πρόσθεν εισ πραττόμενος χρησμοδος· ουδ' ἐκεῖνοι πάλες, εις ο χρησμός θύειν ζῶα παρεκελεύσατο. Πλάνον άρα και ἀπατεῶναπροστάξαντα μη μόνον τοῖς χθονίοις, ἀλλὰ καὶ τοῖς ουρανίοις ζωοθυτεῖν. C. 14.
tians in Juftification of themfelves, who ufed no Sacrifices. But then, if His reafoning was good, "That they to whom "the Heathen facrificed were not Gods, "because They commanded Animal Sà
crifices", muft it not follow, that He that commanded the Jews to offer up Animal Sacrifices could not be God? But Eufebius entered not into this Queftion, but only answered ad hominem; and juftified Himself, and refuted his Adverfary's Arguments fo far only as Chriftians were immediately concerned, without speaking to the Reason of this mode of Worship.
In the following Papers I have endeavoured to fhew what I take to have been the ground of this Practice. It may appear to Us very difagreeable, and odd, to offer up Animal Sacrifices unto God: But the univerfal practice of the world fhews that it did not appear fo to them of old. If one can affign a rational ground of this way of worship, that is all I aim at: And fince all agree, that there is no exprefs Affertion in the Sacred Writings, that this Mode of Religious Worship
Worship was inftituted or appointed by God at the beginning, I cannot think that They argue right, who infer from the Disagreeableness, or the Oddness, or even our not being able to understand the Reafon or Usefulness of Sacrificing, that therefore it must have been originally a Divine Inflitution. But as the Rationale of Sacrifices is dark, and has never been duly confidered as it deferves, (at least it does not appear to me to have been so) I have endeavoured to throw fome Light upon this Subject; and I shall only add,
Si quid novifti rectius iftis Candidus imperti: Si non his utere mecum.
Maimonides mentions fome that argued - Si ratio et Utilitas illarum [Legum] non poffit intelligi, tum extra omne dubium effe, quod a Deo Originem fuam trahant, cum ratione humana non poffint intelligi. More Nevoc. 1. iii. c. 31.
P. 31. 1. 22. for, in all, r. in almost all.
p. 102. 1. 2. for, Six, r. Five.
p. 112. 1. 18. for, Conftruction, r. Obfervation.
P. 309. 1. 9. r.
p. 288. Note, for, Catu, r. cœtui.