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. Copies of the certificates of ratification with accompanying recommendations by various States for changes in the Constitution are given in Formation of the Union of the American States: 69th Cong., 1st sess., H. Doc. 398, pp. 1009 1059, 1927.

The official title is “The Commonwealth of • The full name is “The State of Rhode Island and Providence Plantations."

THE UNITED STATES FLAG

Congress, by act approved April 4, 1818, effective July 4, 1818,4 ordered that “the flag of the United States be thirteen horizontal stripes, alternate red and white; that the union be twenty stars [there were then 20 States], white in a blue field,” and that “on the admission of every new State into the Union, one star be added to the union of the flag" on the 4th of July following.

EARLY SESSIONS OF CONGRESS

The place and time of the early sessions of Congress are indicated below.

Continental Congress and Congress of the Confederation

Philadelphia.

Sept. 5, 1774 to Oct. 26, 1774.
May 10, 1775, to Dec. 12, 1776.
Dec. 20, 1776, to Mar. 4, 1777.
Mar. 5, 1777, to Sept. 18, 1777.
Sept. 27, 1777 (one day only).
Sept. 30, 1777, to June 27, 1778.
July 2, 1778, to June 21, 1783.
June 30, 1783, to Nov. 4, 1783.
Nov. 26, 1783, to June 3, 1784.
Nov. 1, 1784, to Dec. 24, 1784.
Jan. 11, 1785, to Nov. 4, 1785.
Nov. 7, 1785, to Nov. 3, 1786.
Nov. 6, 1786, to Oct. 30, 1787.
Nov. 5, 1787, to Oct. 21, 1788.
Nov. 3, 1788, to Mar. 2, 1789.

Docu-
Baltimore_
Philadelphia
Lancaster, Pa--
York, Pa_
Philadelphia
Princeton, N. J--
Annapolis, Md --
Trenton, N. J.
New York City--

Do----
Do---
Do.-
Do---

United States Congress

New York City--

Do----

Mar. 4, 1789, to Sept. 29, 1789.
Jan. 4, 1790, to Aug. 12, 1790.

43 Stat. L. 415. See also 1 Stat. L. 341, and Preble, G. H., Origin and history of the American flag, 2d ed., Philadelphia, 1917.

Philadelphia was the meeting place for subsequent sessions from December 6, 1790, until November, 1800, when the seat of Government was moved to Washington.

AREAS OF THE STATES AND OUTLYING POSSESSIONS The following facts relating to the area of the United States and its outlying possessions have been assembled in tabular form for convenient reference. The areas are approximate only. Exact outlines of drainage basins of large rivers that form boundaries are in many places not well established even on the best of maps.

Original area of the United States and areas of continental changes (except Alaska and Canal Zone)

Square miles The territory of the United States, as recognized by Great Britain in

1783, being the area limited by the present accepted northern boundary from eastern Maine to a point near the northwesternmost angle of the Lake of the Woods, thence by a direct line to the source of the Mississippi River, down that river to the 31st parallel of latitude, thence eastward along that parallel and the north line of Florida to the Atlantic Ocean (excluding the water surfaces of the Great Lakes, except Lake Michigan, and the Atlantic Ocean)-

a 869, 735 The parts of the Great Lakes on the international boundary which are under the jurisdiction of the United States--

38, 550 A 3-mile strip along the Atlantic coast_

5, 000 Louisiana Purchase, 1803: That part of the drainage basin of the

Mississippi River west of that river, including the basin of the
Missouri River and the area south of the 31st parallel between
the Mississippi and Perdido Rivers :
South of the 49th parallel--

909, 130 North of the 49th parallel

C 12, 365 Red River Basin and Lake of the Woods drainage: South of the 49th parallel, west of the head of the Mississippi River---

48, 080 By treaty with Spain in 1819 the United States acquired East and

West Florida, an area of 58,666 square miles, also areas west of the Mississippi River (principally in Louisiana) amounting to 22,834 square miles, but relinquished to Spain 97,150 square miles (of the Louisiana Purchase), or a net loss of-----

15, 650

a These figures were obtained by adding the accepted areas of the 24 States and the District of Columbia (723,947 square miles) which lie wholly within the 1783 treaty limits to the parts of Alabama (49,359 square miles) and Mississippi (44,079 square miles) north of latitude 31° and Minnesota (29,950 square miles) east of the Mississippi and Lake of the Woods lines. The Lake Michigan area (22,400 square miles) was also included, as it is within the original cession.

• If it is assumed that the United States had no valid claim to the area south of latitude 31° and between the Perdido and Mississippi Rivers, then these figures should be reduced by an area of 13,433 square miles and that amount added to the area of the Florida Purchase. Of the 13,433 square miles 2,639 square miles is now a part of Alabama, 2,786 a part of Mississippi, and 8,008 a part of Louisiana.

c The Canada Year Book, p. 11, Ottawa, 1929.

81 Stat. L. 130. See A biograpbical Congressional directory: 61st Cong., 2d sess., S. Doc. 654, p. 25, 1913, and 69th Cong., 2d sess., H. Doc. 783, p. 31, 1928, for places and dates of meetings of the Continental Congress. See annual Congressional Directory for dates and meetings of the United States Congress ; also 69th Cong., 1st sess., H. Doc. 398, p. 1062, 1927. 56th Cong., 2d sess., H. Doc. 552, 1901, gives illustrations of the eight buildings in which sessions of Congress were held.

Square Texas annexed in 1845 (including 95,650 square miles of the area

miles relinquished to Spain in 1819) -

388, 687 Oregon Territory, title established in 1846_

& 286, 541 Mexican cession, 1848 (included 775 square miles relinquished to Spain in 1819).

d529, 189 Gadsden Purchase, 1853_

& 29, 670 The recent survey of the Texas-Oklahoma 100th meridian boundary (see p. 174), approved by the United States Supreme Court March 17, 1930,5a increases the area of Texas 44.6 square miles and reduces the area of Oklahoma by a like amount.

The following areas of States are based on calculations by representatives of the General Land Office, the Geological Survey, and the Bureau of the Census. They do not include the part of the water area of the Great Lakes, the Atlantic Ocean, the Gulf of Mexico, the Pacific Ocean, and the Strait of Juan de Fuca that is under the jurisdiction of the United States.

Areas of States and possessions of the United States, in square miles

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51, 279 113, 810

52, 525 155, 652 103, 658

4, 820

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1, 965

Alabama.
Arizona.
Arkansas.
California
Colorado
Connecticut.
Delaware
District of Columbia..
Florida..
Georgia.
Idaho
Illinois.
Indiana.
Iowa..
Kansas.
Kentucky
Louisiana.
Maine.
Maryland.
Massachusetts.
Michigan.
Minnesota
Mississippi.
Missouri.
Montana.
Nebraska.
Nevada.
New Hampshire.
New Jersey
New Mexico.
New York..
North Carolina.
North Dakota.
Ohio
Oklahoma.
Oregon.
Pennsylvania.

719
146

810
2, 645

290
145
405

8
3,805

540 534 622 309 561 384

417 3,097 3, 145 2, 386

51, 998 113, 956

53 335 158, 297 103, 948

4, 965 2, 370

70 58, 666 59, 265 83, 888 56, 665 36, 354 56, 147 82, 158 40, 598 48, 506 33, 040 12, 327

8, 266 57, 980 84, 682 46, 865 69, 420 146, 997

77, 520 110, 690

9, 341

8, 224 122, 634 49, 204 52, 426 70, 837 41, 040 70, 057 96, 699 45, 126

62
54, 861
58, 725
83, 354
56. 043
36, 045
55, 586
81, 774
40, 181
45, 409
29, 895
9, 941
8, 039
57, 480
80, 858
46, 362
68, 727
146, 131

76, 808
109, 821

9,031

7,514 122, 503 47, 654 48, 740 70, 183 40, 740 69, 414 95, 607 44, 832

Rhode Island.

1,067
181

1, 248 South Carolina.

30, 495 494

30, 989 South Dakota.

76, 868 747 77, 615 Tennessee.

41, 687 335 42, 022 Texas.

262, 398 3, 498 265, 896 Utah

82, 184 2806

84, 990 Vermont.

9, 124 440

9, 564 Virginia.

40, 262 2, 365 42, 627 Washington..

66,836

2, 291 69, 127 West Virginia.

24, 022 148 24, 170 Wisconsin.

55, 256 810 56, 066 Wyoming

97,548 366 97, 914 Continental

United States.- 2,973, 774 53, 015 3,026, 789
OUTLYING POSSES-

SIONS
Alaska.

586, 400 Guam

206 Hawaii.

• 6, 406 Panama Canal Zone.

554 Philippine Islands.

114, 400 Porto Rico..

• 3, 435 Samoa..

75 Virgin Islands of the United States.

1133

227

500 3,824

503 693 866 712 869 310 710

711, 609

131

1, 550
3, 686

654
300

643
1, 092

294

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o Territorial surveyor.
OU. S. Coast and Geodetic Survey.
c Including several small islands.

The average or mean area of the 48 States is 63,057 square miles.

d Areas from Bond, Frank (chief clerk, General Land Office), Louisiana and the Louisiana Purchase, p. 13, Washington, 1912.

5a 281 U. S. 109.
6 Fourteenth Census, vol. 1.

COST OF TERRITORY PURCHASED BY THE UNITED STATES

The following data were furnished by the United States Treasury Department in November and December, 1926, and show total payments made up to June 30, 1926, but do not include administrative or treaty costs or payments made on private land claims, legation sites, etc. (see p. 60): Louisiana Purchase, 1803 : Paid to reimburse American citizens under treaty-

$3, 747, 268. 98 Principal of bonds issued and repaid -

11, 250, 000.00 Interest paid on bonds---

8, 221, 320.50

Discount saved less commission paid on bonds purchased.

23, 218, 589. 48

5, 021. 75

Net total_

23, 213, 567. 73 The treaty of April 30, 1803 (see p. 29), provided for the payment to France of 60,000,000 francs ($11,250,000) by the United States, independent of the sum which was to be fixed by a convention for the payment of the debts due from France to the citizens of the United States for depredations on their commerce (the French spoliation claims). Bonds to the amount of $11,250,000, bearing interest at 6 per cent per annum, were issued and given to France, all of which were redeemed by the United States between 1812 and 1823. An additional sum of $3,750,000 was set aside by the United States to cover the French spoliation claims. Actually $3,747,268.98 has been paid on this account. Florida cession, 1819 : Principal of bonds issued and repaid..

$5,000,000.00 Interest paid on bonds--

1, 674, 057. 47

6, 674, 057. 47 No direct payment was made to Spain on this account, but in accordance with a provision of the treaty the United States assumed claims of its citizens against Spain to the amount of $5,000,000. (See p. 34.) Texas, 1850: Paid in cash to creditors of Texas..

$7, 750,000.00 Principal of bonds issued and repaid..

4,981, 000.00 Interest paid.

2, 704, 723. 52 Premium paid on purchase of bonds less discount received-- 60, 724. 25

15, 496, 447. 77 When Texas was annexed to the United States in 1845 it claimed a large territory adjoining its present area and extending as far north as the 42d parallel; it also had various claims against the United States. In order to indemnify Texas for all claims

7

arising out of the annexation of the State Congress in 1850 ? authorized the issue of $10,000,000 stock, to bear interest at 5 per cent. Under this act but $5,000,000 in stock was issued to the State, as by the act of February 28, 1855, it was provided that the creditors of Texas should be paid in cash, and the amount to be paid them was increased to $7,750,000. On November 1, 1926, there was $19,000 of the face value of this stock still outstanding.

Territory acquired from Mexico under treaty of Guadalupe-Hidalgo, 1848: Principal of payments together with interest paid, less gain in exchange, $16,295,148.89.

Article XII of the treaty of peace after the Mexican War provided for the payment to Mexico of $15,000,000. Of this sum $3,000,000 was to be paid at the city of Mexico in gold and silver coin immediately after ratification of the treaty. The remaining $12,000,000 was to be paid in coin in annual installments of $3,000,000, together with interest at 6 per cent. Settlement of the first installment was made as follows: First installment: Paid from cash on hand belonging to Army funds.

$769, 650.00 Paid by drafts drawn by General Butler----

900,000.00 Paid by drafts drawn by Nathan Clifford, Commissioner, including premium -

1, 192, 981.82 Value of arms sold by General Butler to the Mexican Government

87, 655. 90 Unpaid portion of military contribution assumed by the Mexican Government-

49, 712. 28

3,000,000.00 The remaining installments were paid by the United States through banking houses, as follows: Second installment: 4 warrants issued in favor of Baring Bros. & Co., during period Feb. 28 to June 1, 1849_

$3,552, 600.00 Third installment: 6 warrants issued in favor of Howland &

Aspinwall, N. M. Rothschild & Sons, and Lionel Davidson, New
York, during period Jan. 23 to June 29, 1850.-

3, 386, 616. 31 Fourth installment: 5 warrants issued in favor of Baring Bros.

& Co., Howland & Aspinwall, and Corcoran & Riggs, during period May 7 to June 28, 1851--

3, 242, 400.00 Fifth installment: 16 warrants issued in favor of Baring Bros. &

Co., Howland & Aspinwall, and Corcoran & Riggs, during period Feb. 23 to Apr. 19, 1852--

3, 180, 000.00 The aggregate, including interest, was $16,361,616.31. There was, however, a profit of $66,467.42 which accrued to the United States from gain in exchange. This was refunded into the Treasury during the fiscal year 1853.

79 Stat. L. 447.

810 Stat. L. 617.

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