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Milestone No. 4 on the Wyoming-South Dakota line was located by the United States Coast and Geodetic Survey 10 in 1912 in latitude 43° 03' 30.99'' and longitude 104° 03' 09.85”.

NEBRASKA

The Territory of Nebraska was formed on May 30, 1854, from the northwestern part of Missouri Territory. Its original limits are defined as follows in the act of organization 11 (see fig. 20): beginning at a point in the Missouri River where the fortieth parallel of north latitude crosses the same; thence west on said parallel to the east boundary of the Territory of Utah, on the summit of the Rocky Mountains; thence on said summit northward to the forty-ninth parallel of north latitude; thence east on said parallel to the western boundary of the territory of Minnesota ; thence southward on said boundary to the Missouri River; thence down the main channel of said river to the place of beginning, be, and the same is hereby, created into a temporary government by the name of the Territory of Nebraska.

This area was reduced in 1861 by the formation of the Territories of Colorado and Dakota and further reduced in 1863 by the formation of the Territory of Idaho. (See Colorado, p. 224, Dakota, p. 208, and Idaho, p. 237.)

In 1861, in the act creating the Territory of Dakota, a small area was added to the west end of Nebraska. The following is the text of the act making this addition : 12

That, until Congress shall otherwise direct, that portion of the Territories of Utah and Washington between the forty-first and forty-third degrees of north latitude, and east of the thirty-third meridian of longitude west from Washington, shall be, and is hereby, incorporated into and made a part of the Territory of Nebraska.

The act for the admission of Nebraska to the Union was passed by Congress February 9, 1867, over a presidential veto, and, the conditions having been accepted by the people, statehood was declared in effect by proclamation of the President dated March 1, 1867.13

The limits of the State are defined as follows in the enabling act, approved April 19, 1864.14

That the said state of Nebraska shall consist of all the territory included within the following boundaries, to wit: Commencing at a point formed by the intersection of the western boundary of the state of Missouri with the fortieth degree of north latitude; extending thence due west along said fortieth degree of north latitude to a point formed by its intersection with the twenty-fifth degree of longitude west from Washington; thence north along said twentyfifth degree of longitude to a point formed by its intersection with the fortyfirst degree of north latitude; thence west along said forty-first degree of north latitude to a point formed by its intersection with the twenty-seventh degree of longitude west from Washington; thence north along said twenty-seventh degree of west longitude to a point formed by its intersection with the fortythird degree of north latitude; thence east along said forty-third degree of north latitude to the Reya Paba [Keyapaba] river; thence down the middle of the channel of said river, with its meanderings, to its junction with the Niobrara river; thence down the middle of the channel of said Niobrara river, and following the meanderings thereof, to its junction with the Missouri river; thence down the middle of the channel of said Missouri river, and following the meanderings thereof, to the place of beginning.

10 Special Pub. 19, p. 93, 1914.
11 10 Stat. L. 277.
11 12 Stat. L. 244.

18 14 Stat. L. 391, 821.
14 13 Stat. L, 47.

267201 0-53—15

As the result of a sudden change in the course of the Missouri an area of about 5 square miles, which had previously been a part of Dakota Territory, was left on the Nebraska side of the river a short distance above Sioux City, Iowa. (See fig. 20.) To avoid future complications, this tract was given to Nebraska by an act approved April 28, 1870,"to redefine a portion of the boundary line between the State of Nebraska and the Territory of Dakota," as follows: 15

That so soon as the State of Nebraska, through her legislature, has given her consent thereto, the centre of the main channel of the Missouri River shall be the boundary line between the State of Nebraska and the Territory of Dakota, between the following points, to wit: Commencing at a point in the centre of said main channel, north of the west line of section twenty four in township twenty nine north, of range eight east of the sixth principal meridian, and running along the same to a point west of the most northerly portion of fractional section seventeen, of said township twenty nine north, of range nine east of said meridian, in the State of Nebraska.

For plat showing the changes see General Land Office files, Nebraska township plats, volume 9. This change was approved by Nebraska by act of February 9, 1871.

In 1882 an act was passed transferring to this State from Dakota a small area lying between the Keyapaha River and the 43d parallel of latitude. The following is an extract from this act.16

That the northern boundary of the State of Nebraska shall be, and hereby is, subject to the provisions hereinafter contained, extended so as to include all that portion of the Territory of Dakota lying south of the forty-third parallel of north latitude and east of the Keyapaba River and west of the main channel of the Missouri River.

By act of March 1, 1905, Congress approved the compact between Nebraska and South Dakota, fixing the boundary south of Union County, S. Dak., in the middle of the main channel of the Missouri River as it then existed.

The north boundary of Nebraska from the middle of the Keyapaha westward was surveyed in 1874, after the proper position for the 43d parallel had been found from an astronomic station near the east end of the line. In 1893 this line was retraced, and 7-foot cut-stone posts were placed at each mile and half-mile corner on the line as

15 16 Stat. L. 93.

16 22 Stat. L. 35.

established in 1874. The stone set in 1869 for the northwest corner of the State was also replaced by one of the 7-foot posts. The reported length of this line was 224 miles 12.13 chains.

The United States Geological Survey, in 1891, located milepost 18442 in latitude 43° 00' 01.8'', longitude 103° 16' 25.5'', and the

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United States Coast and Geodetic Survey, in 1912, located milepost 22212 in latitude 43° 00' 06.54”, longitude 104° 00'02.46''. Both positions refer to North American datum.

In 1893 the north boundary from the Keyapaha River eastward was surveyed and marked with 7-foot cut-stone posts, and the distance was given as 57 miles 72.70 chains to a terminal mark 72.82 chains from high-water mark on the west bank of the Missouri River.

The west boundary of Nebraska, including the part along the 41st parallel, was surveyed in 1869 under the direction of the General Land Office. The initial astronomic station was at Julesburg, Colo., the position of which was taken as latitude 40° 59' 01.56'' and longitude 25° 18' 30.90" west of Washington. From this station a line was measured due north 89.65 chains to the computed position of the 41st parallel, thence due east 16 miles 10.47 chains to the computed position of the 25th degree of longitude west from Washington, where a 6-foot limestone corner post was established. From this point a random line was run due south to the calculated position of the 40th parallel as determined by astronomic observations. At the point thus found a limestone post 6 feet long by 1 foot square at top, appropriately marked, was set in a mound of earth, from which the line was run north, and marks (most of them wooden posts) were set for each mile, a distance of 68 miles 79.59 chains to the 41st parallel mark.

From the Julesburg meridian mark on the 41st parallel the line was run west to the intersection with the 27th meridian, a total distance on the parallel of 104 miles 72.07 chains. The correct position of the 27th meridian was found from a telegraphic determination of longitude at a station 8 miles 49.45 chains east. From the intersection of the 41st parallel and the 27th meridian, where a 6-foot stone post was set, the line was run northward on the 27th meridian to the northwest corner of Nebraska.

The Nebraska-Wyoming line was retraced in 1908 and re-marked with granite posts 6 feet long and 10 inches square at the top, each set 3 feet in the ground, and marked “WYO” on the west, "NEB” on the east, and the mile number on the south. The measured length of this line was 139 miles 22.43 chains.

KANSAS

The Territory of Kansas was organized on May 30, 1854, from a part of Missouri Territory. (See fig. 18.) The following clause from the act of organization defines its limits : 17 all that part of the Territory of the United States included within the following limits, except such portions thereof as are hereinafter expressly exempted from the operations of this act, to wit: beginning at a point on the western boundary of the State of Missouri, where the thirty-seventh parallel of north latitude crosses the same; thence west on said parallel to the eastern boundary of New Mexico; thence north on said boundary to latitude thirtyeight; thence following said boundary westward to the east boundary of the Territory of Utah, on the summit of the Rocky Mountains; thence northward on said summit to the fortieth parallel of latitude; thence east on said parallel to the western boundary of the State of Missouri; thence south with the western boundary of said State to the place of beginning, be, and the same is hereby, created into a temporary government by the name of the Territory of Kansas.

17 10 Stat. L. 283.

The excepted parts were Indian lands.

Kansas was admitted into the Union on January 29, 1861, with its present boundaries, which are thus defined in the enabling act:18 the said State shall consist of all the territory included within the following boundaries, to wit: beginning at a point on the western boundary of the State of Missouri, where the thirty-seventh parallel of north latitude crosses the same; thence west on said parallel to the twenty-fifth meridian of longitude west from Washington; thence north on said meridian to the fortieth parallel of latitude; thence east on said parallel to the western boundary of the State of Missouri; thence south with the western boundary of said State to the place of beginning.

The part of Kansas Territory west of the 25th Washington meridian detached by this act was made a part of the Territory of Colorado 30 days later.

The southern boundary of Kansas was surveyed in 1857. The initial point on the 37th parallel was found from astronomic observations on the Kansas-Missouri boundary line in longitude 94° 40' 26.3" and was checked by observations at 10 other astronomic stations. Marks were left at irregular intervals.

From the 166th mile to the 226th mile this line was resurveyed in 1872 and from the 207th mile to the 268th mile in 1873 by the General Land Office.

Two boundary stones were located by triangulation in 1902 on the Kansas-Oklahoma line-No. 160, a sandstone post 5 by 12 by 20 inches, projecting about 9 inches above ground, marked "160" on top, “K” on the north side, and “IT” on the south side, in latitude 36° 59' 54.98", longitude 97° 54' 01.98"'; and No. 163, a stone marked as above described except that “ 163 " is the number on top, in latitude 36° 59' 54.73”, longitude 97° 57' 16.45''.19

The United States Geological Survey 20 in 1906 determined the position of the southeast corner of Kansas as latitude 36° 59' 55.2'', longitude 94° 37' 03.3”.

The survey of the boundary between Kansas and Nebraska, which is also the base line for land surveys in the two States, was begun in 1854, and 108 miles of line west of the Missouri River was run and marked; the marks with few exceptions were small wooden posts or stones. The initial position for the 40th parallel was found by calculation and measurement from an astronomic station (latitude 40° 01' 10.3'') on the east side of the Missouri about 21,2 miles southeast of the mouth of the Nemaha. An initial monument of cast

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18 12 Stat. L. 126. 10 U. S. Coast and Geodetic Survey Rept. for 1903, p. 885. 20 U. $. Geol. Survey Bull. 440, p. 490, 1910.

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