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tude 40° 34.4', longitude 95° 51', and that of No. 60 as latitude 40° 34.6', longitude 93° 28'.

The survey of the north boundary of Iowa on the parallel of 43° 30', authorized by congressional act of March 3, 1849, was completed in 1852. The position for each end of the line and for several intermediate points was determined astronomically.98

This is the first State thus far noted having a boundary referred to the Washington meridian. Congress by act approved September 28, 1850,94 ordered

That hereafter the meridian of the observatory at Washington shall be adopted and used as the American meridian for all astronomic purposes and Greenwich for nautical purposes.

This act was repealed August 22, 1912.95

The meridian passing through the center of the dome of the old Naval Observatory at Washington, on the grounds now occupied by the Naval Hospital, was the line referred to, which is 5 hours 8 minutes 12.15 seconds or 77° 03'02.3" west of Greenwich. There is therefore a difference of 03' 02.3'' of longitude between even degrees of the two meridians, Washington and Greenwich. The linear value of this interval varies with the latitude: For southern Kansas (latitude 37°) it is 2.8 miles; for southern New Mexico it is 3 miles; for northern Montana it is 2.3 miles. The center of the clock house of the present Naval Observatory is 77° 03' 56.7" (astronomic) west of Greenwich.

MINNESOTA The Territory of Minnesota was organized on March 3, 1849. It comprised the portion of the former Territory of Iowa outside the limits of the present State of Iowa and extended east to the west boundary line of Wisconsin. (See fig. 17.) The terms of the act creating this Territory, so far as they relate to its boundary, are as follows: 96 all that part of the territory of the United States which lies within the fol. lowing limits, to wit: Beginning in the Mississippi River, at the point where the line of forty-three degrees and thirty minutes of north latitude crosses the same; thence running due west on said line, which is the northern boundary of the State of Iowa, to the northwest corner of the said State of Iowa; thence southerly along the western boundary of said State to the point where said boundary strikes the Missouri River; thence up the middle of the main channel of the Missouri River to the mouth of the White-earth River; thence up the middle of the main channel of the White-earth River to the boundary line between the possessions of the United States and Great Britain; thence east and south of east along the boundary line between the possessions of the United States and Great Britain to Lake Superior; thence in a straight line to the northernmost point of the State of Wisconsin in Lake Superior; thence along the western boundary line of said State of Wisconsin to the Mississippi River; thence down the main channel of said river to the place of beginning.

83 For an illustrated description of the survey of this line, see Annals of Iowa, January, 1929, pp. 483-503.

84 9 Stat. L. 515. 95 37 Stat. L. 342. 28 9 Stat. L. 403.

Minnesota was admitted as a State on May 11, 1858, with the same boundaries that it has at present. These are given in the enabling act, as follows: 98

Beginning at the point in the center of the main channel of the Red River of the North, where the boundary line between the United States and the British Possessions crosses the same; thence up the main channel of said river to that of the Boix des Sioux River; thence [up] the main channel of said river to Lake Travers; thence up the center of said lake to the southern extremity thereof; thence in a direct line to the head of Big Stone Lake; thence through its center to its outlet; thence by a due south line to the north line of the State of Iowa; thence east along the northern boundary of said State to the main channel of the Mississippi River; thence up the main channel of said river, and following the boundary line of the State of Wisconsin, until the same intersects the Saint Louis River; thence down said river to and through Lake Superior, on the boundary line of Wisconsin and Michigan, until it intersects the dividing line between the United States and the British Possessions ; thence up Pigeon River, and following said dividing line, to the place of beginning.

The western boundary line from the Big Sioux River to the Minnesota River was surveyed and marked in 1859–60 under the General Land Office. (See p. 23 for the survey of the northern boundary, p. 200 for the survey of the eastern boundary, and p. 206 for the survey of the southern boundary.)

The western boundary of Minnesota from Lake Traverse to Big Stone Lake was meandered, and the line from Big Stone Lake to the Iowa Line, a distance of 124 miles 5.23 chains was surveyed and marked in 1859 under the General Land Office.99

North of the 49th parallel and separated from the main part of Minnesota by the Lake of the Woods is a land area of nearly 124 square miles, including a number of small islands, which became United States territory by the treaties of 1783 and 1818. (See pp. 8, 13.) The inclusion of this area in the United States resulted from the use of inaccurate maps by the treaty makers and has been described as a “politico-geographical curiosity of a boundary that a glance at the map will show, that no one could have foreseen, and that would be inexplicable without some knowledge of the steps in the process by which it was brought about.” 2

97 11 Stat. L, 285. 98 11 Stat. L. 166.

" See Winchell, A. N., Minnesota's eastern, southern, and western boundaries: Minnesota Hist. Coll., vol. 10, 1905.

1 This area as given on General Land Office township plats amounts to 123.87 square miles.

International Joint Comm., Lake of the Woods references inal report, p. 140, Washington, 1917.

NORTH DAKOTA AND SOUTH DAKOTA

The Territory of Dakota was organized on March 2, 1861, from parts of Minnesota and Nebraska Territories. (See figs. 19 and 20.) The following extract from the act of organization defines its original limits : 3

all that part of the territory of the United States included within the following limits, namely: commencing at a point in the main channel of the Red River of the North where the forty-ninth degree of north latitude crosses the same; thence up the main channel of the same and along the boundary of the State of Minnesota to Big Stone Lake; thence along the boundary line of the said State of Minnesota, to the Iowa line; thence along the boundary line of the State of Iowa to the point of intersection between the Big Sioux and Missouri rivers ; thence up the Missouri river, and along the boundary line of the Territory of Nebraska to the mouth of the Niobrara or Running Water river; thence following up the same, in the middle of the main channel thereof, to the mouth of the Keha Paha or Turtle Hill river; thence up said river to the forty-third parallel of north latitude; thence due west to the present boundary of the Territory of Washington; thence along the boundary line of Washington Territory, to the forty-ninth degree of north latitude; thence east along said forty-ninth degree of north latitude to the place of beginning, be, and the same is hereby,. organized into a temporary government by the name of the Territory of Dakota.

In 1863 the Territory of Idaho was formed, its area having been taken from Washington, Dakota, and Nebraska. (See Idaho, p. 237.)

In 1864, in the act creating Montana Territory, the area described in the following paragraph was temporarily restored to the jurisdiction of Dakota.4

That, until congress shall otherwise direct, all that part of the Territory of Idaho included within the following boundaries. to wit: Commencing at a point formed by the intersection of the thirty-third degree of longitude west from Washington with the forty-first degree of north latitude; thence along said thirty-third degree of longitude to the crest of the Rocky Mountains ; thence northward along the said crest of the Rocky Mountains to its intersection with the forty-fourth degree and thirty minutes of north latitude; thence eastward along said forty-fourth degree thirty minutes north latitude to the thirty-fourth degree of longitude west from Washington; thence northward along said thirty-fourth degree of longitude to its intersection with the fortyfifth degree north latitude; thence eastward along said forty-fifth degree of north latitude to its intersection with the twenty-seventh degree of longitude west from Washington; thence south along said twenty-seventh degree of longi. tude west from Washington to the forty-first degree north latitude; thence west along said forty-first degree of latitude to the place of beginning, shall be, and is hereby, incorporated temporarily into and made part of the Territory of Dakota.

All but a small part of this area was included in the Territory of Wyoming in 1868.

3 12 Stat. L. 239.

4 13 Stat. L. 92.

In 1870 and 1882 small areas were transferred to Nebraska. (See p. 212.) In 1873 an area of about 2 square miles was transferred to Montana. (See p. 220.)

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FIGURE 19.-Historical diagram of North Dakota and South Dakota

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By the enabling act of February 22, 1889, the Territory of Dakota was divided into two parts, North Dakota and South Dakota : 5

5

525 Stat. L. 676.

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The area comprising the Territory of Dakota shall

be divided on the line of the seventh standard parallel produced due west to the western boundary of said Territory;

Each part, having adopted a constitution, was declared admitted as a State by presidential proclamation, dated November 2, 1889.

The boundary line between North and South Dakota, which is the seventh standard parallel north, of the public-land survey, was surveyed and marked in 1891–92. The marks are placed at each half mile and are substantial cut-stone posts 7 feet long by 10 inches square at top, set 31/2 feet in the ground. The initials of the States are cut on the north and south sides, and the mile numbers on the east. The first mark was placed 9 chains west of the Bois des Sioux River bed. The measured distance to the east bank of the Missouri was 190 miles 8.25 chains. At a distance of 360 miles 45.35 chains the east boundary of Montana was intersected at a point 48.35 chains north of its sixty-fifth milepost. The Montana line at this place was found to bear 1° 01' 30'' to the west.

Boundary post No. 333, which is near the west end of this line, is in latitude 45° 56' 43.39'' and longitude 103° 28' 21.44"'.Where the Chicago & Northwestern Railway crosses this boundary the latitude is 45° 56' 07.7" and the longitude 98° 07' 42.1". Near the east end of the line the latitude of a point was found to be 45° 56' 09.7''.? The northeast corner of North Dakota, which is in the middle of the Red River where it crosses the 49th parallel boundary, is in longitude 97° 13' 42.58"'.

The west boundary of South Dakota between latitudes 43° and 45° was surveyed in 1877, commencing at a post set in 1869 for the northwest corner of Nebraska. That part of the boundary north of latitude 45° was surveyed in 1885. (See p. 221.) The entire west boundary of the State was resurveyed in 1904 and marked with 6-foot stone posts at each mile except from the 39th to the 104th, inclusive, which were marked with iron posts for the Black Hills National Forest. The measured distance to the northeast corner of Wyoming was 139 miles 8.78 chains, and to the northwest corner of South Dakota 204 miles 48.26 chains. From the northeast corner of Wyoming to the southeast corner of Montana the line runs east a distance of 70.68 chains. This jog in the State, line is due to errors in the location of the 27th meridian as determined from two widely separated stations; the position brought down from the north 8 is 41.6'' too far east, and that brought up from the south is 23.3'' too far west.

6 U. S. Coast and Geodetic Survey Special Pub. 19, p. 93, 1914. 7 U. S. Geol. Survey Bull. 644, p. 296, 1916. 8 See Montana, east boundary, p. 221. • See Nebraska, 41st parallel boundary, p. 214,

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