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FRANCE.-Policy af Louis Phillippe.-Return of French Army from Belgium.-Meeting of Chambers in 1833.-Duchess of Berri.-Prorogation of Chambers.-Second Session of Chambers.--Common School System.-American Indemnity. PORTUGAL.-Parties in Peninsula.-Siege of Oporto.-Algarves invaded. Don Miguel's Fleet captured.-Lisbon taken.— Donna Maria proclaimed.—Measures of Don Pedro.

SPAIN.-Salic Law abolished.-Disatisfaction of Don Carlos.— Illness of Ferdinand.-Salic Law re-established.-Again abolished.-Death of Ferdinand.-Donna Maria Isabella proclaimed.-Rebellious movements of Carlists.-Liberal Policy of Regency. TURKEY.-War between the Pashas of Egypt and Syria.-Capture of Acre.-Rebellion of Pasha of Egypt.-War between him and the Porte.-Defeat of Grand Vizier.—Interference of Russia.— Peace and Annexation of Syria and Palestine to Egypt.Treaty of Constantinople.

GREECE. Arrival of Otho.-Greek Ministry.-Courts of Justice established.--Departure of French Troops.-Greek Church declared independent.-Štate of Commerce.-Conspiracy suppressed.


SINCE the death of Casimir Périer, in 1832, the policy pursued by Louis Phillippe has been essentially that which was laid down by this wise and energetic minister. Its principle is avoidance of extremes. While the bigoted royalists have been

striving to restore the ancient regime, and the republicans have been equally earnest to carry out the principle of the revolution of July-the government has been acting upon what is called the juste milieu, and has, with great success, prevent

ed the vessel of state from being driven too widely from her true


November, and the nominee of the ministers, M. Dupin, elected president of the deputies, over his competitor Lafitte, by a majority of 234 to 136.

The only extreme which the chamber now contained was the extreme left. Of this the above minority was composed. The monarchical party, which had formerly constituted the extreme right, was all but annihilated in this branch of the legislature. M. Berryer was almost its only

In spite of the union of the Carlists and the Republicans, the government has maintained its power-and if any conclusion can be drawn from the late history of France, it is that neither of the extreme parties have much strength in that country. The partisans of both royalism and republicanism have been active and unscrupulous,-they have shown both talent and representative. The centre, ardour, and yet all their attempts, from the hide-and-go-seek warfare of the Duchess of Berri, in La Vendée, to the popular outbreakings in Lyons and Paris, have only resulted in imparting new strength to the government, In Paris, the national guards, composed of the middle classes, turned out with spirit in defence of the government, and did not retire from the contest with the armed insurgents, until they had driven them from the streets to their hiding places in the


The year 1833 began in tranquillity at home and abroad. The troops that had aided in restoring peace to Belgium, having compelled the citadel at Antwerp to surrender, returned by easy marches to France, and were met by the King at Mons, where he rewarded the deserving with the cross of the legion of honour, and congratulated the army upon its success.

The king returned to Paris the 19th of January. The chambers were then in session, having been re-opened the 19th of

however, still continued to be divided into two sections-the right and the left centre, the former of which, alone properly constituted the party of the ministers, although they generally also received the support of the latter, whose chief was M. Dupin. In this new state of things, a new nomenclature of parties came to be adopted; and the Dupinists were designated as the tiers parti, or third party, the other two being the regular ministerialists, and the regular opposition,

The tiers parti, from its position, necessarily possessed great power, the vote, in fact, depending entirely upon which of the other two parties it chose to join. It generally sided with the ministry; but on one occasion, in the beginning of March, it gave a remarkable demonstration of its importance as one of the regulating forces of the political machine. Having suddenly thrown its weight on a particular vote into the scale of the opposition, it very nearly overset the government, and might have

done so entirely, if it had chosen to abide by its new alliance. But although strong enough to break up the existing cabinet, M. Dupin and his friends well knew, that they could not form another that would stand, composed of members of their own body.

On the 22d of February, the Duchess de Berri, who had been figuring the preceding year as a political incendiary, put an end to the apprehensions of the government, and the hopes of her partisans as to any disturbances, through her agency, by a declaration, that "pressed by circumstances," she felt bound to declare that she had been secretly married during her sojourn in Italy. This confession was soon followed, May 10, by the birth of a daughter, who was declared to be the child of count Hector Luchesi Pelli, a person in the service of her brother, the king of Naples. This unfortunate termination of her romantic attempt to emulate the adventures of the celebrated chevalier Charles Edward, threw no small ridicule upon the cause of the Carlists. They affected to disbelieve the whole story, but the voice of truth and ridicule was too strong for their loyal scepticism, and they were fain to compromise by avoiding all allusion to her name, The part she had acted, although destructive to her cause, still brought her the personal advantage of a restoration to freedom, About a month after her confinement, the royal wanton was released from her prison, and was transported with her daughter to Palermo, being considered

no longer dangerous as a political incendiary.

Meanwhile, on the 25th of April, the session of the legislative chambers had been brought to a close by a prorogation, by which, however, they were appointed to meet again, to com mence a new session the next day. The object of this proceeding was to enable the budget for each year to be voted in future during the current year, or rather as near its commencement as possible, instead of, as heretofore, not till after its close. The supplies for 1832, for instance, had not been voted till the spring of 1833, after the expenses they were to meet had all been actually incurred; and what ready money the government required, had been granted in the mean time by what were called douzièmes provisoires, or votes of provisional credit. The chamber, however, was prohibited by law from voting more than one budget in the same session; and hence the necessity of commencing a new session before the budget of 1833 could be presented,

A bill was brought forward at this session, (April 6,) for the fulfilment of the treaty of indemnity between the United States and France. Its passage, however, was not urged upon the chambers, and after the minister of finance had explained the grounds of the treaty, the bill was suffered to remain on the table until the end of the sess ion.

The second session commenced the 26th of April, and

continued till the 26th of June. At this session an act was passed, by which a system of national education was established throughout France. This measure had been introduced on the 2nd of January, by M. Goizot, in a speech of remarkable ability, and abounding with profound and enlightened views. The law establishes three descriptions of schools; elementary schools, of which every commune or parish is bound to maintain one, except when two or more small communes join to maintain the same school; middle schools, for the higher branches of education, of which there is to be one in every departmental town, and in every parish having more than 6000 inhabitants; and normal schools, for the training of teachers, of which there is also to be one for each department. The elementary education, which is to be given to every person born in the country, is to consist of reading, writing, French grammar, and arithmetic, together with moral and religious instruction. The masters in all these schools are

to have small salaries, paid by the parish or department; but are to derive the chief part of their emoluments from fees. Each parish school is to be under the immediate management of a communal committee, of which the curé of the parish is to be ex officio a member, and which is also to contain one minister of each of the other religious persuasions that may exist. in the commune. The whole system is placed under the direction of the member of the cabinet known in France as the minister of public instruction. The plan is borrowed from that which has been for some years in operation in Prussia, to which country M. Cousin was some time ago sent by the government to examine and report on it.

The indemnity bill was again neglected, and although General Lafayette urged upon the chambers the necessity of disposing of this irritating subject, the session was suffered to expire without making any appropriation to comply with the express provisions of the treaty.


EUROPE now seems to be divided into two portions, occupied by distinct parties, which are actuated by antagonist principles:

The northern powers, controlled by the policy of Russia, Austria, and Prussia, on the principle of arbitrary power; and the southern powers, influenced by the views of England, and France, on the principal of

constitutional government. Not that the lines of demarcation are clearly drawn, or that these parties are strictly confined to their respective districts. On the contrary, the liberals are making much progress in Germany, and even in Poland they chafe under a galling chain; while in the peninsula a severe, and not unequal contest, is raging between the adherents of an abso

lute government, and the friends of constitutional monarchy.

The commencement of the year 1833, found the rival brothers, Don Pedro and Don Miguel, engaged in an arduous contest for the throne of Portugal: Don Pedro contending for the right of his daughter, Donna Maria, the legitimate representative, aided by English treasure, and volunteers from France and England; and Don Miguel maintaining his right as possessor of the crown, with the consent, and ardent support of all the Catholic subjects of Portugal. By the superiority of his force, Don Miguel was enabled to drive his brother and his army within the town of Oporto, where he was besieged from the early part of the summer, until the beginning of 1833, when he placed general Solignac, a French oflicer of distinguished ability, at the head of the liberating army," still closely shut up in Oporto.

In April there were about 14,000 troops within the walls of the town, beleagured by about 20,000 men under the command of marshal Bourmont. The seige was conducted without much vigour, chiefly by means of attacks, which were always repelled, and bombardments without effect.

At length, Solignac, who did not agree with the advisers of Don Pedro, resigned, and returned to France, and Sartorious at the same time, retired from the command of the fleet.

General Saldanha was then appointed commander of the land, and captain Charles Napier, a


British naval officer of the naval forces. It was now determined to act upon the offensive. the 21st of June, accordingly, admiral Napier took on board his ships at Oporto a force of 3,500 men, under the eommand of the brave count Villa Flor and the marquis of Palmella. On the 24th the expedition appeared before Villa Real, in the Algarves, where a garrison of 1200 Miguelites were presently dislodged by the fire from the ships. The Pedroite troops were then landed, and in the course of the day were joined by 800 Portuguese, who declared for Donna Maria. As soon as these successes were known in the interior, all the adjacent towns sent depu tations to proclaim their adhesion to the young queen. The troops of Donna Maria were then divided into two columns, and marched through the ancient kingdom of the Algarves, without resistance. Admiral Napier sailed along the coast with his squadron, consisting of one ship of the line, two frigates, 2 corvettes, I brig, and five steamboats.

On the 3d of July, he fell in with the fleet of Don Miguel, much superior in force to his own, consisting of two ships of the line, two frigates, one corvette, and three brigs. With great gallantry, he at once determined to attack them, and although the steam-boats, which were hired as transports, refused to co-operate, yet aided by a favourable breeze, he bore down on them, and aided by his son, Captain Napier, who commanded a frigate, carried one of the


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