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1. The Form of the Government of the United States.

1. It is democratic, limited, representative government .

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2. It is federal, co-ordinate government .

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3. It is elective government

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4. It is presidential government; the executive is independent of the

legislature as to his political policy;

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and may defend his prerogatives against the legislature

Characterization of the United States Government.

II. The Form of the Government of France.

1. It is democratic, unlimited, representative government

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2. It is centralized co-ordinated government .

3. It is elective government :

4. It is parliamentary government

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History of the struggle to fix the political responsibility of the min-

istry to the Chamber of Deputies

Characterization of the French Government

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III. The Form of the German Imperial Government.

1. It is limited, representative government

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partly democratic, partly monarchic

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2. It is federal government, with many elements of the confederate

system

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Comparison with the government of the United States

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It is co-ordinate government

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3. It is partly elective and partly hereditary

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4. It is presidential government

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Characterization and criticism of the German Imperial Government . 31

IV. The Form of the English Government.

1. It is immediate .

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It is at once democratic, aristocratic, and monarchic .

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2. It is centralized and co-ordinated

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3. It is partly elective and partly hereditary

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4. It is parliamentary government .

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Characterization of the English Government

V. Comparison of the Preceding Forms.

Tendencies of the modern world in respect to forms of government 37, 38

The form of the future

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1. The General Principles of Legislative Organization.
2. The Suffrage from which the Legislature proceeds.
A. Primary provisions of the Constitution .

The Federal territory has no representation .

B. Modification.

(a) Introduced by the XV Amendment

(6) Congress is authorized to regulate the time, place, and man-

ner of electing representatives, and the time and manner of

electing senators (Const. Art. 1, Sec. 4, § 1) .

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Statutory regulation of the time of holding elections

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of the manner of electing representatives

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of electing senators

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() Each house shall be the judge of the election of its own

members (Const. Art. 1, Sec. 5, § 1).

3. The Principle of Representation in the Legislature

I. In the House of Representatives.

A. The Original Provision

B. Modifications introduced by

(a) The XIII Amendment

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(6) The XIV Amendment

Interpretation of this clause of the XIV Amendment 47

Statutory apportionment of Representatives .

Its constitutionality examined

II. Principle of representation in the Senate

49, 50

The representation in both houses is uninstructed

4. The Qualifications of Members.

a. Constitutional qualifications .

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The presence of those qualifications in a given case is decided by

each house

b. Additional qualifications

c. Constitutional disqualification

d. Additional disqualification

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5. The Rights and Privileges of Members.

a. Right to a compensation; b. privilege from arrest

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6. Freedom of speech and debate

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6. The Assembly and Adjournment of the Legislature

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7. The Principle of the Quorum

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8. The Internal Organization of each house

Neither house possesses the general power to punish an outsider for

contempt

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9. Mode of Legislation .

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1. The General Principle of Legislative Organization

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2. The sources from which the Legislature proceeds.

A. The House of Commons

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Qualifications of the Suffrage holder; (a) The owner of an inter-

est in real estate

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(6) The non-owner of such an interest

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Disqualification for exercising the right of suffrage

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Criticism of this system

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B. The House of Lords.

(a) Inheritance

(6) Election

(c) Appointment

(d) Ecclesiastical office

Determination of questions of disputed elections

3. The Principle of Representation in Parliament.

A. The House of Commons.

Historical survey of the principle of representation

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The present principle.

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Representation is uninstructed

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B. The House of Lords

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Representation is uninstructed

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4. Qualifications of Membership.

A. The House of Commons — positive and negative requirements

B. The House of Lords — positive and negative requirements . 70

5. The Rights and Privileges of Members.

A. The House of Commons.

a. privilege from arrest

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b. freedom of speech and debate .

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B. The House of Lords.

a. privilege from arrest; b. freedom of speech and debate . 71

c. Privilege of access to the Crown

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6. The Summons, Opening, Adjournment, Prorogation, and Dissolution

of the Parliament.

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7. The Principle of the Quorum

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8. The Internal Organization of the Houses of Parliament

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9. The Mode of Legislation.

I. Initiation : 1. Ordinary public bills; 2. Revenue bills .

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3. Private bills

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II. Passage: 1. Ordinary public bills; 2. Revenue bills; 3. Private bills,

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III. Approval by the Crown.

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