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(1) Chromaticity. The color of the burning flare shall be vivid red as determined by $ 160.036-4 (i).

$ 160.036-4 Sampling, inspections, conditioning and tests-(a) Classification of tests. The methods of sampling, inspections and tests conducted upon signals shall be considered as falling within one of the following general classifications:

(1) Qualification (type or brand approval) tests;

(2) Production check tests (at place of manufacture); or,

(3). Production check tests (at a government laboratory).

(b) Qualification (type or brand approval) tests. Pre-approval samples, selected in accordance with $ 160.036-7 (C) shall be tested in accordance with the following testing schedule to determine qualification for type or brand approval:

(1) Test 12 cartridges for water resistance characteristics, $ 160.036-3 (e), following which test same 12 specimens for firing and operating characteristics, $ 160.036–3 (d). The magnitude of the failures shall be determined as follows (in the case of concurrent or simultaneous defects, penalties will not be applied cumulatively, but only for the greatest defect):


of failure (1) Misfire

100 (11) Failure to eject projectile contents. 100 (111) Failure to ignite prime of candle-- 100 (iv) Ignitea, but burns less than 25% of

specified time before reaching ground. 75 (v) Burns at least 25% but less than

50% of specified time before reaching ground

50 (vi) Burns at least 50% but less than

75% of specified time before reaching ground

25 (vii) Complete carrying away or destruc

tion of parachute before 25% of speci

fied burning time has elapsed.--- 75 (viii) Complete failure of parachute to open

50 (1x) Failure of parachute to open com

pletely, with illuminant reaching ground before 75% of burning time has elapsed.

25 (x) Reaches 50% but less than 100% of specified altitude..

25 (xi) Reaches less than 50% of specified altitude

50 (2) Disassemble 6 cartridges and test the pyrotechnic candles for burning time, candlepower, and chromaticity, $ 160.036-3 (j), (k), and (1).

(3) Disassemble 3 cartridges and test for temperature of ignition, $ 160.036–3 (i).

(4) Test 3 cartridges for chemical stability, $ 160.036–3 (h), following which test them for firing and operating characteristics, $ 160.036–3 (d).

(c) Sampling, inspections, and tests from production lots. The production of hand-held rocket-propelled parachute red flare distress signals produced under an official type or brand approval shall be checked for compliance with this specification in the manner set forth below:

(1) Lot size and sampling procedure. For purposes of sampling the production of hand-held rocket-propelled parachute red flare distress signals, a lot shall consist of not more than 3,000 signals. A new lot shall be started with any change or modification in raw materials or manufacturing methods. Lots shall be numbered serially by the manufacturer, and the lot number shall be plainly and indelibly marked on the cartridge case of each signal in the lot. A marine inspector shall select at random from each lot the number of specimen signals indicated in the following table for inspection, conditioning, and testing:

Minimum number of Lot size:

specimens of sample Not more than 1,000

15 1,001 to 3,000.-

24 (2) Inspections (at place of manufacture). The marine inspector shall be admitted to the place of manufacture and shall familiarize himself with the various operations involved in the manufacturing process and, from observation during manufacture, satisfy himself that handheld rocket-propelled parachute red fiare distress signals are being made in general accordance with this subpart and of materials and parts conforming strictly with the specifications and drawings submitted by the manufacturer and approved by the Commandant. Specimens or samplings of materials entering into construction may be taken at random, either in the raw material state or during manufacture, by the inspector and tests made for compliance with applicable requirements. The test specimens comprising the sample, selected in accordance with subparagraph (1) of this paragraph shall be examined by the inspector for surface defects.

(3) Production check tests (at place of manufacture). (i) The manufacturer shall provide a suitable place and the necessary apparatus for the use of the inspector in conducting such production check tests as are done at the place of manufacture. Samples from production lots selected in accordance with subparagraph (1) of this paragraph shall, except when tested at a government laboratory as prescribed below, be tested at the place of manufacture in accordance with the following testing schedule:

1st day: Place all specimens in water-resistance conditioning, $ 160.036–3 (e). 2nd day: Remove all specimens from water-resistance conditioning. Test all but three specimens for firing and operating characteristics, $ 160.036–3 (d). Performance shall be rated as in $ 160.036-4 (b) (1). Disassemble 3 cartridges and test pyrotechnic candle for burning time and candlepower, $ 160.036-3 (j) and (k). The visual color shall be vivid red, but measurements for chromaticity will not be made.

(ii) Report of inspection and test shall be forwarded to the Commandant.

(4) Production check tests (at a government laboratory). Tests at a government laboratory shall be made on not less than one sample from each ten production lots of hand-held, rocket-propelled parachute red flare distress signals, or not less than one in each year, whichever occurs more frequently, Sampling and inspection shall be made at the place of manufacture as provided in subparagraphs (1) and (2) of this paragraph, except that for these tests the sample shall consist of 24 specimens. The sample will be forwarded prepaid by the manufacturer to the Commandant. Tests at the government laboratory shall be conducted in accordance with the schedule given in paragraph (b) of this section.

(d) Conditioning of test specimens; water resistance. Immerse specimen horizontally in water at not more than 30° C. with uppermost portion of the signal approximately one inch below the surface of the water for a period of 24 hours.

(e) Conditioning; elevated temperature, humidity, and storage. Place a specimen in a thermostatically controlled even-temperature oven held at 90° C. with not less than 90% relative humidity for 72 hours. Remove specimens and store at room temperature (20° to 25° C.) with approximately 65% relative humidity for ten days.

(f) Test method; temperature of ignition of signal materials. The test shall be conducted in a uniformly heated gas

or electric oven with a chamber of at least 6 inches by 6 inches by 9 inches inside measurement. If gas heated, the oven should be of jacketed type with the products of combustion of the heating gas excluded from the inner chamber. The oven should be provided with an opening or openings at the top of at least 34 square inch in area to give air circulation within. A suitable 600° F. 3-inch immersion thermometer or thermocouple shall be inserted through a sleeve in the top of the oven. A shelf of perforated sheet metal shall be provided at the midheight of the oven. A wire screen cup 1/2 inch in diameter by 34 inch high shall be provided. The materials to be tested shall be placed to a depth of 12 inch in the wire screen cup. (Ordinarily, materials adjacent to each other in the assembled signal will be blended together for the test; materials nonadjacent ordinarily will not be blended together for the test). The cup then shall be placed on the shelf so as to be within 12 inch to 14 inch from the bulb of the thermometer or the junction of the thermocouple. The temperature of the oven is to be raised to about 284° F. (140° C.) at a convenient rate, after which the temperature is to be raised at a rate not to exceed 2° F. per minute until ignition occurs or 338° F. (170° C.) has been reached. Time and temperature readings at 30 second intervals and also time at which ignition, if such occurs, are to be recorded. If ignition occurs, the approximate ignition temperature, to be reported, can be obtained by extrapolation from the time-temperature data. Alternate test methods will be given special consideration by the Coast Guard.

(g) Test-method; burning time. The burning time of the pyrotechnic candle shall be obtained by stop watch measurements from the time positive flame is emitted until it ceases. The burning time for a sample (i. e. all the test specimens from a single lot) shall be the arithmetical average for all specimens in the sample.

(h) Test method; candlepower. The candlepower of each pyrotechnic candle tested shall be measured by a visual photometer or equivalent photometric device, while the specimen is supported in a horizontal position and the photometer is at right angles to the axis of the specimen. Visual candlepower readings shall be observed and recorded at approximately 20-second intervals during the burning of the specimen. The minimum photometric distance shall be 10 feet. Recording photometers shall have a chart speed of at least one inch per minute. The candlepower of the specimen shall be computed as the arithmetical average of the readings recorded. The range for a specimen shall be the difference between the greatest and least candlepower reading. The candlepower for the sample (i. e. all test specimens from a single lot) shall be the arithmetical average of the candlepower values computed for each of the specimens making up the sample. The range for the sample shall be the difference between the computed greatest candlepower of a specimen and the computed least candlepower of another specimen in the sample. Signals failing to ignite shall be disregarded in computing the range of a sample.

(i) Test method; chromaticity. In order to determine that light from the specimen may be termed “vivid red" (ISCC-NBS method of designating colors, RP1239), two identical test plates of white cardboard about 12" x 24" are used. Except for a negligible amount of stray daylight, the first test plate is illuminated by light from the specimen placed at a distance of about 5 feet. The second test plate is illuminated only by light from an incandescent lamp operated at a color temperature close to 2848° K at a distance of about one foot. The first test plate is viewed directly, the second through combinations of Lovibond red, yellow and blue glasses selected so as to approximate a chromaticity match. By separating the test plates by a wide unilluminated area (subtending at the observer about 45°), it is possible to make determinations of chromaticity in terms of the standard I. C. I. diagram (Mixture Diagram According to the 1931 International Commission on Illumination Standard Observer and Coordinate System) with an uncertainty in x or y not greater than 0.005, in spite of fluctuations in candlepower of the specimen by factors as high as 2 or 3. The light from burning red flare distress signals shall show valves in terms of the ICI Standard Observer and Coordinate System of not less than 0.61 for the x-coordinate and not more than 0.34 for the y-coordinate for any of the determinations made during the positive flame emitting period.

(j) Lot acceptance or rejection. When the marine inspector has satisfied him

self that the hand-held rocket-propelled parachute red flare distress signals in the lot are of a type oficially approved in the name of the manufacturer and meet the requirements set forth in this subpart, each of the smallest packing cartons or boxes (usually containing one dozen signals) in which the cartridges are sealed prior to shipment, shall be plainly marked with the words: "Inspected and Passed, (Date), (Port), Inspector's Initials." A lot shall be rejected: (1) when, of that portion of the lot tested for firing and operating characteristics, the failures, as computed by the table shown in paragraph (b) (1) of this section, exceeds 15%; or, (2), when, of the signals tested for the other required characteristics, there is any failure to meet the requirements herein. Signals from rejected lots may, when permitted by the inspector, be reworked by the manufacturer to correct the deficiency for which they were rejected and be resubmitted for official inspection. Signals from rejected lots may not, unless subsequently accepted, be sold or offered for sale under representation as being in compliance with this specification or as being approved for use on merchant vessels.

§ 160.036-5 Marking-(a) General. Each hand-held rocket-propelled parachute red flare distress signal shall be legibly marked or labeled as follows:

(Company brand or style designation) Hand-Held Rocket-Propelled Parachute Red

Flare Distress Signal 20,000 candlepower-30 seconds burning time Use Only When Air Craft or Vessel is Sighted Directions—(in numbered paragraphs, sim

ply worded instructions for firing the device) (Month and year manufactured)

(Lot No. --------) Manufactured by (Name and address of

manufacturer) U. S. Coast Guard Approval No.

for merchant vessels $ 160.036–6 Container-(a) General. Containers for stowage of hand-held, rocket-propelled parachute red flare distress signals in lifeboats and life rafts on merchant vessels are not required to have specific approval or to be of special design, but they shall meet the following test for watertightness when closed, and shall be capable of being opened and reclosed hand-tight to meet the same watertightness test. The materials shall


be copper, brass, bronze, or other material equally corrosion-resistant to salt water and spray.

(b) Watertightness test for containets. Whenever question arises as to the watertightness of a container, the following test may be made to determine whether it is satisfactory in this respect. Open the container, remove the contents, insert colored blotting paper as a lining, re-close container as tightly as possible by hand (no wrenches or special tools permitted), submerge container with top about one foot below the surface of the water for two hours, remove container from water, wipe off excess moisture on outside, then open the container and examine the blotting paper and entire interior for evidence of moisture penetration. If any moisture or water is evidenced, the container is not satisfactory.

(c) Marking of container. Containers shall be embossed or bear a brass or equivalent corrosion-resistant plate, or otherwise be suitably and permanently marked, to plainly show in letters not less than 1/2 inch high the following wording: "HAND-HELD ROCKETPROPELLED PARACHUTE RED FLARE DISTRESS SIGNALS.” No additional marking which might cause confusion as to the contents shall be permitted,

NOTE: The vessel's name is required to be painted or branded on equipment such as this container by other regulations, and nothing in this subpart shall be construed as prohibiting same.

§ 160.036–7 Procedure for approval(a) General. Hand-held rocket-propelled parachute red flare distress signals for merchant vessels are approved only by the Commandant, U. S. Coast Guard, Washington, D. C. Correspondence pertaining to the subject matter of this specification shall be addressed to the Commander of the Coast Guard District in which the factory is located.

(b) Manufacturer's plans and specifications. In order to obtain approval of hand-held rocket-propelled parachute red flare distress signals, submit detailed plans and specifications including a complete bill of material, assembly drawing, and parts drawings descriptive of the arrangement and construction of the device, to the Commander of the Coast Guard District in which the factory is located. Each drawing shall have an identifying drawing number, date, and an identification of the device; and the general arrangement or assembly draw

ing shall include a list of all drawings applicable, together with drawing numbers and alteration numbers. The alterations shall be noted with the date of alteration or new drawing numbers and dates shall be assigned. At the time of selection of the pre-approval sample, the manufacturer shall furnish to the inspector four copies of all plans and specifications, corrected as may be required, for forwarding to the Commandant.

(c) Pre-approval sample. After the first drawings and specifications have been examined and found to appear satisfactory, a marine inspector will be detailed to the factory to observe the production facilities and manufacturing methods and to select at random, from not less than 50 signals already manufactured, a sample of not less than 24 specimens which will be forwarded prepaid by the manufacturer to the Commandant for the necessary conditioning and tests in accordance with § 160.036–4 (b) to determine compliance with this subpart for qualification for type or brand approval for use on merchant vessels. SUBPART 160.037-SIGNALS, DISTRESS, SMOKE,

ORANGE, HAND, FOR MERCHANT VESSELS SOURCE: $ $ 160.037–1 to 160.037-7, contained in CGFR 48-53, 13 F. R. 6412.

$ 160.037-1 Applicable specifications and plans-(a) Specifications. There are no other specifications applicable to this subpart.

(b) Plan. The following plan, of the issue in effect on the date hand orange smoke distress signals are manufactured, forms a part of this specification: Drawing No. 160.021-6 (a)-Container for hand red flare distress signals.

$ 160.037-2 Type. (a). Hand orange smoke distress signals specified by this subpart shall be of one type which shall consist essentially of a wooden handle to which is attached a tubular casing haying a sealing plug at the handle end, the casing being filled with a smoke producing composition and fuse with button of ignition material at the top, and a removable cap having a friction striking material on its top which may be exposed for use by pulling a tear strip. The signal is ignited by scraping the friction striker on top of the cap against the igniter button on top of the body of the signal. Alternate arrangements which conform to the performance requirements of this specification will be given special consideration.

§ 160.037–3 Materials, workmanship, construction, and performance requirements-(a) Materials. The materials shall conform strictly to the specifications and drawings submitted by the manufacturer and approved by the Commandant. The color of the tube shall be orange. The combustible materials shall be of such nature as will not deteriorate during long storage, nor when subjected to frigid or tropical climates, or both.

(b) Workmanship. Hand orange smoke distress signals shall be of first class workmanship and shall be free from imperfections of manufacture affecting their appearance or that may affect their serviceability. Moisture proof coatings shall be applied uniformly and shall be free from pinholes or other visible defects which would impair their usefulness.

(c) Construction. The casing shall be fitted and secured to the handle with not less than a one-inch overlap and shall be attached to the handle in such a manner that failure of the joint will not occur during tests, ignition, or operation. The plug shall be securely affixed in the casing to separate the smoke composition from the wooden handle. The smoke composition shall be thoroughly mixed and be uniformly compressed throughout to preclude variations of density which may adversely affect uniformity of its smoke emitting characteristics. The cap shall have a lap fit of not less than one inch over the end of the casing and smoke composition to entirely and securely protect the exposed surface of the igniter button and end of smoke composition and casing, and shall have an inner shoulder so constructed that it is mechanically impossible for the inner surface of the cap to come in contact with the igniter button. The cap shall be securely attached to the casing in such manner as to preclude its accidental detachment. The cap shall be provided on its top with a friction striking material which shall, by a pull of the tear strip, be entirely exposed for striking the friction igniter button. The igniter button shall be nonwater soluble or be protected from moisture by a coating of some waterproof substance, and shall be raised or exposed in such manner as to provide positive ignition by the friction striker. The igniter button shall be firmly secured in or on the top of the smoke composition; the arrangement shall be such that

the ignition will be transmitted to the smoke producing composition. The assembled signal, consisting of tear strip, cap, casing, and upper portion of the handle, shall be sealed and treated to protect the signal from deterioration by moisture. The protective waterproof coating shall be applied so none adheres to the friction striking surface.

(d) Ignition and smoke emitting characteristics. Test specimens shall not ignite explosively in a manner that might be dangerous to the user or persons close by. Test specimens shall ignite and emit smoke satisfactorily at a uniform rate. The plug separating the smoke producing composition from the handle shall in no case allow flame or hot gases to pass through it or between it and the casing in such manner as might burn the hand while holding the signal by the handle.

(e) Water resistance. Test specimens shall function properly after having been subjected to the conditioning described in § 160.037–4 (d).

(f) Strength of joint. Test specimens shall not show noticeable distortion, nor shall the joint between the casing and handle fail, when subjected to either of the tests described in $ 160.037-4 (h) or (i) immediately after having been subjected to the water-resistance conditioning.

(g) Chemical stability. Test specimens shall function properly after having been subjected to the elevated temperature conditioning experiment described in $ 160.037-4 (e). No ignition shall occur during the conditioning experiment.

(h) Temperature of ignition of signal materials. When tested as described by § 160.037-4 (j), the temperature of ignition of the signal materials shall be not less than 338° F. (170° C.).

(i) Smoke emitting time. Test specimens shall emit smokę not less than 50 seconds when the time is measured as described in § 160.037–4 (k), Test specimens shall emit smoke under water not less than ten seconds when tested as described in § 160.037-4 (f).

(j) Color of smoke. The color of the smoke shall be orange as determined by $ 160.037-4 (m).

(k) Susceptibility to explosion of smoke composition. The smoke producing composition shall not explode when subjected to the influence of a No. 6

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