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Resolutions of the Sixth Delegates' Meeting of the International Association Page. for Labor Legislation...
182-193 Report of Illinois Commission on Occupational Diseases.
194-202 Digest of recent foreign statistical publications: Reports on strikes and lockouts...
203-247 Austria, 1908....
203-209 France, 1908..
209-215 Germany, 1908..
215-220 Great Britain, 1908 and 1909.
221-231 Netherlands, 1907 and 1908.
231-239 Spain, 1907....
239-242 Sweden, 1908..
242-247 Decisions of courts affecting labor: Decisions under statute law....
248-289 Alien contract laborers-deportation-evidence (Ex parte George). .. 248, 249 Eight-hour law-construction of levees on the Mississippi Riveremergencies (United States v. Garbish).
249, 250 Employers' liability-compensation law-liability without fault
due process of law-constitutionality of statute (Ives v. South Buf-
273-275 Employers' liability-fellow-servant law-nature of liability-inju
ries causing death-survival of right of action-damages (Beeler v.
278, 279 Employers' liability-notice-superintendence-construction of
statute (Smith v. Milliken Bros.).......
struction of statute (Conover v. Public Service Railway Co.)...... 281 Employers' liability-railroads-Federal statute-jurisdiction of
State and Federal courts-interstate commerce-construction of
285 Mine regulations-inspection-good faith as defense against liability for injury (Aetitus v. Spring Valley Coal Co.)...
286-288 Picketing-police power-municipal regulations (Ex parte Williams). 288, 289 Decisions under common law......
289-307 Boycott-injunction-labor organizations as parties-interference
with employment-proof (Irving v. Joint District Council, United
289-291 Employer and employee-injury to third person by employee-lia
bility of employer-scope of authority (Tillar v. Reynolds)....... 291-294 Employers' liability-incompetent fellow-servant-evidence (Rob
bins v. Lewiston, Augusta & Waterville Street Railway Co.)........ 294–296 Employers' liability-new trial-successive verdicts damages (Carr v. American Locomotive Co.)......
296-299 Employers' liability-safe place to work-act of foreman (Campbell v. Jones).....
299-301 Labor organizations-identity-transfer of affiliation-effect on rights
to association funds (Shipwrights', Joiners', and Calkers' Associa
tion, Local No. 2, of Seattle v. Mitchell)..
BUREAU OF LABOR.
INDUSTRIAL ACCIDENTS AND LOSS OF EARNING POWER:
GERMAN EXPERIENCE IN 1897 AND 1907.
BY HENRY J. HARRIS, PH. D.
SUMMARY. In order to indicate the lines on which measures for the prevention of industrial accidents and for the medical treatment of injured workmen may be directed, the Imperial Insurance Office of Germany makes a practice of publishing, at 10-year intervals, special studies of the industrial accidents compensated under the national accident insurance system for workmen. Some of the facts brought out by the study of the industrial accidents compensated in the year 1907 may be briefly summarized as follows:
The information relates only to serious industrial accidentsnamely, those resulting either in disability lasting longer than 13 weeks or in death—which were compensated in the year 1907. The much larger number of accidents causing disability of shorter duration is not included.
Expressed in terms of workmen who had been employed 300 days in the year, the number of persons included in this study was 8,600,000.
About one workman out of every 100 received injuries causing serious disability or death, the average rate being 9.44 per 1,000 fulltime workmen.
In the period 1897 to 1907 there has been-
A decrease in the rate for accidents causing total permanent disability.
A decrease in the rate for accidents causing partial permanent disability.
A marked increase in the rate for accidents causing temporary disability lasting longer than 13 weeks.
Workmen employed in teaming, hauling, etc., have the highest accident rate; workmen engaged in the tobacco industry have the lowest.
Arranged in order, the highest coming first, the following 10 industry groups show the highest accident rates: Teaming and hauling, flour milling, mining, quarrying, woodworking, brewing, engineering construction, inland navigation, iron and steel, and express and storage. Arranged in order, the lowest coming first, the following 10 industry groups show the lowest accident rates: Tobacco, clothing, textiles, printing, pottery, paper, glass, railways (private), chimney sweeping, and marine navigation.
The accident rate for males is higher than the rate for females.
Injuries to workmen occur with some uniformity throughout the various months of the year, with a slightly higher rate in October.
Workmen are injured more frequently on Monday forenoon and on Saturday afternoon than during the rest of the week.
Workmen are injured more frequently in the latter part of the forenoon and in the latter part of the afternoon than during the rest of the day.
Of the 81,248 workmen injured, about 5 per cent were injured during the first hour that they were at work, 8.6 per cent were injured during the second hour, 9.2 per cent during the third hour, 11.3 per cent during the fourth hour, and 12.2 per cent during the fifth hour, the highest for the day; for the rest of the working day the percentage is irregular.
Workmen are injured most frequently by fractures, contusions, etc., and these injuries occur most frequently to the arms and legs.
Workmen are injured more frequently if they have been employed in an establishment for but a short period of time; considering only the first year of the workman's employment in an establishment, those employed a shorter period of time are injured more frequently than those employed for a longer period.
Workmen are injured more frequently if they have been employed in an occupation for but a short period of time; considering only the first year of the workman's employment in an occupation, those employed for a shorter period of time are injured more frequently than those employed for a longer period.
Workmen are injured most frequently by working machinery (presses, lathes, looms, etc.); arranged in order, the highest coming first, the five most frequent causes of injury are: First, working machinery; second, collapse, fall, etc., of materials; third, loading, unloading, etc.; fourth, falls, falling from ladders, stairs, etc.; and fifth, railway operation.
Workmen receive fatal injuries most frequently from the collapse, fall, etc., of materials; arranged in order, the highest coming first, the five most frequent causes of fatal injury are: First, collapse, fall, etc., of materials; second, railway operation; third, falls, falling from ladders, stairs, etc.; fourth, inflammable, hot, or corrosive substances, etc.; and fifth, teaming, hauling, draying, etc.
Of the injured workmen sustaining serious injuries, about 50 per cent were still disabled to a greater or less extent at the end of five years.
Workmen injured by accidents due to the fault of fellow workmen form
cent, by accidents due to the fault of the employer 12.6 per cent, by accidents due to the general hazard of the industry 37.7 per cent, and by accidents due to their own fault 41.3 per cent of all the injured persons studied.
As stated above, the Imperial Insurance Office of Germany makes a practice of issuing, at 10-year intervals, special studies of the principal facts regarding the accidents compensated in the selected year. The principal purpose of these studies is to indicate the possibilities of improvement in the prevention of accidents and in the medical, surgical, etc., treatment of the injured workmen with the view of restoring the largest possible measure of their earning capacity. A summary of the information contained in special studies of industrial accidents compensated in the years 1887 and 1897 is given in the Twenty-fourth Annual Report of the Commissioner of Labor, but the study relating to the accidents compensated in the year 1907 was not received in time to be included in the report.
The national compulsory accident insurance system of Germany includes practically all the manufacturing, building, extractive, and transportation industries of the country, and the study of the accidents compensated under the national system includes nearly all of the accidents occurring in the course of employment of a workman. Having at their disposal information relating to accidents covering a period of 25 years, the experts of the insurance office have been enabled to present the salient facts regarding industrial accidents in a manner which makes the material of great value to other countries; in addition, certain facts regarding the condition of the injured persons are of service in suggesting the best methods of administering a system of industrial accident insurance, such, for instance, as the advantage of a system of pension payments as contrasted with that of lump-sum payments.
Under the German system the accident insurance is administered by mutual associations of employers, the employers in each industry being organized into one or more associations; these administrative organizations are used in the studies of accidents as the basis of classifying the industries of the country into industrial groups, and in the statistical tables given below an industrial group means a group of one or more of these associations; for purposes of reference the official number of the association is given each time the group is referred to.
The employers' mutual accident insurance organizations make provision only for those accidents which result in death or in disability lasting longer than 13 weeks. Another series of organizations, the sickness insurance funds, makes provision for accidents causing disability of less than 13 weeks. But there is very little information regarding the accident experience of this group of organizations. In the following pages the accidents included are only those which caused death and those which caused disability lasting longer than 13 weeks.
The employers' mutual accident associations defray the cost of the accident insurance by means of assessments based on the amount of their pay rolls, modified by a system of risk rating based on the number of accidents occurring in the various plants; it is directly to the financial interest of each employer to adopt all possible means for the prevention of accidents, and since compensation is paid to the injured workman in the form of a pension during disability, any betterment in the physical condition of the injured workman which would improve his earning capacity thereby reduces the financial burden on the employers. These facts, in addition to humanitarian considerations, have led the employers' associations to make heavy expenditures in the enforcement of preventive measures and in the medical treatment of the injured workman. Thus in 1897 the expenditures for medical treatment were $237,747, and in 1907 they had increased to $505,250; for the enforcement of preventive measures expenditures in 1897 were $246,769, and in 1907 were $355,400.
SPECIAL INVESTIGATIONS OF ACCIDENTS.
The first special study of industrial accidents in Germany included accidents occurring in the year 1881;' this study formed the basis of the provisions contained in the bill for the accident insurance system, which was later enacted into the law of July 6, 1884. The 1881 study was made for a special purpose, and later investigations were planned on such entirely different lines that the information presented in the 1881 report is not comparable with the data published in the succeeding reports.
The accident insurance system began operations October 1, 1885, and as soon as the system had been in operation for a little more than two years the first detailed study of the industrial accidents compensated under the law of July 6, 1884, was made; the first study related to the industrial accidents compensated in the year 1887," and the form used in that investigation has been followed closely in the investigations of 18973 and 1907. In each case the data relate to accidents which were compensated in the years mentioned and not to the accidents occurring in those years. .
The three studies just mentioned related to accidents in the manufacturing and similar industries, in the building trades, in the extractive industries, and in transportation; studies of accidents
1 Published in Statistik des Deutschen Reichs, Erste Reihe, Band 53, Ergänzungsheft. : Amtliche Nachrichten des Reichs-Versicherungsamts 1890, p. 199 et seq.
: Amtliche Nachrichten des Reichs-Versicherungsamts 1899 Beiheft; 1900 Belheft 1, 2. Gewerbe-Unfallstatistik für das Jahr 1897.
* Amtliche Nachrichten des Reichs-Versicherungsamts, 1910, I Belheft, I-III Tell. Gewerbe-Unfallsta tistik für das Jahr 1907.