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Hawaiians. Agents in many cases found it impossible to get even a plausible estimate of this expenditure. Local conditions, including the imminence of a plebiscite on prohibition, had something to do with the reluctance of working people to give this information. Japanese, Chinese, and especially Portuguese, do not generally patronize public drinking places, but instead purchase light liquors for home use. Among them this item was usually reported and, as may be said from direct knowledge, correctly.

It was also found difficult to get people to report their savings, and doubtless these are as much understated as are the expenditures for intoxicants in the instances just mentioned.

The series of summary tables which follows presents the general results of this investigation.

COMPOSITION OF 303 FAMILIES IN IIONOLULU, BY RACE, 1910.

Race.

Average

Per cent of families having-
Average number
Number number of chil-
of families in family, dren in

1 or 2 3 to 5 Over 5 Lodgers reporting, excluding families No chil

chil- chil- chillodgers.

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In size of families the Chinese rank first, Portuguese second, and the Caucasians, other than Portuguese, third. The average size of the Caucasian family was exactly the average size of the families of all

It should be noted that the Caucasian families exceed the Hawaiian, and that the Japanese families average the smallest of the five race groups. The small size of the Japanese families was not due to a lower birth rate, but to the fact that these families are, for the most part, recently married couples. Ten years will quite change the relative statistics of the races in this respect. The proportion of childless families among the Japanese is smaller than in any other nationality. The remaining data of this table affords no basis for race comparisons.

The next table shows the classified income per family and per capita, and the number of families of each race. Of 14 Caucasian families, except Portuguese, the maximum number had an income between $750 and $1,000. Of 127 Portuguese families, the maximum number had an income between $500 and $750. Of the 150 Hawaiian families, the maximum number had incomes within the same range as the Caucasians, other than Portuguese, or between $750 and $1,000. Coming to the orientals, all the Japanese families had an income under $750, and the maximum number less than $500. Of the 42 Chinese families, the maximum number had an annual income of less than $500, though in two instances the annual receipts of the family exceeded $1,000. In the matter of income the Caucasians, other than Portuguese, and the Hawaiians were nearly on a par.

FAMILIES HAVING EACII CLASSIFIED INCOME AND NUMBER OF PERSONS IN TIIE FAMILIES (EXCLUDING LODGERS) HAVING EACH CLASSIFIED PER CAPITA INCOME, BY RACE, 1910.

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1 Including 1 Mexican and 1 Filipino. * Including Part-Hawaiian. 3 Including 1 Spanish.

The average family income from different sources, and the ratio of income from each source to total income are shown in the following table. It is to be noted that the per cent of the total family income contributed by children is highest in the case of the Portuguese, where it is more than double that of other Caucasians, and more than 4 per cent above that of all the races. In Japanese families the children contribute least to the total earnings, but this is due almost entirely to the fact that the Japanese children are very young, on account of the recent immigration of women of this race to Hawaii.

AVERAGE ANNUAL AMOUNT AND PER CENT FROM DIFFERENT SOURCES OF

FAMILY INCOMES, BY RACE, 1910.

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Earnings of father... $983. 82 92.07 $484.22 79. 72 8775.08 83.54 $341.02 80.23 $536.62 67.62 $630. 15 78.03 Earnings of mother..

6.07 1.00 3.75

47.70 11.22 17. 24 2. 17 12. 22 1.51 Earn mgs of children 64. 29 6.02 44.31 7.29 94.57 10.19 20.37 4. 79 126.62 15.96 92.67 11. 47 Gratuities... 41.14 0.77

4.76 Pensions and bene

27.15 3. 42 9.50 1.18 House rents.

2.57
1. 47
3. 20
35.48 4. 47

13. 58

1.68 Lodgers and board. ers. 20. 431 1.91 6.051 1.00 14.32 1.54

46.85 5. 90 23. 80

2.95 Garden, fowls, etc.

7.17
1.18 .68 .07 3.17 75 2.94 .37

2.40

.30 Other sources. 15.88 2.61 37.87 4. Os 9.60 2. 26

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18. 50

2. 29 Total... 1,068.51100.00 607.41 100.00 927.74 100.00 425. 08100.00 793. 53 100.00 807.61 100.00

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.751

.08

1 Including 1 Merican and 1 Filipino family.
2 Including Part-Hawaiian.

3 Including 1 Spanish family.

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A larger percentage of Hawaiian children contribute to the family support than of Chinese or Caucasians, other than Portuguese, and the figures are probably in this respect representative. The Chinese are probably the most solicitous for the education of their children of any people in Hawaii.

The income from gratuities is confined to Chinese families because the people of this race occupy positions as stewards and waiters. Pensions and benefits represent over 3 per cent of the average income of the Portuguese families because the people of this nationality contribute to three large benefit societies. The Portuguese also receive the most income from house rents and from lodgers and boarders, while the Chinese receive the most from the sale of vegetables and fowls.

The average income of Caucasians, other than Portuguese, is more than one-eighth larger than the average income of all races, and is approached only by the income of Hawaiians. The Portuguese, Chinese, and Japanese follow in the order named. The average earnings of the father in each race group follow the same order as the total family income.

The average income for all the 363 families was $807.61, which is probably much higher than the average income of an equal number of families of equally diverse race groups in any other part of the world. Even the average Japanese income of $425.06 per annum is probably larger than the average income of white workers of a similar class in many of the States of the Union.

The next table shows the average, the minimum, and the maximum income per family of different races. The largest income was reported by an Hawaiian family, the second largest by a Portuguese family, and the third largest by a Caucasian other than Portuguese. On the other hand, the smallest income is reported by a Chinese family. The per capita earnings were largest in the Caucasian families other than Portuguese and the smallest in the Chinese families. The proportion of families showing a deficit was the largest in case of the Japanese. The most probable reason for the large percentage of Japanese families having deficits is that the heads of a number of these families are plantation laborers just establishing themselves in some trade or profession at Honolulu. AVERAGE, MINIMUM, AND MAXIMUM INCOME PER FAMILY AND PER CAPITA, AND

AVERAGE SURPLUS AND DEFICIT PER FAMILY, BY RACE, 1910.

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The following table shows the distribution of expenditure by races. The Caucasians other than Portuguese spent a larger proportion of their income for rent and for furniture than any other race group, and as the average income of the families of this group was the largest the absolute amount spent for these items very much exceeded that of any other race. The Chinese led in a percentage of annual income devoted to miscellaneous purposes; the Hawaiians led the other races decidedly in an expenditure for clothing. The Japanese, having the smallest average income per family, naturally spent the largest proportion of this income for food. The percentage in this case is to be explained, however, not alone by the fact that the total family income was smaller than in the case of other race groups, but also by the fact that the number of children per family was smaller. For clothing the Japanese spent less than the people of any other race; they spent a larger proportion of their income for medical expenses, and absolutely spent for this purpose nearly as much as the Portuguese and more than either the Hawaiians or the Chinese. In percentages the distribution of Portuguese expenditures falls within the extremes of expenditures by the other races. The absolute amount spent for light and fuel is greater than in case of any other race but the Caucasians other than Portuguese. This is due partly to the large amount of bread baked and consumed by families of this nationality. The small fuel expenditure of the Hawaiians is due to their large consumption of poi and raw fish, neither of which involve household cooking. The per capita expenditure for food appears to be less among the Chinese than among the people of other races.

AVERAGE ANNUAL EXPENDITURE PER FAMILY FOR SPECIFIED PURPOSES AND

PER CENT OF TOTAL EXPENDITURES, BY RACE, 1910.

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Rent.
Light and fuel.
Furniture.
Food..
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Merlical expenses..
Miscellancous.

Total.

$119.65 13.14 $59. 29| 10.43 $81.58 10.70 $38.97 10.04 $66.66 9.29 $71.93 10.27 56. 75 6. 23 22. 53 3.97 23.83 3. 12 25.19 6. 49 45. 37 6.32 32.74 4. 67 34.75 3.82 17.04 3.00 25. 91 3. 40 11.63 3.00 20. 27 2. 82 22.11 3. 16 458. SO 50. 40 246.84 43. 44 370.33 48. 561 212.64 54.80 388.82 54.18 353. 46 50. 46 106.25 11.67 93. 26 16. 41 157.36 20.03 29.65 7.64 82.29 11.47 111.31 15.89

26. 29 2. 89 14.88 2. 62 7. 23 95 16.77 4. 32 17.23 2. 40 13. 15 1.88 107.83 11.85 114.38 20.13 96.41 12. 64 53.21 13. 71 97.04 13.52 95.75 13. 67

910.32 100.00 568. 22 100.00 762. 65 100.00 388.06 100.00 717. 68/100.00 700. 45 100.00

1 Including 1 Mexican and 1 Filipino family.
2 Including Part-Hawaiian.

3 Including 1 Spanish family.

The housing conditions of the families visited are shown in the following table. The large proportion of leaseholds among Portuguese is due partly to an accident of location, and possibly in part to traditions brought from Portugal. The Japanese show the most evidence of overcrowding, for two-thirds of the families of this nationality reside in one room. However, these families are somewhat smaller than those of other nationalities, and the per capita accommodations nearly equal those of the Chinese. No Caucasian family, other than Portuguese, lived in a tenement of less than four rooms, and nearly 94 per cent of the Portuguese lived in houses of this size or larger. The average number of rooms per person was greatest in case of the Hawaiians and Caucasians, whose standards of living are more nearly equal than those of the other races.

The large proportion of families of all nationalities living in houses with individual bath and sanitary toilet constitutes a satisfactory showing, as does also the fact that so many of the white population (Portuguese and other Caucasians) lived in detached cottages instead of tenements. Chinese, Japanese, and Hawaiians, in the order named, are the principal tenement dwellers, the Chinese especially preferring this kind of an habitation.

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The table showing average expenditures per family for selected articles of food confirms what is already known as to the dietary of the different nationalities here represented. The significant fact in the Caucasian dietary is the large absolute and porportionate expenditure for fresh meat. Yet (and here the figures contradict a popular

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