« AnteriorContinuar »
UNFURNISHED LODGINGS RENTED BY PUBLIC ADMINISTRATION EMPLOYEES
RESIDING IN ROME, CLASSIFIED ACCORDING TO MODERN CONVENIENCES PRO. VIDED.
Among salaried employees the average annual rental per unfurnished room varied from above 60 lire ($11.58) to 120 lire ($23.16) in 26 per cent of the lodgings investigated; from above 120 lire (823.16) to 180 lire ($34.74) in 56 per cent of the cases; from above 180 lire ($34.74) to 240 lire ($46.32) in 13 per cent of the number; and in 5 per cent of the dwellings included in the inquiry the annual rental per room amounted to more than 240 lire ($46.32). The rent paid by subordinate employees was somewhat lower, the yearly average for a room being below 120 lire ($23.16) in 41 per cent of all cases reported, while for special-service employees the average was below 120 lire ($23.16) in 58 per cent of all cases.
The second part of the report relates to the habitations of railway employees of the lower grades residing in Rome. Two general classes of employees, those belonging to the central administration and those concerned with the operation of the various railway lines, were included. In each case the inquiry was restricted to employees of the twelfth grade and under. For the purpose of classification of results, persons belonging to each service were divided into two groups, viz, those of grade 12 and those below that grade, the facts for each group being reported separately.
The following table shows the distribution of lodgings among the different classes and grades of railway employees, according to number of rooms and occupants:
UNFURNISHED LODGINGS RENTED BY RAILWAY EMPLOYEES RESIDING IN ROME,
CLASSIFIED ACCORDING TO NUMBER OF ROOMS AND OCCUPANTS.
1 Including 3 lodgings for which data were not reported.
By reference to the foregoing table it is seen that of 143 lodgings occupied by employees of the central administration for which the facts were reported 21, or 14.7 per cent, contained one occupant; 20, or 14 per cent, two occupants; 32, or 22.4 per cent, three occupants; 25, or 17.5 per cent, four occupants; 19, or 13.2 per cent, five occupants; and 26, or 18.2 per cent, six or more occupants. Among employees of railway lines, of 1,479 lodgings investigated, 8.9 per cent were occupied by one person, 13.5 per cent by two persons, 16.6 per cent by three persons, 16.2 per cent by four persons, 13.9 per cent by five persons, and 30.9 per cent by six or more persons. The number of lodgings composed of one room was nearly 11 per cent of the entire number. One-third of the total number was made up of apartments of three rooms.
The following table classifies the lodgings according to the annual amount of rent per room:
UNFURNISHED LODGINGS RENTED BY RAILWAY EMPLOYEES LIVING IN ROME,
CLASSIFIED BY AMOUNT OF RENT PER ROOM.
Of the 1,625 lodgings occupied by railway employees of all grades covered by the investigation, 39 per cent rented for 120 lire ($23.16) or less per room annually. In nearly 84 per cent of all cases the annual amount of rent.per room was 180 lire ($34.74) or less.
Part three of the volume contains data relating to the homes of railway employees in 53 cities of Italy. The facts reported are for 23,921 habitations, containing 75,138 rooms and occupied by 104,004 persons. This information is presented in a series of statistical tables, which show in detail the principal data for each class of employees in the different localities. Among the facts shown are the number of employees of each class having dependent persons at their charge, the number of such dependents, the average number of persons comprising the family, the average annual rent per room, and the average number of persons occupying each room.
Part four consists of various statistical data of an economic or demographic nature relating to public administration employees in Rome. The facts reported are for the same classes of persons described in the first section of the volume, the information being presented in a series of 11 statistical tables with a text analysis of each.
Utländska Jordbruksarbetare i Sverige, år 1907. Utgifven af K.
Kommerskollegii afdelning för Arbetsstatistik. Stockholm, 1909.
This report of the Royal Board of Trade of Sweden, division of industrial statistics, treats of the employment of alien laborers in Sweden. This employment is chiefly seasonal, commencing with the month of April and continuing until the close of November or the beginning of December. It is only recently that such labor has become of notable importance, taking its beginning in the year 1904. In 1907, when the present inquiry was conducted, the number had grown to 1,678. Of this number 386 were employed in industrial establishments manufacturing a sort of peat bricks. By far the greater number, however, are agricultural employees engaged in the raising of beets. The number thus employed was 1,174, of whom 414 were males and 760 were females. Of the males 93 were under 18 years of age, while of the females but 75 were under 18 years old.
The chief sources of supply for these workers were Austrian Galicia, 707, and Russian Poland, 324; 24 came from Roumania, 12 from Germany, and 107 were from unknown localities. The employer defrays the expenses of the journey from and to the country of residence, the average cost being 40 kroner ($10.72), besides an employment agent's fee of 10 kroner ($2.68).
The contract may be for the season, or the hiring may be by the day; a common method is to hire for a period of three months for a fixed sum, then to work by the day at somewhat higher wages during the harvest. The payment is made partly in provisions, lodging, fuel, etc., and partly in cash, the total payment averaging 1.80 kroner (48 cents) per day for adult males and 1.37 kroner (37 cents) for females during ordinary employment, and 2.03 kroner (54 cents) for males and 1.66 kroner (44 cents) for females during harvest. The hours of labor average ten and two-thirds per day, the total working time being twelve and three-fourths hours, with three rest periods amounting to a little more than two hours. The annual savings per employee per season are rated at from 150 to 200 kroner ($40.20 to $53.60). The food is regarded as sufficient and the lodgings satisfactory.
DECISIONS OF COURTS AFFECTING LABOR. (Except in cases of special interest, the decisions here presented are restricted to those rendered by the Federal courts and the higher courts of the States and Territories. Only material portions of such decisions are reproduced, introductory and explanatory matter being given in the words of the editor.]
DECISIONS UNDER STATUTE LAW.
COMBINATIONS IN RESTRAINT OF TRADE-ANTITRUST LAWPENALTIES-JURISDICTION-CONSTITUTIONALITY—Grenada Lumber Co. et al. v. State, Supreme Court of Mississippi, 54 Southern Reporter, page 8.—This case was before the supreme court of the State following an action by the attorney general of the State to recover the penalties provided in section 5004 of the Code for the violation of the antitrust law, section 5002 et seq. A combination of retail dealers in lumber, sash, doors, etc., doing business in the States of Mississippi and Louisiana had been found guilty of a violation of the statute named, having combined in restraint of trade. The judgment of the State courts was affirmed in the Supreme Court of the United States, 217 U.S. 433, 30 Sup. Ct. 535. (See Bulletin No. 89, p. 414.) The penalty prescribed by the statute is not less than $200 nor more than $5,000 for each offense, each day of the violation constituting a separate offense. The suit, therefore, was to recover a penalty of $197,000 against each of the offending companies in the association, making a total of $14,184,000. Action had been brought in the chancery court of Holmes County and the defendants demurred. The demurrer was overruled, whereupon the defendants appealed to the supreme court of the State, which affirmed the judgment of the court below and remanded the case for further proceedings. The questions involved were, first, as to the jurisdiction of the chancery court; second, as to individual or joint liability for the penalty incurred; third, whether there was a limitation running against the State; and fourth, whether or not the penalties were so excessive as to be confiscatory and in violation of the fourteenth amendment of the Constitution of the United States.
The opinion of the court was delivered by Judge Anderson who discussed the law of the State governing jurisdiction, reaching the conclusion that the court in which the suit had been brought had the case properly before it. As to other points involved, Judge Anderson said:
By the express terms of section 5004 of the Code, each person, partnership, or corporation is liable for the penalty provided for its