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In 4 subgroups the average is above 7 eggs per capita weekly; in 2 it is practically 7; in 10 it is above 5 but less than 6; in 10 more it is above 4 and less than 5; in nine it is above 3 but less than 4; and in 2 only is the average less than 3.
The gross annual consumption of eggs in the United States is very large, and that by the 3,215 families now under consideration, estimated on the basis of the budgets, would itself amount to 312,500 dozens. The total number of eggs produced in the whole of the United States during 1909 is estimated at about 1,400,000,000 dozens.
Coffee, as contrasted with tea, may be regarded as the national domestic beverage. The average consumption of coffee per capita per week is 0.20 pound for the whole group. Of the components the American returns show a weekly consumption of 0.23 pound per capita, the British 0.12 pound, and the Canadian 0.09 pound. The American budgets obtained in Pittsburg, with 0.31 pound per capita per week, show the largest consumption, followed by six subgroups of Americans with an average weekly consumption per capita of over 0.25 pound. The smallest consumption is shown by British returns from Lowell, viz, 0.03 pound. There are nine subgroups at the lower end of the scale using less than 0.10 pound of coffee weekly, and of these only one is American. The 106 American families in Muncie, which often provided the minima in foodstuffs, are eleventh on the list.in coffee consumption, using 0.23 pound per capita per week, or 0.03 pound above the average of the whole group, and but little short of the general American average, as shown by the budgets.
The average consumption of tea per capita per week is, for the whole group, 0.07 pound. Of the components the returns from British-born families show an average of 0.10 pound, from Canadians one of 0.09 pound, and from Americans one of 0.06 pound. The consumption of cocoa and chocolate relatively to both coffee and tea is very small, about 1 pound per capita per annum for the whole group.
The average weekly consumption of sugar per capita is, for the whole group, 1.06 pounds. Of the components, the American and Canadian returns show an average of 1.03 pounds and those of the British-born 1.13 pounds. The range within the group is, as usual, very considerable, viz, from 1.44 to 0.78 per capita. Out of the 37 subgroups of 25 budgets or more, 22 show a consumption of at least 1 pound per capita weekly, and the mean for the remaining 15 subgroups is 14 ounces per capita weekly, or 45.5 pounds per annum.
The average consumption of molasses and sirup per capita per week for the whole group is 0.09 pint.
The average consumption of all meat, including poultry and sausage, shown by the budgets, is 14.4 pounds per family weekly, or at
146.6 156.0 146. 6 160.2
the rate of 152 pounds per capita per annum; if fish be included, the amount is increased to 168 pounds. The range of consumption is very great, from 100 pounds in the lowest income class to 192 pounds in the highest. If fish be included, these figures become 109 pounds and 212 pounds, respectively.
Of the components of the group the Canadian returns show the lowest meat consumption, with 138.75 pounds per capita per annum (excluding fish), as against 155.5 pounds and 152 pounds, as shown by those of the British-born and of Americans, respectively.
Transportation and the refrigerating car tend to weaken the significance of the aggregate consumption figures yielded by the budgets for different areas. For the various geographical groups of towns, however, the following are the figures of annual consumption per capita: New England towns...... Other Eastern towns (including New York). Central towns..... Middle West towns.
When these aggregate figures are analyzed, the most important local differences shown are in the consumption of mutton and lamb, pork and bacon, ham, etc. Thus, while the consumption of beef is at its lowest in the Central and Middle West groups of towns, with percentages to the total meat consumption of 45 and 45.1, respectively, and reaches its maximum proportion in the New England towns, with 50.7 per cent, the minimum and maximum percentage of mutton and lamb differ much more considerably between the various groups of towns, the respective figures being 4.9 per cent in the Middle West group and 13.1 in that of New England. Pork, on the other hand, is at its maximum in the Middle West towns, with 19.2 per cent of total meat consumption, and at its lowest in the other eastern towns (including New York) at 10.7 per cent. The consumption of bacon, ham, etc., is also at its maximum in the Middle West group of towns, where it accounts for 13.6 per cent of the total meat consumption shown by the budgets, but was at its minimum in the New England towns, with 9.9 per cent. Local variations are also great in the cases of veal, sausage, and poultry, but these forms of meat enter less into the family dietaries.
The following table sets out the quantities and percentages of the different kinds of meat, as shown by the budgets, derived from the various geographical groups of towns:
CONSUMPTION OF DIFFERENT KINDS OF MEAT, BY GEOGRAPHICAL GROUPS OF
Annual consumption of meat (pounds) Percentage consumption of each kind of per capita in
The average consumption of beef per capita per annum is, for the whole group, 71.7 pounds, and the component nationalities show no important deviation from this figure; the returns from the Britishborn showing an average of 75.9 pounds, from the Americans one of 70.3 pounds, and from the Canadians one of 69.8 pounds.
The average consumption of pork, fresh and salt, in the whole group is 24.1 pounds per capita per annum; of the components the British returns show an average of 19 pounds, the American one of 25 pounds, and the Canadian one of 34 pounds.
The average consumption of bacon per capita per annum is, for the whole group, 18.5 pounds; for the components: British-born 19.7 pounds, American 18.9 pounds, and Canadian 9.4 pounds. Combining the figures for pork and bacon, the British returns show a consumption of 38.8 pounds per capita per annum, the Canadian 43.1 pounds, and the American 43.9 pounds, and when thus combined there is but little difference in the consumption shown.
The average consumption of mutton and lamb is only 13.3 pounds per capita per annum for the whole group. Of the components, the British-born show an average of 18.9 pounds, the American one of 11.6 pounds, and the Canadian of 9.4 pounds. The range of consumption is very great.
The average consumption of veal for the whole group is 9 pounds per capita per annum.
For sausage the average per capita per annum is 7.75 pounds. The American average is 8.5 pounds, showing a slightly larger consumption than the Canadian (7.75 pounds), while that of the British-born falls to 5.8 pounds. There are only three town groups of 25 or more budgets in which the consumption of sausage exceeds 15 pounds per capita per annum, and in 19 such town groups the consumption is 6 pounds or less; in 6 of these it is below 3 pounds.
The relative proportion of each kind of meat to all meat in the whole group is set out below:
PERCENTAGE CONSUMPTION OF EACH KIND OF MEAT IN AMERICAN-BRITISH
Beef, fresh and corned.
8.8 15.8 12. 2 6.0 5.1 5.0
Among the component nationalities the Canadians, according to the budgets, use the largest proportion of beef, viz, 50.4 per cent, while the British-born show a consumption of mutton and lamb much greater than that used by either of the others, viz., 12.2 per cent, as against 7.6 per cent in the American returns and 6.8 per cent in the Canadian. There are also great differences in the consumption of pork, which forms 24 per cent of the whole in the case of the Canadians, 16 per cent in that of the Americans, and 12 per cent in that of the British-born as set out in the budgets.
Fish is of considerable importance in these dietaries, the returns from the British-born showing a consumption of 0.42 pound per capita per week, the Canadian one of 0.33 pound and the American one of 0.27 pound. If fish be included with meat the average annual consumption of all meat per capita for the whole group is, as already stated, raised to 168 pounds.
The local figures of quantity of fish consumed reflect mainly differences in the degree of facility with which fish can be obtained, all the towns showing the highest consumption being within easy reach of the Atlantic seaboard. The actual consumption per capita per annum as shown by the budgets of the various geographical groups of towns is as follows:
Pounds. New England towns..
23.9 Other Eastern towns (including New York)....
22.9 Central towns....
9.4 Middle West towns.
The annual per capita consumption of and expenditure on all meat and fish and the percentage of income spent on such food is as follows in each of the income classes:
CONSUMPTION OF AND EXPENDITURE ON MEAT AND FISH IN AMERICAN-BRITISH
The predominant range of consumption of all meat, poultry, and fish per capita per annum is from 140 to 190 pounds, 23 local nationality subgroups of at least 25 budgets each, comprising 2,201 families, falling within this range. The corresponding predominant range excluding fish and poultry may be taken as from 120 to 160 pounds per capita per annum.
The consumption of meat of all kinds as shown by the budgets is in general high and much above European standards. As a rule nationality and occupation greatly influence the figures, and locality has been seen to be not without its effects, but when it is considered that in the lowest income class of the group of budgets under consideration the purchase of all meat and fish is 109 pounds per capita per annum (notwithstanding the fact that out of 119 children only two are earning and the remainder are of low average age), while it approaches double this figure in the highest income class, it is obvious that meat is regarded as a very important feature of the family dietary.
A general tendency for food consumption per capita to rise with income is shown in the budgets, but in this there is no regularity. On the whole it is more marked as regards the first three income classes, that is, for those earning up to and under £4 ($19.47) per week, but even in these classes in some commodities as, for instance, pork, bacon and ham; sugar; lard, suet, and dripping, and coffee, it is hardly apparent in the budgets. As regards the total meat consumption itself it is only in the classes with family earnings averaging less than £4 ($19.47) per week that the consumption tends to move consistently with income.
In addition to the large meat consumption, one of the most striking features of the American British budgets is the great variety of food consumed and the relatively small proportion which the family food bill bears to total income.