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The position is set out in the following table:
AVERAGE WEEKLY CONSUMPTION AND EXPENDITURE PER CAPITA ON BREAD,
Rolls, cakes, biscuits, and other forms of fancy bread form a constant and important item in the cereal food consumption of American households, amounting to 0.9 pound per capita weekly in this group. The particulars furnished for British-born families show rather more than the average, and those for Canadian little more than half the amount, or 0.5 pound per capita weekly.
The consumption of macaroni, noodles, and spaghetti per family rises slowly with the income, but the average per capita is almost constant throughout, something less than 0.1 pound weekly. The differences shown by the components of the group are insignificant.
There is a small rise in the per capita consumption of rice, barley, sago, etc., with the income. The average per capita is 0.18 pound weekly, and again no material departure from the general average is shown by the components of the group.
The average weekly consumption of oatmeal and breakfast cereals is almost exactly 0.25 pound per capita for the whole group, but it is somewhat higher in the middle income class than at either end of the series.
Potatoes are an important constituent of the dietary, showing an average of 21 pounds per family weekly for all budgets together, or 4.3 pounds per capita. There is no material difference between the components of the group in their per capita consumption.
Dried peas and beans (chiefly the small haricot, sometimes known in the United States as "Navy beans") are used in considerable quantity. The American and British-born families use about a quarter of a pound per capita weekly, the Canadian, 0.4 pound.
It is not possible even to estimate the quantities consumed, but the expenditure on green vegetables rises steadily with the income from 9d. (18.3 cents) per family in the lowest income class, to 2s. 7d. (62.9 cents) in the highest, so that, allowing for different size of family, the expenditure per capita is just doubled in the latter class. The
expenditure on sweet corn and sweet potatoes is somewhat irregular, but tends to rise with the income. The former is sold very largely in the "cob" and the price of both is dependent upon season and locality. The canned vegetables are chiefly tomatoes, for which 10 cents per can, weighing about 24 pounds gross, or three cans for 25 cents, are very general prices. "String beans" are also largely used. The consumption of sweet potatoes, a southern rather than a northern food, is much greater in the American than in either the British-born or Canadian families. The expenditure per capita on sweet corn and fresh and canned vegetables is highest in the American returns and lowest in the Canadian.
The average consumption of fresh milk is a little over one quart per capita weekly, being 56 quarts per annum for the whole group. Of the components the American returns show an average of 54 quarts, the British one of 61 quarts, and the Canadian one of 66 quarts.
The average consumption of condensed milk is for the whole group 0.15 pound per capita per week. For the components the figures show but little difference, although the range within the group is very great. In 14 out of the 37 subgroups of not less than 25 families each into which, on the basis of nationality, and town, the budgets fall, the quantity is 0.10 pound per capita or less; 16 subgroups use 0.10 pound and less than 0.20 pound, and in the remaining 7 the consumption ranges from 0.20 pound to 0.40 pound per capita per week.
The average consumption of butter per capita per week is for the whole group 0.42 pound. The differences between the components are insignificant, the Canadian returns showing a slightly higher consumption than the others. Within the group the range is considerable, from 0.64 pound, as shown by the American returns from Duluth, to 0.27 pound by those of Americans in St. Louis. Out of the 37 subgroups of more than 25 budgets each, 16 have a consumption of 0.40 pound and less than 0.50 pound per capita per week.
The consumption of lard, suet, and dripping averages for the whole group 0.29 pound per capita per week. Of the components the British-born average 0.20 pound, the Canadians, 0.30, and the Americans, 0.33.
The average consumption of cheese of all kinds, is, for the group, 0.11 pound per capita per week, the Americans and the British-born each showing an average almost equal to that of the group, and the Canadians an average of 0.09 pound.
The consumption of eggs is, for the whole group, 4.6 per capita weekly (237 per annum). Of the components the returns from the British-born show an average of 5.1, from the Americans one of 4.4, and from the Canadians one of 4.3 per capita weekly; equivalent to 265, 229, and 224 per annum, respectively. The 37 subgroups show a very wide range of consumption from 8 eggs per capita weekly to 2.
In 4 subgroups the average is above 7 eggs per capita weekly; in 2 it is practically 7; in 10 it is above 5 but less than 6; in 10 more it is above 4 and less than 5; in nine it is above 3 but less than 4; and in 2 only is the average less than 3.
The gross annual consumption of eggs in the United States is very large, and that by the 3,215 families now under consideration, estimated on the basis of the budgets, would itself amount to 312,500 dozens. The total number of eggs produced in the whole of the United States during 1909 is estimated at about 1,400,000,000 dozens. Coffee, as contrasted with tea, may be regarded as the national domestic beverage. The average consumption of coffee per capita per week is 0.20 pound for the whole group. Of the components the American returns show a weekly consumption of 0.23 pound per capita, the British 0.12 pound, and the Canadian 0.09 pound. The American budgets obtained in Pittsburg, with 0.31 pound per capita per week, show the largest consumption, followed by six subgroups of Americans with an average weekly consumption per capita of over 0.25 pound. The smallest consumption is shown by British returns from Lowell, viz, 0.03 pound. There are nine subgroups at the lower end of the scale using less than 0.10 pound of coffee weekly, and of these only one is American. The 106 American families in Muncie, which often provided the minima in foodstuffs, are eleventh on the list- in coffee consumption, using 0.23 pound per capita per week, or 0.03 pound above the average of the whole group, and but little short of the general American average, as shown by the budgets.
The average consumption of tea per capita per week is, for the whole group, 0.07 pound. Of the components the returns from British-born families show an average of 0.10 pound, from Canadians one of 0.09 pound, and from Americans one of 0.06 pound. The consumption of cocoa and chocolate relatively to both coffee and tea is very small, about 1 pound per capita per annum for the whole group.
The average weekly consumption of sugar per capita is, for the whole group, 1.06 pounds. Of the components, the American and Canadian returns show an average of 1.03 pounds and those of the British-born 1.13 pounds. The range within the group is, as usual, very considerable, viz, from 1.44 to 0.78 per capita. Out of the 37 subgroups of 25 budgets or more, 22 show a consumption of at least 1 pound per capita weekly, and the mean for the remaining 15 subgroups is 14 ounces per capita weekly, or 45.5 pounds per annum.
The average consumption of molasses and sirup per capita per week for the whole group is 0.09 pint.
The average consumption of all meat, including poultry and sausage, shown by the budgets, is 14.4 pounds per family weekly, or at
the rate of 152 pounds per capita per annum; if fish be included, the amount is increased to 168 pounds. The range of consumption is very great, from 100 pounds in the lowest income class to 192 pounds in the highest. If fish be included, these figures become 109 pounds and 212 pounds, respectively.
Of the components of the group the Canadian returns show the lowest meat consumption, with 138.75 pounds per capita per annum (excluding fish), as against 155.5 pounds and 152 pounds, as shown by those of the British-born and of Americans, respectively.
Transportation and the refrigerating car tend to weaken the significance of the aggregate consumption figures yielded by the budgets for different areas. For the various geographical groups of towns, however, the following are the figures of annual consumption per capita:
When these aggregate figures are analyzed, the most important local differences shown are in the consumption of mutton and lamb, pork and bacon, ham, etc. Thus, while the consumption of beef is at its lowest in the Central and Middle West groups of towns, with percentages to the total meat consumption of 45 and 45.1, respectively, and reaches its maximum proportion in the New England towns, with 50.7 per cent, the minimum and maximum percentage of mutton and lamb differ much more considerably between the various groups of towns, the respective figures being 4.9 per cent in the Middle West group and 13.1 in that of New England. Pork, on the other hand, is at its maximum in the Middle West towns, with 19.2 per cent of total meat consumption, and at its lowest in the other eastern towns (including New York) at 10.7 per cent. The consumption of bacon, ham, etc., is also at its maximum in the Middle West group of towns, where it accounts for 13.6 per cent of the total meat consumption shown by the budgets, but was at its minimum in the New England towns, with 9.9 per cent. Local variations are also great in the cases of veal, sausage, and poultry, but these forms of meat enter less into the family dietaries.
The following table sets out the quantities and percentages of the different kinds of meat, as shown by the budgets, derived from the various geographical groups of towns:
CONSUMPTION OF DIFFERENT KINDS OF MEAT, BY GEOGRAPHICAL GROUPS OF
Annual consumption of meat (pounds) Percentage consumption of each kind of per capita in
The average consumption of beef per capita per annum is, for the whole group, 71.7 pounds, and the component nationalities show no important deviation from this figure; the returns from the Britishborn showing an average of 75.9 pounds, from the Americans one of 70.3 pounds, and from the Canadians one of 69.8 pounds.
The average consumption of pork, fresh and salt, in the whole group is 24.1 pounds per capita per annum; of the components the British returns show an average of 19 pounds, the American one of 25 pounds, and the Canadian one of 34 pounds.
The average consumption of bacon per capita per annum is, for the whole group, 18.5 pounds; for the components: British-born 19.7 pounds, American 18.9 pounds, and Canadian 9.4 pounds. Combining the figures for pork and bacon, the British returns show a consumption of 38.8 pounds per capita per annum, the Canadian 43.1 pounds, and the American 43.9 pounds, and when thus combined there is but little difference in the consumption shown.
The average consumption of mutton and lamb is only 13.3 pounds per capita per annum for the whole group. Of the components, the British-born show an average of 18.9 pounds, the American one of 11.6 pounds, and the Canadian of 9.4 pounds. The range of consumption is very great.
The average consumption of veal for the whole group is 9 pounds per capita per annum.
For sausage the average per capita per annum is 7.75 pounds. The American average is 8.5 pounds, showing a slightly larger consumption than the Canadian (7.75 pounds), while that of the British-born falls to 5.8 pounds. There are only three town groups of 25 or more