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the various industries and in the various localities the custom regarding the time of the noon meal differs greatly.

It is of interest to note that other investigations as to the time of day when the accidents occur show substantially the same results as those above cited. In the Report on Condition of Woman and Child Wage-earners in the United States the accidents in cotton textile mills (Vol. I) and in establishments engaged in the metal trades (Vol. XI) are distributed throughout the day in practically the same proportion as is stated above. In explanation of the increasing proportion of accidents during the first 4 or 5 hours, the report (Vol. I, p. 396) suggests that at the beginning of the day the worker in the factory gradually increases his speed in order to increase his output, but such increased exertion soon becomes accompanied by increase of fatigue, lack of care, etc., and naturally results in a higher accident rate. In the afternoon the sense of fatigue overcomes the desire for increased output and is also accompanied by the feeling that, since a certain amount of work has been accomplished, a lessening of effort is permissible. This suggested explanation is apparently based on the experience of factory employees and especially of piece-rate workers. It is worthy of note that practically the same tendency to an increase of accidents during the first 4 hours of work occurs in industries where piecework can prevail to only a limited extent, such as in the operation of gas and water works (association 19) and in the operation of the State railways. TABLE 10.-NUMBER OF HOURS OF WORK PRECEDING THE ACCIDENT: PER CENT OF PERSONS KILLED OR INJURED, BY NUMBER OF HOURS OF WORK ON DAY OF ACCIDENT. (Source: Amtliche Nachrichten des Reichs-Versicherungsamts, 1910. I Beihest, I Teil. Gewerbe-Unfall

statistik für das Jahr 1907, pp. 329 to 335.]

[graphic]

10 hrs. 1 to 2 2 to 3 3 to 4 4 to 5 5 to 6 6 to 7 7 to 8 8 to 9 9 to 10 hrs. hrs. hrs. hrs. hrs. hrs. hrs. hrs.

and hrs.

over.

A. TOTALS. Grand total.... 79,791 4.94 8.63 9.21 11.28 12.20 10.16 8.10 8.66 8.54 7.57 10.71 Industrial accident associations (not including insti. tutes).

74,084 4.89 8.57 9.10 11. 24 12.20 10.24 8.13 8.68 8.54 7.59 10.82 Subsidiary insti

tutes of building
trades, engineer-
ing, and naviga-
tion accident as-

sociations.... 1,255 4.38 9.00 11.39 11.47 12.27 6.85 7.17 9.48 10.52 7.82 9.65 Public authorities. 4, 452 5.80 9.57 10. 4711.93 12.38 9.70 7.82 8.11 8.11 7.23 8.88 B. GROUPS OF ASSO

CIATIONS. 1 Mining:

11,194 5.02 10.53 10.89 13.10 14.36 14.34 9.90 9.31 5.42 3.00 4.13 2 Quarrying

2,610 5.36 9.04 10.50 10.38 11.69 8.85 8.39 8.39 9.16) 7.78 10.46 3 Fine mechanical

products... 1,455 6.12 9.35 10.37| 14.23) 13. 33 10.24 7.70 9.28 8.73 6.32 4.33 4-11 | Iron and steel... 113, 9661 4.321 8.871 8.231 11. 01l 12. 091 9.901 7.15 8.45 9.341 9.771 10.87 TABLE 10.-NUMBER OF HOURS OF WORK PRECEDING THE ACCIDENT: PER CENT OF PERSONS KILLED OR INJURED, BY NUMBER OF HOURS OF WORK ON DAY OF ACCIDENT-Concluded. CAUSES OF ACCIDENTS.

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causes.

In Table 11 the proportion of the accidents due to the various causes are given for the standard industry groups. In this table the accidents are distributed among 17 groups of

If there was more than one cause responsible for the accident, the accident is classified under the cause which had the greatest influence in producing the injury.

The accidents in the first 4 groups in the table may be grouped together as having been caused by machinery of various sorts; these 4 groups included 24.37 per cent of the accidents of the year 1907. The machinery accidents resulted fatally in 1.07 per cent of all the accidents, while of all the fatal accidents machinery caused 13.40 per cent. Out of the total number of 81,248 accidents compensated for the first time in 1907, motors, etc., caused 0.64 per cent, transmission apparatus 1.20 per cent, working machinery of all kinds 17.50 per cent, and elevators, etc.,5.03 per cent. A table printed in the original report but not here given shows that there were 19,803 accidents caused by machinery of all kinds. The highest proportion of these occurred in the iron and steel industries, which had 24.26 per cent of the number just given. The woodworking associations had 15.77 per cent, the textile associations 7.91 per cent, the mining 6.96 per cent, the building trades 6.15 per cent, the metal-working trades 4.81 per cent, the fine mechanical products association 3.28 per cent, and the express and storage association 2.54 per cent.

Of the accidents occurring in each industry group, 71 per cent of those occurring in the paper products group were due to machinery of all kinds; in the clothing group 66.42 per cent of the accidents were caused by machinery, the metal-working group had 62.17 per cent, the musical instruments 61.33 per cent, the woodworking 59.13 per cent, the printing and publishing group 57.71 per cent, and the textile group 57.21 per cent.

Of the accidents caused by motors, engines, etc. (including prime movers of all kinds), the highest proportion occurred in the case of marine navigation (association 63) where they formed 8.28 per cent of the accidents compensated in this industry; the group with the next highest proportion of accidents due to motors, etc., was inland navigation (association 60-62) where the proportion was 2.26 per cent of the accidents compensated in this industry. Dairying, distilling, etc. (association 38), has the next highest proportion, namely, 2.20 per cent of all the accidents compensated in 1907 in this industry. The detailed table not reproduced here shows that 70.79 per cent of the 517 accidents caused by motors were caused by steam engines, 4.26 per cent by water-power engines, 19.15 per cent by gas, compressed air, and wind motors, 5.03 per cent by electric motors and

cause.

dynamos, and 0.77 per cent by animal motors. Of the accidents which were due to motors 7.16 per cent resulted fatally, while of all fatal injuries 0.57 per cent were caused by motors.

The term “transmission apparatus” (Class II) includes shafting, pulleys, tooth and friction gears, belts, ropes, chains, etc. Of the accidents caused by transmission apparatus 15.74 per cent resulted in death; of all the fatal accidents 2.37 per cent were due to this

A few of the groups of industries show a conspicuously high proportion of their accidents as originating from transmission apparatus; thus flour milling (association 35) had 10.03 per cent of its accidents due to this cause, while paper making (association 28) had 6.31 per cent of its accidents so caused.

The accidents caused by "working machinery” (Class III) form 17.50 per cent of all the accidents compensated and comprise the largest group of accidents due to any one of the causes enumerated in the table. Of all the injuries due to this cause 1.36 per cent resulted fatally. In some of the industry groups this cause is responsible for over half of all the accidents compensated; thus of the group paper products (association 29) 67.80 per cent of the accidents were due to this cause; in the metal working group 57.47 per cent of the accidents are due to this cause. On account of the varied nature of the machinery included under the term “working machinery” the accidents in one industry group can not very well be contrasted with those in another group.

The cause numbered IV, elevators, cranes, hoists, lifts, etc., was responsible for 5.03 per cent of the total number of injuries in 1907. The industry groups in which this cause was especially conspicuous are the water transportation industries; in 1907 the marine navigation group (association 63) had 13.29 per cent and the inland navigation group (association 60-62) had 13.27 per cent of their accidents originating in this cause. Of the accidents in the sugar industry group (association 37) and also in the express and storage group (association 58), 9.45 per cent were caused by elevators, hoists, etc. All the other industry groups had less than 9 per cent of their injuries due to this cause.

Of all the accidents caused by elevators, hoists, etc., in 1907, 11.79 per cent were fatal, while of all the fatal accidents compensated 7.47 per cent were due to this cause.

The cause numbered V, steam boilers, etc., in 1907, is conspicuous for two things, first, the number of accidents is small, and second, those accidents which did arise from this cause frequently resulted in death, 26.85 per cent of these accidents causing the death of the injured person. Of the total number of fatal accidents in 1907, however, those due to steam boilers, etc., formed only 0.62 per cent.

The cause numbered VI, electric currents, was also responsible for a small number of accidents, but as in the preceding class, the accidents to a large degree resulted in death; 34.24 per cent of injuries caused by electric currents were fatalities, though only 0.97 per cent of all the fatal accidents were due to this cause.

The cause numbered VII, explosives of various kinds, possesses the same characteristics as the two preceding classes, the number of accidents being small and the proportion of this small number which resulted in death being large.

The cause numbered VIII, inflammable, hot, or corrosive substances, likewise was responsible in 1907 for a small number of accidents, of which 20.36 per cent resulted in death. The industry group chemicals (association 18) in 1907 had the highest proportion of accidents due to this cause, having 14.47 per cent of all its accidents originating in this class.

The cause numbered IX, collapse, fall, etc., of objects, materials, etc., was responsible for 15.08 per cent of all the accidents compensated in 1907. Of the total number of injuries in 1907 due to this cause, 10.75 per cent resulted in death, but these deaths formed 20.38 per cent of all the fatalities. This cause was responsible for 44.12 per cent of the accidents in the chimney sweeping industry (association 42), for 32.78 per cent of the accidents in the mining industry (association 1), and for 27.01 per cent of the accidents in the building trades industries (associations 43-54). All of the other industry groups had less than 20 per cent of their accidents arising from this cause.

The cause numbered X, falls on even surface, falls from stairs, ladders, fall into depressions, etc., was responsible for 11.30 per cent of the accidents compensated in 1907. Of all the accidents due to this cause, 8.48 per cent were fatal. The industry chimney sweeping (association 42) had 38.24 per cent of its accidents due to this cause, while the building trades (associations 43-54) had 23.82 per cent; the proportion of accidents due to this cause in the other groups was less than 20 per cent.

The cause numbered XI, loading, unloading, etc., formed 14.02 per cent of all the accidents compensated in 1907, and of these accidents 3.05 per cent were fatal. As would be expected, the industry with the highest proportion of its accidents due to this cause is the group express and storage (association 58) with 28.69 per cent. Other groups where heavy parcels or heavy material is moved show also a high proportion; brewing and malting (association 39) and engineering, excavating, etc. (association 64), had 24.88 per cent and 21.33 per cent, respectively, of all their accidents arising from this cause.

The cause numbered XII, teaming, drayage, etc., was responsible for 6.63 per cent of all the injuries compensated in 1907, and 10.15 per cent of these injuries were fatal. As in Class XI of

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