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stated that the monthly prices credited to weekly publications are the earliest quotations shown in such publications for each month.

In many localities the price of bread per loaf is not affected by changes in the price of flour, yet the weight of the loaf is changed from time to time. With the advance in the price of flour, the weight of the loaf is decreased in some localities. For this reason the relative prices of bread are computed on the price per pound and not per loaf. Table I shows the price per loaf, the price per pound, and the weight each month from January to December, 1910.

The average price for the year was obtained by dividing the sum of the quotations for a given commodity by the number of quotations shown. For example, the sum of the 52 Tuesday's prices of cotton for 1910 (shown on page 363) was $7.8615. This total divided by 52 gives $0.15118 as the average price for the year. When a range was shown the mean price for each date was found, and this was used in computing the yearly average as above described. The reader will understand that, in order to secure for any commodity a strictly scientific average price for the year, one must know the quantity marketed and the price for which each unit of quantity was sold. It is manifestly impossible to secure such detail, and even if it were possible the labor and cost involved in such a compilation would be prohibitive. It is believed that the method adopted here, which is also that used in the construction of other index numbers, secures results which are quite as valuable for all practical purposes.

The price of 8-penny nails quoted in this report is, by the established nail card of the trade, uniformly 10 cents per 100 pounds higher than the base price, the price given in market quotations. For an explanation of the nail card, the reader is referred to Bulletin No. 39, page 226.

The prices for the two quotations of wool appearing in this report were obtained as for washed wool and then reduced to the scouredwool basis by increasing the price in proportion to the amount of shrinkage.

On preceding pages of this report an opportunity has been afforded to note the extent of the change in wholesale prices between 1909 and 1910 by groups of commodities. The following table shows the per cent of increase or decrease in the average wholesale price in 1910 for each individual article as compared with the price in 1909:

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PER CENT OF INCREASE OR DECREASE IN THE AVERAGE WHOLESALE PRICES OF

COMMODITIES IN 1910, COMPARED WITH 1909.

Farm products, 20 articles.
(For a more detailed description of the articles, see Table I, page 362 et seq.)

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Meat: mutton, dressed..
Spices: pepper. Singapore.
Meat: bacon, short, clear sides.
Meat: bacon, short, rib sides.
Fruit: prunes, California, 60s to 70s.
Coffee: Rio, No. 7...
Tallow
Meat: hams, smoked, loose.
Meat: beer, salt, extra mess.
Fish: mackerel, salt, large No. 38..

11.8 12.5 13. 6 13. 8 117. 7 21.6 22. 7 25.5 32. 4 43. 2

PRICE INCREASED.

2.6 2.9 2. 9

PRICE DECREASED.

3.0 3.1 3.5 3. 6 4.2 4.7 5. 3

1.0 1.2 1. 2 2.1 2. S 3.6 4.1

Fish: salmon, canned.
Bread: loal (Washington market)..
Butter: creamery, Elgin (Elgin market).
Butter: creamery, extra (New York

market).
Tea: Formosa, fine..
Fish: herring, large, Nova Scotia split..
Eggs: new-laid, fair to fancy, near-by.
Sugar: granulated...
Sugar: 90° centrifugal.
Sugar; 89° fair refining..
Meat: beel, fresh, carcass, good native

steers (Chicago market)..
Molasses: New Orleans, open kettle.
Cheese: New York State, full cream.
Lard: prime, contract..
Bread: crackers, oyster.
Bread: crackers, soda...
Fruit: currants, in barrels.
Meat: beef, fresh, native sides (New

York market).
Canned goods: corn, Republic No. 2....
Fruit: apples, evaporated, choice.
Poultry: dressed,' fowls, western, dry

5.4 5. 8 5.9 7.2 7.0 7.0 8.0

Meat: beef, salt, hams, western
Bread: loal, Vienna (New York market).
Canned goods: Peas, Republic No. 2.
Fish: cod, dry bank, large.
Beans: medium, choice.
Vinegar: cider, Monarch.
Fruit: raisins, California, London layer.
Vegetables: fresh, onions.
Canned goods: tomatoes, Standard New

Jersey No. 3..
Flour: wheat, spring patents.
Meal: corn, fine white..
Flour: rye..
Salt: American, medium,
Meal: corn, fine, yellow..
Flour: buckwheat..
Rice: domestic, choice, head..
Flour: wheat, winter straights.
Glucose
Vegetables, fresh: cabbage.
Vegetables, fresh: potatoes, white.

82 8.3

4. 3 4.5 5. 1 5.7 7.7 8.2 9. 2 11.6 13.9 21.5 32. 9 37.7

8.7

picked..
Milk: fresh.
Butter: dairy, New York State.
Meat: pork, salt, mess..

88 8.9 9.5 11.2

PER CENT OF INCREASE OR DECREASE IN THE AVERAGE WHOLESALE PRICES OF

COMMODITIES IN 1910, COMPARED WITH 1909_Continued.

Cloths and clothing, 65 articles.

Article.

Per cent

of increase or decrease.

Article.

Per cent

of increase or decrease.

PRICE SAME AS IN 1909.

Boots and shoes: men's vici kid shoes,

Goodyear welt. Carpets: ingrain, 2-ply, Lowell. Cotion hread: 6-cord, J. & P. Coats. Linen shoe thread: 10s, Barbour Suitings: indigo blue, all wool, 14-ounce,

Middlesex standard.. Underwear: shirts and drawers, white,

all wool, 18-gauge.. Underwear: shirts and drawers, white,

merino, 60 per cent wool, 24-gauge.

7.7 & 4 8. 7 & 7 8.8 9.0

64..

PRICE INCREASED-concluded. Overcoatings: Kersey, 28-ounce. Bags: 2-bushel, Amoskeag. Sheetings: bleached, Atlantic. Sheetings: brown, Lawrence L. L. Tickings: Amos keag, A. C. A... Drillings: Stark A Calico: American standard prints, 64 by Blankets: cot on, 2 pounds to the pair.. Ginghams: Lancaster. Sheetings: brown, Indian Head Cotton yarns: northern, cones, 22 1.. Drillings: brown, Pepperell. Cotton yarns: northern, cones, 10.1. Denims: Amoskeag. Cotton flannels: 3) yards to the pound.. Sheetings: bleached, Wamsutta s. T.. Ginghams: Amoskeag. Cotton flannels: 24 yards to the pound..

PRICE INCREASED.

9.9 10.0 10.7 11.0 11. 5 11.8 13.5 15.8 18. 5 18.6 19.1 19.4

0.3
.5
.7
.7
1.0
1.0

PRICE DECREASED.

1.1 1. 3 1.5 1.6 2.0

.8

1.2 1.3

2. 2

Hosiery: women's cotton hose, seamless,

fast black, carded yarn. Leather; sole, oak. Carpets: Brussels, 5-frame, Bigelow. Carpets: Wilton, 5-frame, Bigelow. Broadcloths: first quality, black. Shirtings: bleached, Fruit of the Loom. Women's dress goods: cashmere, cotton

warp, Hamilton.. Flannels: white, Ballard Vale No. 3.... Shirtings: bleached, Lonsdale. Shirtings: bleached, Rough Rider. Women's dress goods: Sicilian cloth. Women's dress goods: cashmere, cotton

warp, Atlantic Mills F Boots and shoes: men's vici call shoes,

Blucher bal. Hosiery: women's cotton hose, combed

peeler yarn. Trouserings: fancy worsted.. Women's dress goods: Poplar cloth.. Blankets: all wool, 5 pounds to the pair.. Women's dress goods: cashmere, all

wool, Atlantic Mills. Sheetings: bleached, Pepperell. Sheetings: brown, Pepperell R. Print cloths: 64 by 64. Horse blankets: all wool, 6 pounds each.. Shirtings: bleached, Wamsutta 50

XX

2.3

1.6 1.6

3. 2 3.8 4. 8 5.4

Leather: harness, oak.
Hosiery: men's cotton half hose, seam-

less, fast black, carded yarn... Suitings: clay worsted diagonal, 12

ounce, Washington Mills. Women's dress goods: Panama cloth. Boots and shoes: women's solid grain

shoes.... Leather: chrome call. Suitings: clay worsted diagonal, 16-ounce

Washington Mills.
Suitings: serge, Fulton Mills 3192.
Leather: sole, hemlock.
Worsted yarns: 2-40s, Australian fine..
Boots and shoes: men's brogans, split.
Worsted yarns: 2-328, crossbred stock,

white.
Overcoatings: covert cloth, 14-ounce.
Wool: Ohio, fine fleece, scoured.
Silk: raw, Japan.
Silk: raw, Italian.
Wool: Ohio, medium fleece, scoured..

1.8 2. 2 3. 3 4. 2 5. 2

5. 6 6.3 6.3 6.6 6. 9 7. 6

5. 9 6.0 7.0 & 2 8 5 10.0

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PER CENT OF INCREASE OR DECREASE IN THE AVERAGE WHOLESALE PRICES OF

COMMODITIES IN 1910, COMPARED WITH 1909– Continued.

Metals and implements, 38 articles.

Article.

Per cent

of increase or decrease.

Article.

Per cent

of increase or decrease.

PRICE SAME AS IN 1909.

Saws: crosscut, Disston No. 2.
Saws: hand, Disston No. 7..
Steel rails..
Trowels: M.C. O., brick.

62 & 3 15.6

PRICE INCREASED.

160 188 28 6

Copper: sheet, hot-rolled
Hammers: Maydole No. 14.
Shovels: Ames No.2...
Steel sheets: black, No. 27.
Axes: M. C. 0., Yankee..
Spelter: western...
Quicksilver.
Tin plates: domestic, Bessemer.
Steel billets.
Locks: common mortise.
Silver: bar, fine..
Lead: pig.
Chisels: extra, socket firmer, 1-inch.
Lead: pipe...
Bar iron: best refined, from store..
Zinc: sheet..

PRICE INCREASED-concluded.
Bar iron: common to best refined, from

mill..
Planes: Bailey No. 5, jack plane..
Tin: pig..
Butts: loose pin, wrought steel, 31 by 34

inches...

Door knobs: steel, bronze-plated 0.6 | Wood screws: 1-inch.

.6 1.6

PRICE DECREASED. 1.8 2.0 Files: 8-inch will bastard.. 2. 2 Pig iron: Bessemer.. 28 Nails: cut, 8-penny, fence and common. 2.8 Nails: wire, 8-penny, fence and common. 3. 1 Copper: ingot, electrolytic. 3. 6

Augers: extra, 1-inch... 4.0 Pig iron: gray forge, southern.

Pig iron: foundry No. 1. 4. 7 Vises: solid box, 50-pound. 5.0 Pig iron: foundry No. 2..

Copper wire: bare. 5.7 Barb wire: galvanized.

1. 2 1. 3 1.5 1.5 1.7 24 2.5 25 2.6 3. 2 9.6

5. 1

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Alcohol: wood, refined
Alum: lump..
Brimstone: crude.
Sulphuric acid..

PRICE INCREASED. Oplum: natural, in cases. Glycerin: refined....

16.5 26.0

PER CENT OF INCREASE OR DECREASE IN THE AVERAGE WHOLESALE PRICES OF

COMMODITIES IN 1910, COMPARED WITH 1909-Concluded.

House-furnishing goods, 14 articles.

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The following table shows the per cent of increase or decrease in the average wholesale price in December, 1910, for each individual article as compared with the price in December, 1909. 'Of the 257 articles, 83 were above the price in December, 1900, 57 at the same price, and 116 below the price in December, 1909, and for 1, onions, there was no quotation in December, 1909.

PER CENT OF INCREASE OR DECREASE IN THE AVERAGE WHOLESALE PRICES OF
COMMODITIES IN DECEMBER, 1910, COMPARED WITH DECEMBER, 1909.

Farm products, 20 articles.
(For a more detailed description of the articles see Table I, page 362, et seq.)

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PRICE DECREASED—concluded.
Poultry: live, fowls.
Hogs: light..
Hogs: heavy.
Wheat: regular grades, cash.
Cattle: steers, choice to prime.
Hides: green, salted, packers'.
Corn: contract grades, cash..
Tobacco: Burley, dark red, good leaf.
Oats: contract grades, cash..
Sheep: wethers, plain to choice.
Sheep: wethers, fair to fancy
Hops: New York State, prime to choice..

4.7 25.1

7.1 7.4 9.5 16.8 17.6 18.3 25.4 26.4 27.7 28.1 28.8 38.6

40. 4

PRICE DECREASED. Cotton: upland, middling: Cattle: steers, good to choice.

1.7 6.7

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