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NUMBER AND RESULTS OF STRIKES, ESTABLISHMENTS AFFECTED, STRIKERS AND OTHER EMPLOYEES THROWN OUT OF WORK,BY NUMBER OF STRIKERS INVOLVED, 1908. [The column headed “Strikers” shows the maximum number of strikers at any time during the strike.]

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The following table shows the results of the strikes in 1908, by causes or objects:

STRIKES, BY CAUSES AND RESULTS. [Strikes due to two or more causes have been tabulated under each cause; the totals for the groups, there

fore, are not the sums of the items for the individual causes. For example, a strike "for increase of wages and extra rate for overtime" is tabulated separately under each of these causes, while it is tabulated only once under total strikes relating to wages. For a similar reason the sums of the figures in this table exceed the totals in the preceding tables.]

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The results of strikes for each year from 1899 to 1908 are shown in the following table, together with number of strikers and establishments affected:

NUMBER AND RESULTS OF STRIKES, ESTABLISHMENTS AFFECTED, AND STRIKERS,

BY YEARS, 1899 TO 1908. (The column headed “Strikers” shows the maximum number of strikers at any time during strike.)

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LOCKOUTS IN 1908.-In the year 1908 there were 177 lockouts reported; the number of establishments affected by these disputes was 1,758, the number of persons employed in these establishments was 81,286, of whom 43,718 were locked out, while 266 persons were thrown out of work because of the disputes. The average number of persons locked out in each dispute was 247, and the average number of establishments affected in each dispute was 9.9. Of the 177 lockouts, 100, or 56.5 per cent, were successful from the standpoint of the employers; 69, or 39 per cent, were partly successful; and 8, or 4.5 per cent, were unsuccessful.

The following table shows, by principal groups of industries, the number and results of lockouts, the number of establishments and persons involved in lockouts, and the number of other employees thrown out of work on account of lockouts during the year 1908.

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NUMBER AND RESULTS OF LOCKOUTS, ESTABLISHMENTS AFFECTED, EMPLOYEES

LOCKED OUT, AND OTHER EMPLOYEES THROWN OUT OF WORK, BY INDUSTRIES, 1908. The column headed "Employees locked out” shows the maximum number of employees locked out at

any time during lockout.)

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The largest number of lockouts occurred in the building trades. In this group there were 76 disputes, or 42.9 per cent of the total number, and 8,833 persons, or 20.2 per cent of the total, were locked out; the group machinery, instruments, apparatus, etc., had 22 disputes, or 12.4 per cent of the total, and 18,239 persons, or 41.7 per cent of the total; the group textiles had 21 disputes, or 11.9 per cent of the total, and 11,054 persons, or 25.3 per cent of the total. These three groups of industries included 67.2 per cent of all lockouts and 87.2 per cent of all persons locked out.

The results of lockouts for each year from 1899 to 1908, together with the number of establishments affected and employees locked out, are shown in the table following: NUMBER AND RESULTS OF LOCKOUTS, ESTABLISHMENTS AFFECTED, AND

EMPLOYEES LOCKED OUT, BY YEARS, 1899 TO 1908. [The column headed “Employees locked out” shows the maximum number of employees locked out at

any time during lockout.)

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GREAT BRITAIN.

Reports on Strikes and Lockouts and on Conciliation and Arbitration

Boards in the United Kingdom in 1908 and in 1909. 1908. 175 pp. 1909. 136 pp. (Published by the Labor Department of the British Board of Trade.)

These two reports are the twenty-first and twenty-second of a series of annual reports, begun in 1888, on strikes and lockouts. They present statistics of strikes and lockouts beginning in the years 1908 and 1909 and of trade disputes settled by conciliation or arbitration boards. Summary tables are also given in the report, making general comparisons of results in each of the years 1908 and 1909, with the results for each of the nine preceding years.

Figures are given showing, by industries, causes, and results, the number of strikes and lockouts, persons directly and indirectly involved, and days lost. A list of trade disputes (involving cessation of work) settled in the years 1908 and 1909 by conciliation or arbitration is given, and tables are presented summarizing, by industries, the work of the permanent and district conciliation and arbitration boards.

Strikes and lockouts in which the number of persons involved was less than 10 or which lasted less than 1 day, unless the aggregate days lost exceeded 100 days, are not included.

Appendixes show the method used in classifying causes of trade disputes; trade-dispute statistics for each year from 1893 to the year of the report; great labor disputes, 1888 to 1907; and specimen forms of inquiry used.

STRIKES AND LOCKOUTS IN 1908 AND 1909.—As in previous years, so in each of the years 1908 and 1909 disputes relative to wages were the most numerous, forming 62.4 per cent of all disputes in the year 1908 and 58.7 per cent of all disputes in the year 1909, and involving each year, respectively, 78.5 per cent and 24.7 per cent of all striking and locked-out employees.

In 1908, of the 249 disputes of this class, 13.6 per cent resulted in favor of employees and 42.2 per cent in favor of employers; 43 per cent were compromised, and 1.2 per cent had no definite results. Of the total employees engaged in wage disputes, 2 per cent were in disputes settled in favor of the employees, 19.9 per cent in those settled in favor of the employers, 77.4 per cent in those that were compromised, and 0.7 per cent in those where the results were indefinite or unsettled. Of the 14 disputes relative to hours of labor, 35.7 per cent were settled in favor of the employees, 42.9 per cent in favor of the employers, and 21.4 per cent were compromised. Of the 83 disputes relative to trade-unionism and employment of particular classes or persons, 30.1 per cent were settled in favor of employees

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and 43.4 per cent in favor of employers; 24.1 per cent were compromised, and in 2.4 per cent the results were indefinite or unsettled. Fifty-two per cent of the employees directly involved in these 83 disputes were in disputes settled in favor of employees, 17.5 per cent in those settled in favor of the employers, 29 per cent in those that were compromised, and 1.5 per cent in those where the results were indefinite or unsettled. Considering all disputes for the year, 19.8 per cent were settled in favor of the employees and 42.9 per cent in favor of the employers; 36.1 per cent were compromised, and 1.2 per cent were indefinite or unsettled.

There were 399 strikes and lockouts which began in 1908, affecting 295,507 persons and entailing an aggregate loss of 10,632,638 working-days. The working-days lost in 1908 in disputes begun in preceding years numbered 201,551. The number of disputes is less, while the number of persons involved and the number of workingdays lost are greater than the averages for the 5-year period, 1903 to 1907.

In 1909, of the 256 disputes relating to wages, 17.2 per cent resulted in favor of employees and 39.4 per cent in favor of employers; 41.8 per cent were compromised and 1.6 per cent were in results indefinite or unsettled. Of the 27 disputes relative to hours of labor, 11.1 per cent were settled in favor of the employees and 37 per cent in favor of the employers; 51.9 per cent were compromised. Of the 94 disputes relative to trade-unionism and employment of particular classes or persons, 23.4 per cent were settled in favor of employees and 55.3 per cent in favor of employers; 21.3 per cent were compromised. Forty-eight per cent of the employees directly involved in these 94 disputes were in disputes settled in favor of employees, 26.9 per cent in those settled in favor of the employers, and 25.1 per cent in those that were compromised. Considering all disputes for the year, 18.1 per cent were settled in favor of the employees and 45.6 per cent in favor of the employers; 35.1 per cent were compromised and 1.2 per cent were indefinite or unsettled.

There were 436 strikes and lockouts which began in 1909, affecting 300,819 persons and entailing an aggregate loss of 2,560,425 workingdays. The working-days lost in 1909 in disputes begun in preceding years numbered 213,561. The number of disputes and the number of working-days lost are both less than the averages (440 and 3,995,913, respectively) for the 5-year period 1904 to 1908, while the number of persons involved is nearly double the average (168,298) for the same period.

The following tables show the number of strikes and lockouts, the number of strikers and persons locked out and of other persons thrown out of work by reason of strikes and lockouts in each of the years 1908 and 1909, and the number of working-days lost by all employees thrown out of work, classified according to principal causes and by results:

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