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The calling of the Peace Conference which assembled at The Hague in 1899 marked an epoch in International Law. The work of this Conference has been amplified and extended in many directions by the Conference for the Revision of the Geneva Convention in 1906, by the Second Hague Peace Conference in 1907, and by the International Naval Conference of 1908–1909.

Thus, after nearly three hundred years froni the foundations laid by Grotius, "the father of International Law,” in 1625, there rises a worthy structure and in a single decade the advance made in centuries is surpassed. Where earlier writers referred to philosophical or religious sanctions to fortify their expression of hope that justice might prevail among the nations, the writers of the present day refer to the sanction of international conventions embodying the realization of these hopes. Hubner, a century and a half ago, suggested an international prize court; in 1907 a convention for establishing such a court was drawn up, and is a typical example of the modern realization of the hopes of the early writers.

Many of the matters formerly receiving much attention in texts on International Law are now mainly of historical inter

New problems have arisen. The states of the world have been drawn nearer through improved means of transportation and communication. The security of trade routes is demanded. New means of transportation and communication have made necessary a consideration of rights of aërial domain. Minor political unities have acquired status. Spheres of influence receive attention. Economic, ethnic, and other unities have demanded a measure of recognition. The individual has gained a new place. "No longer does strange air make a man unfree."

The treaties of the early part of the nineteenth century related mainly to peace, amity, boundaries, navigation, and com


merce. The treaties of recent years regulate trade-marks, copyrights, postal service, naturalization, extradition, arbitration, wireless telegraphy, condominium, leased territory, and other matters showing the closer interdependence and changed relations of modern states.

It is the aim of this Handbook of International Law to set forth as far as space permits the historical development of the principles of international law. Owing to the numerous and recent modifications of earlier views, particular attention is also given to those principles as they are at present interpreted. Law in international relations is more and more taking the place of war, and war itself, on land and more recently on the sea, has been brought under law. Diplomatic negotiation has gained in importance and accordingly has been given a more extended treatment. As far as possible, the texts of documents, treaties, and cases have been inserted, rather than lengthy and perchance misleading descriptions of their contents or nature, and late precedents and illustrations have been freely used. The appendices contain certain of the most important international documents.

The author desires particularly to testify to the great assistance which he has received from that unrivaled sourcebook for the precedents and practice of the United States, the International Law Digest of Professor John Bassett Moore. The works of text-writers and other valuable books to which most frequent reference has been made are mentioned in the bibliography, and the author acknowledges his indebtedness to these and to many others mentioned in the footnotes.

G. G. W.

31. Jurisdiction

32. Jurisdiction over Territory and Property-General...

33. Joint Jurisdiction,

34. Leased Territory

35. Maritime and Fluvial Jurisdiction-Marginal Seas..

36. Straits


Gulfs and Bays..


Inland Seas and Lakes.

39. Rivers

40. Navigation

41. Fisheries

42. Vessels













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