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this western world; men whose sterling worth and integrity have contributed very largely to its present high position.

The whole history of this county is one of surpassing interest, and the more it is studied the clearer does it become that underlying its records are certain truths which afford a clew to the causes that have contributed so powerfully to bring it to its present marked prominence. They will be found identical with those which have influenced the history of the nations during many centuries. Albeit, they do not possess that far-reaching influence which groups the centuries into eras, yet to those immediately interested they are not a whit less tragical. To narrate these facts is the objects of these pages; with what success this has been done we do not presume to say. It has been our aim to learn and present the truth without favor or prejudice.

It has heretofore been possible for the scholar, with leisure and a comprehensive library, to trace out the written history of his county by patient research among voluminous government documents and dusty records, sometimes old and scarce; but these sources of information and the time to study them are not at the command of most of those who are intelligently interested in local history, and there are many unpublished facts to be rescued from the failing memories of the oldest residents, who would soon have carried their information with them to the grave; and others to be obtained from the citizens best informed in regard to the various present interests and institutions of the county which should be treated of in giving its history. This service of research and record, which very few could have undertaken for themselves, the publishers of this work have performed; while a few unimportant mistakes may, perhaps, be found in such a multitude of details, in spite of the care exercised in the production of the volume, they still confidently present this result of many weeks labor, as a true and orderly narration of all the events in the history of the county which were of sufficient interest and value to merit such a record.

Authenticity is always difficult in history; much passes for history which is mere anecdote, and that domain is always doubtful. Other facts, again, come to us through the prejudices and colours of personal narration. Great care has therefore been necessary to prevent publishing misconceptions as history. There has been admitted no statement of fact without ample authority, and mentioned not even the slightest incident without the support of creditable testimony. Attention is called to one feature considered of special value—the introduction of the original records for all transactions directly affecting the interests of the county. Concerning the first records aud the facts they teach, little or nothing need be said. Of this period in the county's history there have been explored for evidence every known early document, and where not muti

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lated they have been presented in full. If among the pages devoted to early settlers and settlements, the sentences seem short and broken, and the method of treatment faulty, it should be borne in mind that the nature of the data renders any other method of presentment impossible. Accuracy, rather than finish, has been the object held steadily in view.

In the preparation of this volume the oldest residents and others have cheerfully volunteered their services in the undertaking, adding largely to the value of the results obtained. Special thanks are due to the following named persons, who have not only aided us by placing at our disposition much valuable matter, but have themselves devoted much time to searching records, and afforded every opportunity in their power to perfect the chronological sequence and accuracy of the data used: County Auditor, S. C. Osborn; County Recorder, M. H. Byers; Seth Dean, Surveyor; A. D. French, Treasurer; J. E. Robinson, Clerk; William Aiton, Deputy Recorder and abstractor; A. J. Hight, Deputy Auditor; William Kempton, Esq., Hale, Stone & Proudfit, a firm of legal gentlemen; Miss M. Maude Archibald, county superintendent of schools; William H. Taft Mrs. J. W. Coolidge, Mr. Charles Croney, of The Glenwood Opinion; Mr. Sherman, of The Journal; and to The Hastings Plaindealer, Mills County Chronicle, Mills County Republican, Pacific Function Gazette, for numerous favors and notices. Throughout the county are many impossible to name here, who have freely given what of history they had. The clergy and other church officers, and those of civic associations, have been universally obliging in placing at our command the needed statistics of their several societies.

Under the sway of cause and effect, historic events cannot stand alone, --thev form an unbroken chain. The history of so limited a territory as a couny in Iowa has its roots not only in remote times, but in distant lands, and cannot be justly written out without consulting the influence of such a foreign element; nor can such a county history be understood in all its relations, without a historic review of at least the state of which the county is a part; hence, we feel that in giving such an outline we have been more faithful to the main purpose of the work, while we have added an element of independent interest and value. We little doubt that this book will be a welcome one to the inhabitants of the county, for all take a just pride in whatever calls to mind the scenes and incidents of other days. It is presented in the assurance that the work done will meet with the heartiest approval of our readers; and if, through that commendation, it awakens an earnest spirit of enterprise and emulation among the younger citizens of the county, it will be a source of just pleasure and congratulation to

THE PUBLISHERS.

CONTENTS.

109

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Page.

Page

How to keep Accounts

288

Landlord and Tenant...

304

Names of the States of the Union, and

Weights and Measures..

305

their significations..

290 Definitions of Commercial Terms.. 305

Population of United States.

291 Notes..

306

Population of Fifty Principal Cities 291 Orders.

306

Population of Principal Countries of

Receipts..

306

the World....

292 Bills of Purchase..

306

ABSTRACT OF Iowa STATE Laws. 293 Confession of Judgment.

306

Bills of Exchange and Notes.. 293 Articles of Agreement.

307

Interest.

293 Bills of Sale.

308

Descent.

293 Notice to Quit.

309

Wills and Estates.

294 Form of Will.

309

Taxes...

295 Codicil..

310

Jurisdiction of Courts..

297 Satisfaction of Mortgage.

310

Limitation of Actions.

297 Forms of Mortgage.

311

Jurors...

297 Form of Lease..

312

Capital Punishment.

298 Form of Note..

313

Married Women...

298 Chattel Mortgage.

314

Exemptions from Execution. 298 Warranty Deed.

314

Estrays. .

299 Quit Claim Deed.

315

Wolf Scalps.

300 Bond for Deed.

315

Marks and Brands..

300 Charitable, Scientific and Religious

Damages from Trespass.

300

Associations....

316

Fences..

300 Intoxicating Liquors..

317

Mechanic's Liens.

301 Suggestions to those Purchasing

Roads and Bridges.

302

Books by Subscription..

319

Adoption of Children.

303 Statistics of Agriculture of Iowa

Surveyors and Surveys.

303

(Census of 1875)

320

Support of Poor....

303 Constitution of Iowa.

3

HISTORY OF MILLS COUNTY.

Introduction..

321 Judicial Districts and Judges. 395

Name and Position..

323 First Circuit Court...

396

Drainage and Surface Character.

Records of..

397

Soil..

327 First Land Entries.

400

Streams.

329 Documents, concerning...

401

Lakes.

331 Some Early Legal Documents.

402

Climate.

332

Early Mortgages..

403

Geology.

334

Quit Claim...

404

Loess.

335

Curious Documents..

405

Drift.

336 First Real Estate Mortgage. 406

Cretaceous.

338

First Warrantee Deed..

407

Coal Measures.

338 First Chattel Mortgage.

408

Mineral Resources.

340

Qualification Certificate.

408

Natural History

341 Estray_Amdavit.

409

Avida....

342 Scalp Bounty Certificate.

409

Notes.

351

First Will..

409

Plantæ.

359 First Marriage License..

411

General Flora..

362 Other Early Marriages.

412

Medicinal Plants..

363 County Finances...

412

Reptilia....

365

Report of Commissioner.

413

Opbidia.

365
Census for 1856...

415

Batrachia

366 Assessment for 1880.

417

Mollusca..

368 The Poor Farm...

418

Fresh Water Mollusks.

368 Documents concerning

419

Land Mollusks....

369 The Jail

420

Mammalia ...

370 Documents concerning

422

Rocky Mt. Locust.

373 The Watkins Ditch..

423

Indian Affairs...

376 Documents concerning.

423

County Organization..

380 The Court House..

424

Officials, Bonds of..

381 Fair Associations.

424

Court Records of..

383

Mills County Agricultural Society. 426

The District Courts

384 Agricultural and Mechanical Asso.

Judge Sears' Charge to the Grand

ciation...

427

Jury ..

390 Council Bluffs Medical Society. 428

An Incident of the District Court... 393 The Early Ferries....

429

324

481

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