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ages, two races of civilized men, present to the imagination at the same moment; but at Athens, there has been no modern architect to build a cathedral more spacious and splendid than the Parthenon. On the contrary, the mind goes directly back to the time of Pericles. The traveller owes this luxury and enjoyment to a race of men, at times, the terror or scourge, always the detestation of Europe, and whose government, we admit, is fatal to the progress of society, to the improvement of man, and, for that very reason, necessarily contains within its own bosom a canker, that gradually consumes it. But classical associations, a strong and natural sympathy, arising from the same faith, reasons of a religious nature, connected with the destruction of the Ottoman empire, flowing directly from the prophecies of the Revelation, and ancient prejudices, derived from the traditions of the crusades, most fully account for the sort of unsparing aversion and disgust, in which the Turks are regarded. Nevertheless, they are a calumniated race. A feudal people, they possess many of the virtues, for which those times were eminent in Europe, now held in such high estimation as to be termed chivalric. They are, too, a manly people,they are endowed with a singular fidelity of character, and a pure sense of honour ;-none can exceed them in the care and exactness, with which they perform their religious rites, the faith, truly, of a false prophet ;-and, if we may speak of the lesser virtues, all travellers have borne willing testimony to the dignity and courtesy of their manners. In the decoration of their houses, in their taste for the precious stones, and in the science of cookery, among the wealthiest classes, they have fully attained the perfection of a refined and polished society. We speak now of the legitimate Turkish character, such as it is found in the old, settled provinces of the empire, where the government is tolerably steady and regular.

The reader will, perhaps, be surprised to learn, that before adjusting the only treaty ever made with Tunis, a discussion arose with the Bey on a commercial point,-reciprocity of commerce. The Carthaginians may well have pre

sumed to enter upon that controversy. Joel Barlow, Consul General at Algiers, employed, in 1797, a French trader by the name of Famin, at Tunis, to conclude a treaty with the Bey for the protection of our ships, but it contained an article (in substance throwing the trade into foreign hands), the senate very properly refused to ratify. In 1798, William Eaton was appointed consul to Tunis, and James L. Cathcart at the same time to Tripoli. These individuals were authorized to procure an alteration in the offensive article. They arrived in Tunis in March '98, but Mr. Cathcart soon after leaving it, the business fell into Mr. Eaton's hands. The Bey would not agree to an alteration, because the footing of the most favoured nation, the one proposed as a substitute by the consul, was a thing, he said, he could never ascertain on account of the distance and other difficulties. He was willing to alter the rate of duties to any sum, but he chose to have something fixed and certain. There was, also, a dispute about salutes, it being the custom of these corsairs to demand a barrel of gunpowder for every gun fired as return. This was not only an expense to the United States, but considered as a species of tribute. ject the Bey remarked

On this sub

"However trifling it may appear to you, to me it is important. Fifteen barrels of powder will furnish a cruiser which may capture a prize and net me one hundred thousand dollars.'

"We told him the concession was so degrading that our nation would not yield to it: both justice and honour forbade; and we did not doubt but the world would view the demand as they would the concession.

"You consult your honour,' said he, 'I my interest; but if you wish to save your honour in this instance, give me fifty barrels of powder annually, and I will agree to the alteration.' We replied, that we should not expend a thought upon a proposition which aimed at making us tributary. We would agree to pay him for the powder he burned in the salute. He turned to the Sapitapa, and said, in Turkish: These people are Cheribeenas; they are so hard there is no dealing with them.' (Cheribeenas are merchants from the confines of Persia.)"

He was offered 10,000 dollars instead of the regalia.-He said “no, they were the usance, and he should neither abate or commute." In the course of the year, the difficulties appear to have been removed, and the treaty was finally signed, the only transaction of the kind the United States are likely to have with Tunis.* This Regency is the only one,


"Under the auspices of the greatest, the most powerful of all the princes of the Ottoman nation who reign upon the earth, our most glorious and most august emperor, who commands the two lands and the two seas, Selim Kan, the victorious, son of the sultan Moustafa, whose realm may God prosper until the end of ages, the support of kings, the seal of justice, the emperor of emperors.

"The most illustrious and most magnificent prince, Hamouda Pacha, bey, who commands the Odgiak of Tunis, the abode of happiness, and the most honoured Ibrahim Dey, and Soliman, aga of the janissaries, and chief of the divan, and all the elders of the Odgiak; and the most distinguished and honoured President of the Congress of the United States of America, the most distinguished among those who profess the religion of the Messiah, of whom may the end be happy.

"We have concluded between us the present treaty of peace and friendship, all the articles of which have been framed by the intervention of Joseph Stephen Famin, French merchant residing at Tunis, chargé d'affaires of the United States of America; which stipulations and conditions are comprised in twenty-three articles, written and expressed in such a manner as to leave no doubt of their contents, and in such a way as not to be contravened.

"ART. 1. There shall be a perpetual and constant peace between the United States of America and the magnificent pacha, bey of Tunis; and also a permanent friendship, which shall more and more in


"ART. 2. Persons and property of either party, on board enemy vessels, &c.

"ART. 3. Enemy goods on board vessels of either party, free. "ART. 4. Passports, &c.

"ART. 5. Merchant vessels under convoy, to pass on the word of the commander.

"ART. 6. If a Tunisian corsair shall meet with an American merchant vessel, and shall visit it with her boat, she shall not exact any thing, under pain of being severely punished. And, in like manner, if

that has sent an ambassador to this country. He came for the professed purpose of obtaining the restoration of three

a vessel of war of the United States shall meet with a Tunisian merchant vessel, she shall observe the same rule. In case a slave shall take refuge on board of an American vessel of war, the consul shall be required to cause him to be restored; and if any of their prisoners shall escape on board of the Tunisian vessels, they shall be restored; but if any slave shall take refuge in any American merchant vessel, and it shall be proved that the vessel has departed with the said slave, then he shall be returned, or his ransom shall be paid.

"ART.7. Passports for prize vessels purchased. Consular bill of sale. "ART. 8. Provisions for vessels in port. Repairs. Unloading cargoes, &c. Wages of labourers.

"ART. 9. Vessels wrecked to be assisted, &c. Salvage. "ART. 10. Vessels attacked near forts to be defended.

not to pursue from port.


"ART. 11. When a vessel of war of the United States of America shall enter the port of Tunis, and the consul shall request that the castle may salute her, the number of guns shall be fired which he may request; and if the said consul does not want a salute, there shall be no question about it.

"But in case he shall desire the salute, and the number of guns shall be fired which he may have requested, they shall be counted, and returned by the vessel in as many barrels of cannon powder.

"The same shall be done with respect to the Tunisian corsairs, when they shall enter any port of the United States.

"ART. 12. When citizens of the United States shall come within the dependencies of Tunis, to carry on commerce there, the same respect shall be paid to them which the merchants of other nations enjoy; and if they wish to establish themselves within our ports, no opposition shall be made thereto, and they shall be free to avail themselves of such interpreters as they may judge necessary, without any obstruction, in conformity with the usages of other nations, and if a Tunisian subject shall go to establish himself within the dependencies of the United States, he shall be treated in like manner.

"ART. 13. If, among the crews of merchant vessels of the United States, there shall be found subjects of our enemies, they shall not be made slaves, on condition that they do not exceed a third of the crew; and when they do exceed a third, they shall be made slaves: the present article only concerns the sailors, and not the passengers, who shall not be in any manner molested.

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Tunisian vessels, taken off Tripoli in 1806, by the American blockading squadron. He succeeded in his mission.

We here terminate the account of our relations with the Bar

"ART. 14. A Tunisian merchant, who may go to America with a vessel of any nation soever, loaded with merchandise which is the production of the kingdom of Tunis, shall pay duty (small as it is) like the merchants of other nations; and the American merchants shall equally pay for the merchandise of their country, which they may bring to Tunis under their flag, the same duty as the Tunisians pay in America.

"But if an American merchant, or a merchant of any other nation, shall bring American merchandise under any other flag he shall pay six per cent. duty: in like manner if a foreign merchant shall bring the merchandise of his country under the American flag, he shall also pay six per cent.

"ART. 16. The merchant vessels of the United States, which shall cast anchor in the road of Gouletta, or any other port of the kingdom of Tunis, shall be obliged to pay the same anchorage, for entry and departure, which French vessels pay, to wit: seventeen piasters and a half, money of Tunis for entry, if they import merchandise; and the same for departure, if they take away a cargo; but they shall not be obliged to pay anchorage if they arrive in ballast, and depart in the

same manner.

"ART. 17. Each of the contracting parties shall be at liberty to establish a consul in the dependencies of the other; and if such consul does not act in conformity with the usages of the country, like others, the government of the place shall inform his government of it, to the end that he may be changed and replaced; but he shall enjoy, as well for himself as his family and suite, the protection of the government; and he may import for his own use all his provisions and furniture, without paying any duty; and if he shall import merchandise, (which it shall be lawful for him to do) he shall pay duty for it.

"ART. 18. Consuls, &c. not answerable for debts of others, &c. unless bound in writing.

"ART. 19. Effects of persons dying intestate, &c.

"ART. 20. The consul judge of disputes between citizens, &c. "ART. 21. If a citizen or subject of one of the parties shall kill, wound, or strike, a citizen or subject of the other, justice shall be done according to the laws of the country where the offence shall be committed: the consul shall be present at the trial; but if any offender shall escape, the consul shall be in no manner responsible for it.

"ART. 22. Civil disputes to be tried in presence of the consul, &c.

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