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Two opportunities to regulate this trade passed by-In 1794
and 1825-Right to trade not a natural one-Depends on con-
ventional law-True distinction-Since 1783 subject of nego
tiation as well as of intercourse-Constitutes right on part of
the United States to negotiate for it-Amount of the trade in
different years-Valuable for manner in which it is conducted
-Excellent nursery for seamen-History of negotiations with
England United States have rejected all propositions in ex-
pectation of acquiring the whole trade-No indication that
England will yield this ground-Acts of the American and
English governments-Practical effects of the system-Mr.
King sent to London-No instructions-Is succeeded by Mr.
Gallatin-The English proposition of 1825 withdrawn, and
intimation given, that farther negotiation would be declined—
Trade remains in same state to present hour-Examination of
Barbary powers no longer formidable-Mediterranean al-
ways subject to piracies-Remarkable sea-Celebrated in all
ages-Power of corsairs diminished-Once very great-No
proper diplomatic intercourse-Regencies dependent in a de-
gree on Porte-Morocco independent-Before Revolution
trade protected by England-Trade considerable-American
vessels taken by Algerines in '85-Slavery mild in the East-
Slaves article of traffic-Government attentive to trade, but
poor and weak-Different modes of dealing with Corsairs-
Tribute-Force-Treaty with Morocco-Suffered little from
that state-Algiers, prince of pirates-Piracy, monopoly of
ransom-Government too poor to pay-Captives long detain-
ed-Mathurins-Affair not honourable to this country-In-
debted to Corsairs for navy-Treaty-Very expensive-Fri-
gate Washington carries Algerine ambassador to Constantino-
ple-Algiers only country that ever declared war against
United States-War of 1812-Unlucky time for Dey-Squad-
ron sent to Algiers-Makes treaty and abolishes tribute-
Tripoli-Navy first distinguished there-Treaty-Expedition
of Eaton-Pashaw Hamet-Ill used-Treaty made by Lear-
Too hasty--Article never communicated to government—
Davis receives Hamet's family-Tunis-Near Carthage-
Remarks respecting Turks-Ruins in East more interesting
than in Europe--Regencies, but one want--Money-System
in regard to Corsairs honourable to government and navy, 335
All Spanish America on Continent emancipated—Spain, As-
syrian monarchy of modern times-Dismemberment awakens
melancholy reflections-Writers too sanguine in regard to free
governments-North American Revolution excited extrava-
gant hopes-Difference between liberty and independence—
England early had a project to emancipate South America-
Miranda-Jesuits-Cooperation of United States sought-Let-
ters of Miranda to Hamilton-Plan for emancipation-France,
a similar scheme-1808, beginning of revolution-Oppressions
of the colonies-Lord Wellington ordered to Spain instead of
South America-Napoleon's designs on that continent-In-
structions to his agent-Ignorance and apathy of the natives-
Buenos Ayres made most rapid progress-Agents sent secretly
by United States-Alarmed by movements of France and Eng-
land-Transactions of this government with that continent-
Agents from South America in this country-Not received-
Tupac Amaru-Account of revolution in different provinces-
Great vicissitudes as well as cruelties-Manifests of indepen-
ferent motives in commencing revolution-Report of House
of Representatives on negotiation-Ministers appointed-Ob-
stacles to progress of revolution-Old Spaniards held all offices
-All the capital-Nobility-Different races of men-Present
state of republics-General boundaries-Spain protests feebly
against recognition-Appeals to Holy Alliance-Declaration
of England-Treaties with Colombia and Guatimala-Con-
gress of Panama-Account and discussion of that important
business-Never held-General remarks on intercourse with
South America-Present state of diplomatic relations-Brazil
TREATY OF GHENT OF 1814 WITH GREAT BRITAIN.
Little settled by Jay's treaty-Mr. King, minister to England-Made no treaty-Succeeded by Mr. Monroe-Proposes a convention to Lord Hawkesbury-Rule of '56—Account of it-Injurious to American commerce-Special mission of Messrs. Monroe and Pinkney— Convention with Lords Holland and Auckland-Most favourable ever made-President rejects it without consulting Senate-Impressment Account of it-Opinions of Foster, Mansfield and Chatham -Convention with Lord St. Vincent-Chesapeake-England offered reparation-Refused to consider the affair in connexion with other topics in discussion-Mr. Rose-Mission ineffectual-Orders in council-Great sensation-Erskine arrangement-Unsuccessful— Erskine withdrawn-Mr. Jackson-His correspondence with government-Dismissed-England expresses no mark of displeasure-Antedated decree-England refuses to repeal orders-Declaration of 1812-War-Remarks on neutrality-Mediation of Russia-Not successful-Peace of Ghent-No disputed point settled-PeacePolicy of America-War of 1812, good effect on national character.
We shall give, in this chapter, an account of the different negotiations that led to the war of 1812 with Great Britain, and finally terminated in the peace of Ghent. We propose to divide this period into two parts;-the first relating to events immediately preceding the orders in council of 1807, and the other, comprehending the portion of time from that event to the peace above mentioned.
We have remarked in a preceding chapter that the treaty of 1794 in reality settled but few of the important points in discussion. If Europe had relapsed into its original condition of peace and quietness, this circumstance would have presented itself to the mind with little relief; but subsequent events gave to those questions an importance, no one could have anticipated. As the power of France increased on the land, that of England seemed, with corresponding industry and activity, to magnify itself on the ocean;-fresh conquests led to new blockades, and retaliation became a pretext for renewed and aggravated outrages on neutral rights. They were repeated and enforced every year with increased severity and an alarming augmentation of power, till a place of refuge or safety could be found for the neutral, neither on the ocean, nor in any part of the continent of Europe. The peace, or rather truce of Amiens, afforded a momentary respite, but with that slight exception, it must be considered that the two belligerents actually waged a maritime war upon America from the year 1792 to 1812.
Rufus King, of New-York, was appointed in May '96 minister plenipotentiary to the court of St. James, and remained till 1803, in that country.* He discussed in a full and satisfactory manner the principal provisions of maritime
* We shall give in this note a continuation, from the last chapter, of the hostile acts of Great Britain :
Horatio Nelson declared Cadiz to be in a state of
"1797, April 11. blockade.
"1799, March 22. All the ports of Holland declared in a state of rigid blockade.
"1799, Nov. 27.
The blockade of March suspended.
"1803, June 24. Instructions issued, not to interrupt the direct trade between neutrals and the colonies of enemies, unless, upon the outward passage, contraband articles had been furnished by the neutrals.
"1804, January 5. declared in blockade.
Certain ports of Martinique and Guadaloupe The siege of Curacoa converted into blockade. “1804, August 9. A rigorous blockade established at the entrances of the ports of Fecamp, St. Valiery, and other places on the French coast."