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Statement of the Case.
The Horsa was engaged in the fruit business for John D. Ilart & Company, of Philadelpbia, and on November 9, 1895, cleared from Philadelpbia for Port Antonio, Jamaica. She had on board but little cargo, consisting of two life-boats, a lot of empty boxes and barrels, two horses, some borse feed, bales of bay and boxes of corn, all of which were entered on her manifest. Just before sailing, Captain Wiborg received a message, (in writing but not produced,) which, he said, was: “ After I passed the Breakwater to proceed north near Barnegat and await further orders.” The Horsa sailed between six and seven P.m., and, after passing the Delaware Breakwater, her proper course would be southward. She turned, however, to the northward, went up the Jersey coast to Barnegat light and ancbored on the bigh seas between three and four miles off the shore. Between ten and eleven the same evening the steam lighter J. S. T. Stranaban sailed from Brooklyn, carry. ing some cases of goods and two life-boats, which had been put on board by the crew of the lighter during the evening. On the lower bay of New York, below Staten Island, during the night she took on board between thirty and forty passengers, mostly dark-complexioned men speaking a foreign language, apparently Cubans or Spaniards. The lighter then ran down to Barnegat, where she saw the Horsa under a white flag. She also ran up a white flag, went alongside, and put aboard ber passengers with the cases of goods and the lifeboats. They brought authority in writing from John D. Hart & Company, which was not produced. Captain Wiborg saw the transfer made, and assented to it. His firemen complaining, be answered: “I told them if anybody bad to bang for this I would be the man to hang for it.” He testified that the man on the lighter brought bim a message from John D. Hart & Company. “He told me to take those men and luggage and whatever they had aboard the Horsa, and let them off whenever they called for it to be let off. I shipped two boats at the same time, and the order of my message was to deliver those two boats to those men and the two boats that I had shipped here in Philadelphia. The only order was they had a colored man there that they
Statement of the Casę.
called the pilot, and whenever he called for them to be let off I should let them off and give them the boats.” As to the boats taken on at Philadelphia and those taken on off Barne gat, he was “to deliver them to these men as soon as they called for them.
The pilot did not tell me where he was going. I did talk to him, but he could talk very little English.” The captain testified that the writing from J. D. Hart & Company, "to take whatever was in the tug, the men and their luggage and boxes, and let them off whenerer they called for it to be let off," did not strike him as an unusual thing; it did not strike him as unusual “that these men were to be taken on board and turned out on the sea with the boats.” It appeared and was admitted that there was an insurrection in Cuba. The captain was informed that the party was going to Cuba, and believed the men were go ing to fight for Cuba, but was careful to ask no questions, and testified that he considered his own part in the affair to be lawful. The charter-party was not produced.
After boarding the Horsa, these persons broke open the boxes which they had brought with them, and took out rifles, swords and machetes, and one cannon. They also bad cartridge belts, medicines, and bandages with them. They were not in uniform, but there was evidence that some of them had caps with a little flag, which they said was a Cuban flag. They brought their own food with them. The evidence tended to show that when these men divided ap the arms, every man had a rifle; that certain of them, understood to be officers, bad swords and revolvers; that one seemed to be in command of them; and that this commander asked some of the crew whether they would fight if attacked by a Spanish gunboat. There was also some evidence that there were military exercises in the nature of drilling by from three to seven men at a time; that these persons stated that they were going to Cuba to fight the Spaniards; that on the second day out they made small canvas bags to put cartridges in, and unpacked a bale of blankets which they had brought with them, wrapped one hundred and fifty spare rifles in these blankets in small bundles, about five in each, and threw the
Statement of the Case.
boxes overboard in which the rifles had come, taking a riile, sword and machete apiece, and practising with them and the cannon. There were three kinds of cartridges and two kinds of rifles. One witness stated that, as he was informed by them, there were small Winchesters for the cavalry and big rifles for the infantry; big revolvers for the officers; and that the cannon was a Maxim gun, in charge of a French Canadian. This machine gun was worked with a slot and a crank, and had its own cartridges. The witness saw it worked, and saw them practising with it, and the man in charge showed him how they were doing it. Some testimony was introduced on behalf of defendants to the effect that a machete is generally carried by the inbabitants of the West Indies, and has many peaceful uses. One of the defendants' witnesses admitted that it was a formidable weapon, and, moreover, that he had never seen citizens carry guns in Cuba. It is unquestioned that the machete is used for both war and peace, it being described in the Centary Dictionary as a “heavy knife or cutlass, used among Spanish colonists and Spanish American countries, both as a tool and as a weapon," and by Webster as “a large, heavy knife, resembling a broadsword, often two or three feet in length, used by the inhabitants of Spanish America as a hatchet to cut their way through thickets, and for various other purposes."
After leaving Barnegat, the Horsa took the usual course for Jamaica, which follows the Cuban coast for about six hours. The usual color of her funnel was yellow below with red above and black on top, and it was so painted when she left Philadelphia. While she was at sea the funnel was repainted red and black, and when she returned to Philadelphia it was black, red and yellow. The name of the Horsa was painted out amidships, but her name was on the stern in brass letters and on the bow, and those letters were not painted over to the captain's knowledge. About six miles off the coast of Cuba the colored pilot gave orders to disembark. This was about eleven o'clock at night, and the disembarkation was conducted under the supervision of Captain Wiborg, who had the lights of the ressel put out. The two boats
Statement of the Case.
were launched which had come on board at Philadelphia and also those which had come with the lighter, and Captain Wiborg sold the men one of the ship's boats. As one of the boats leaked, another was lowered from the ship. The passengers took to the boats, taking with them all the ammuni. tion and arms they could carry. The steamer then undertook to tow the boats, but a strange light was seen in the distance, and at the request of the men the captain cut the boats loose and started away at full speed. Some forty boxes of cartridges had been left on the Horsa because there was no room for them on the boats, and Captain Wiborg directed that these should be thrown orerboard. He said this was to avoid getting into trouble at Port Antonio, since the boxes were not manifested for that port. The Horsa then completed her voyage to Port Antonio. The captain said he told the collector there be had lost two boats, “to put him off his guard.”
Defendants' counsel requested the court to give to the jury thirteen points of instructions, of which the fourth, fifth, sixth, seventh, eighth, ninth and eleventh were as follois :
“4. That the laws of the United States and the section under which the defendants are indicted do not prohibit transporting of arms or of military equipments to a foreign country or forbid one or more individuals, singly or in unarmed asso ciation, from leaving the United States for the purpose of joining in any military operations which are being carried on between other countries or between different parties in the same country.
“5. That before the jury can find the defendants guilty under this indictment they must first find that there was a
military expedition or enterprise' against the territory of the King of Spain. A military expedition or enterprise does not exist unless there is a military organization of some kind designated as infantry, cavalry or artillery, and officered and equipped for active hostile operations.
“6. That if the jury find that there were transported on board of the Horsa arms and men, but the same were not a military organization as infantry, cavalry or artillery, and
Statement of the Case.
officered and equipped, or in readiness to be officered and equipped,' then the jury must find the defendants not guilty.
“7. That it is not an offence against the laws of the United States for a shipper to ship arms to a foreign country or for volunteers to go to a foreign country for the purpose of joining in military operations which are being carried on between other countries or between different parties in the same country; in such cases the shipper and volunteer would run the risk, the one of capture of his property, and the other of the capture of his person by the foreign porrer; but the master of the ship transporting such arms and volunteers, not being a military expedition or enterprise, would not commit any offence against the laws of the United States and would not be liable under this indictment.
“8. That if the jury find from the evidence in this case that the officers of the steamship Horsa took on board, off the coast of New Jersey, on the high seas, a number of men, all dressed as citizens, without arms and equipments on their persons, and at the same time took on board certain boxes of arms and ammunition and munitions of war, but that the said men were not organized as infantry, cavalry or artillery or ready for such organization, the jury are instructed that they must find the defendants not guilty, even if the jury believe that the passengers on board intended to enlist, on arrival in Cuba, in the Cuban arıny.
“9. That if the jury find from the evidence that the defendants took on board their vessel, off the New Jersey coast, a number of men, unarmed and not organized, either as infantry, cavalry or artillery, and at the same time took on board boxes of ammunition and arms, the jury are instructed that they must find the defendants not guilty, even if the jury should believe that the men intended upon arrival in Cuba to enlist in the Cuban army, and that the boxes of arms were intended for use in the Cuban army."
“11. That if the jury find from the evidence that the passengers and boxes of arms did not constitute a military expedition or enterprise, but that the said passengers were simply going to Cuba to enlist in either army, and the said