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HE question which we have for consideration to-day is the Negro Question in its relation to the practical affairs of the South. Discussing the Negro from a practical standpoint, you must discuss the settlement of the Race Question. With the Race Question on its way to settlement, the practical evolution will quickly come. As soon as it is understood that this question is of the past, then will immediately begin the industrial evolution of the South. What we want is a practical and final method of settlement of the question as between the two races. When that is determined, there is no question as to the South, with its wonderful natural advantages, taking care of the whole practical question. That being my view, I propose to discuss the best plan of finally determining the Race Question. With the South unhampered by this great question, there will be no trouble about the mills and the manufactories and the industrial affairs of the South. To the practical men who desire the upbuilding of the South, the time has come to speak plainly and honestly. The Race Question, however, is no longer a question of the South. It is a question of the whole country, and it is affecting the whole body politic. As a matter of material interest, the greatest outlay of money within ten years in this country has been made in the South. This is largely Northern money. The greatest development of the nation's prosperity, naturally speaking, within ten years has been in the South. The South is no longer industrially a backdoor, no longer a terra incognita. With one exception, the finest developments of iron ore are in the South, and the largest body of hardwood timber is in the South. One State in the South has more coal than Pennsylvania and Ohio combined. One State in the South is to-day exceeding Pennsylvania in the production of oil ; one Southern State is the second coke producer, and it ranks third in the production of coal. There is more water-power in one State in the South than there is in the whole of New England. In her ability to manufacture cheap textiles, she has no competitor. In every branch of natural mercantile supremacy she is easily the first. The race of trade and of civilization is to-day inexorable, and the cheapest and best will win in the industrial warfare. The West is teeming with population. It is largely agricultural in its nature. The South, unlike the West, affords a varied field for agricultural, mineral, and manufacturing development. The North, with the quick intuition of trade, understands this, and to-day it is concerned in the South,

not alone from a question of patriotism for the whole country, but also from the fact that millions of Northern money have been poured into the South, and the sons and daughters of the North are with us as part and parcel of our political, economic, and social existence. Therefore, I say that the North from a mere practical standpoint is interested as well as the South in all of the complexities of the Race Question. As to actual development in the South I will be pardoned for a moment. Within ten years, the greatest number of railroads have been developed in the South. Within ten years, more mills and factories have been erected in the South than in any other part of the country. Within ten years, more cities have been founded and more towns have grown into great cities than in any other part of the United States. Within ten years, there has been a greater change of immigration towards the South than towards any other part of the United States. So I reiterate, that it is a national question that we are confronting. What are we to do about it? With the great practical genius of the American people, there is no question about our ability to grapple with it. Let us not refine. Let us discuss the question plainly, yet with mutual and decent forbearance both for the white and for the black and for the North and for the South. In the first place, we must disabuse the mind in each section of the prejudice which surrounds the Race Ques

tion. I speak as a Southern man who springs from two hundred years of Southern ancestry, and am naturally filled with the prejudice of the South. The Southern men generally believe that the enfranchisement of slaves at the Reconstruction period was entirely from hate, viciousness, and revenge on the part of the Northern people. A great many of the Northern people have the idea that the whole object of the Southern man is to nullify the post-bellum amendments to the Constitution and practically to re-enslave the black; that there was no great or salient question of race instinct or race supremacy, and that the Southern man's treatment of the Negro after the war was intended as an insult to the North ; that the Ku-Klux plan was purely for revenge and wanton spirit and not for protection. Now, as a matter of fact, neither one of these propositions is correct. A majority of the Northern people in their idea of reconstruction were honest, and their desire for the complete emancipation of the slaves was the influence behind them. To some extent there was a vast deal of narrowness and ignorance among the Northern people, but as a Southern man I do not believe that the horrors of reconstruction were for the mere purpose of revenge or viciousness on the part of the Northern people. A great number of the political leaders, misinforming and misleading the Northern people, were largely responsible for these wrongs; but I do not believe that the mass of the people in the North intended to wantonly injure and degrade the South. On the other hand, the Southern man was confronted with the most gigantic problem that had ever fallen to a people. With an ignorant, superstitious, and alien race in absolute control of his home, holding control of his State government, directing the affairs of his city, wrecking and looting the State, devastating the fields, destroying the schools, and asserting itself ignorantly in all of the affairs of the State, he was naturally restive, and did things which to the Northern eye and to the Northern mind were not demanded by the circumstance of the situation. To the credit of both North and South, however, the situation is daily being better understood. In the North they are beginning to understand that there is a great question which concerns both sections, the South, more nearly, because the South is the seat of the trouble. The South, on its side, has gotten its bearings, laid out its ground, and is more thoroughly understanding the situation and how to deal with it. Therefore, there is before us an actual question of vast moment, and it is our duty as honest men to give it the best consideration of our lives, so that it may be settled for the glory of this great civilization. Many methods have been suggested of settling the question. Much has been written and said upon the subject. We will take each proposed remedy and discuss it separately. What are they

1. Colonization, domestic and foreign.

2. Diffusion.

3. Absorption or Amalgamation.

To some extent I ask to be pardoned for a discussion

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