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CHAPTER II.

THE PRODUCTION OF LIQUORS.

Statistics concerning the number of distilleries and breweries and the quantity of distilled spirits and fermented liquors manufactured in the United States are presented in the annual reports of the Commissioner of Internal Revenue. The following table, prepared from those reports and from the Statistical Abstract of the United States, issued by the Bureau of Statistics of the Treasury Department, shows the number of distilleries in operation and breweries and the quantity of the production, also the quantity of domestic wines produced, during each fiscal year from 1880 to 1896, inclusive:

DISTILLERIES IN OPERATION AND BREWERIES AND PRODUCTION OF DISTILLED SPIRITS, FERMENTED LIQUORS, AND DOMESTIC WINES, 1880 TO 1896. [The facts relating to distilleries and breweries are from the reports of the Commissioner of Internal Revenue; those relating to wines are estimates from the Statistical Abstract of the United States, issued by the Bureau of Statistics of the Treasury Department.]

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a The figures in this column are for special-tax years which up to 1890 began May 1. By act of Congress the special tax year was made identical with the fiscal year, the law taking effect July 1, 1891. bObtained by dividing the amount of internal-revenue tax paid by the annual rate of tax.

The production of distilled spirits is shown to have varied greatly from year to year, beginning with 91,378,417 gallons in 1880, reaching 119,528,011 in the next year, which stood as the maximum until 1893, when it reached 131,010,330, but in the meantime falling in 1888 to the minimum for the period, when it amounted to but 71,688,188 gallons. The production of fermented liquors seems to have made a steady growth from 13,347,111 barrels in 1880 to 35,859,250 barrels in 1896. 5331-2

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It can hardly be said that the tendency of this growth has been to displace distilled spirits. In fact there is no apparent relation between the two. In 1893, the year of maximum production of distilled spirits, the production of fermented liquors reached 34,591,179 barrels, both classes making much more than a normal increase over the preceding year. In 1888, the year of minimum production of distilled spirits, the production of fermented liquors was 24,680,219 barrels, apparently about a normal quantity.

The production of domestic wines is also seen to have been fluctuat ing greatly, having been 23,453,827 gallons in 1880 and falling to a minimum in 1896 of 15,980,000 gallons, although in 1888 it exceeded and in 1889 it equaled 30,000,000 gallons. This great fluctuation was probably largely due to the fact that the production was dependent upon a fruit crop, always a more or less uncertain element.

Only the total quantity of distilled spirits is shown in the preceding table. The following table gives the quantities of the different kinds of liquors of this class manufactured during each fiscal year from 1880 to 1896:

GALLONS OF DIFFERENT KINDS OF DISTILLED SPIRITS PRODUCED, 1880 TO 1896. [From the reports of the Commissioner of Internal Revenue.]

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This table shows that the production of the several kinds of distilled spirits has been quite as irregular as of the class as a whole. Looking at the whole period, there has been a substantial increase in production in bourbon and rye whisky, gin, pure, neutral, or cologne spirits, fruit brandies, and miscellaneous spirits, and a decrease quite as marked in alcohol, rum, and high wines.

Statistics concerning the capital, employees, value of products, etc., of establishments engaged in the manufacture of liquors should be considered in connection with the quantity of the product. The only available data on this subject are contained in the reports of the Federal census, and the following tables, prepared from those reports, present the statistics concerning the manufacture of distilled, fermented, and vinous liquors, respectively; also the total for the three branches of the industry in each State and Territory as reported at the censuses of 1880 and 1890. In compiling the data presented in these tables no reference whatever was had to the reports of the Commissioner of Internal Revenue; therefore the values in the following tables should not be compared with the quantities given in the preceding tables, nor can the number of establishments given in the two sets of tables be compared except as hereafter specified. The census tables concerning the manufacture of liquors are classified as "Distilled liquors," "Fermented liquors," and "Vinous liquors."

MANUFACTURE OF DISTILLED LIQUORS, BY STATES AND TERRITORIES, 1880 AND 1890.

[From the reports of the Tenth and Eleventh censuses. The inquiries used at the census of 1890 probably resulted in obtaining a report more nearly complete than in 1880.]

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MANUFACTURE OF DISTILLED LIQUORS, BY STATES AND TERRITORIES, 188) AND

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a Includes establishments distributed as follows: Minnesota, 2; Nebraska, 1; Texas, 2; Washington, 2; West Virginia, 2; Wisconsin, 2.

MANUFACTURE OF FERMENTED LIQUORS, BY STATES AND TERRITORIES, 1880

AND 1890.

[From the reports of the Tenth and Eleventh censuses. The inquiries used at the census of 1890 probably resulted in obtaining a report more nearly complete than in 1880.]

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