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SEC. 3. The Secretary of Agriculture may make such rules and regulations as he may deem advisable to carry out the provisions of this Act and may cooperate with any department or agency of the Government, any State, Territory, District, or possession, or department, agency, or political subdivision thereof, or any person; and may call upon any Federal department, board, or commission for assistance in carrying out the purposes of this Act; and shall have the power to appoint, remove, and fix the compensation of such officers and employees not in conflict with existing law and make such expenditure for rent, outside the District of Columbia, printing, telegrams, telephones, books of reference, books of law, periodicals, newspapers, furniture, stationery, office equipment, travel, and other supplies and expenses as shall be deemed necessary to the administration of this Act in the District of Columbia and elsewhere, and there is hereby authorized to be appropriated, out of any moneys in the Treasury not otherwise appropriated, the sum of $25,000 to be available for expenditure during the fiscal year beginning July 1, 1927, and the appropriation of such additional sums as may be necessary thereafter to carry out the purposes of this Act is hereby authorized. This Act shall not abrogate nor nullify any other statute, whether State or Federal, dealing with the same subjects as this Act, but it is intended that all such statutes shall remain in full force and effect, except in so far only as they are inconsistent herewith or repugnant hereto.

SEC. 4. If any provision of this Act is declared unconstitutional or the applicability thereof to any person or circumstance is held invalid, the validity of the remainder of the Act and the applicability of such provisions to other persons and circumstances shall not be affected thereby.

Approved, March 3, 1927.

[S. 2965]

An Act To prevent discrimination against farmers' cooperative associations by boards of trade and similar organizations, and for other purposes. Be it enacted by the Senate and House of Representatives of the United States of America in Congress assembled, That when used in this Act (a) the term "agricultural products," means agricultural, horticultural, viticultural, and dairy products, food products of livestock, the products of poultry and bee raising, the edible products of forestry, and any and all products raised or produced on farms and processed or manufactured products thereof, transported or intended to be transported in interstate and/or foreign commerce.

(b) The words "board of trade" shall be held to include and mean any exchange or association, whether incorporated or unincorporated, of persons who shall be engaged in the business of buying or selling agricultural products or receiving the same for sale on consignment, except markets designated as contract markets under the Grain Futures Act.

(c) The words "interstate commerce" shall be construed to mean commerce between any State, Territory, or possession, or the District of Columbia, and any place outside thereof; or between points within the same State, Territory, or possession, or the District of Columbia, but through any place outside thereof, or within any Territory or possession, or the District of Columbia.

(d) For the purposes of this Act (but not in any wise limiting the foregoing definition of interstate commerce) a transaction in respect to any article shall be considered to be in interstate commerce if such article is part of that current of commerce usual in dealing in agricultural products whereby they are sent from one State with the expectation that they will end their transit, after purchase, in another, including, in addition to cases within the above general description, all cases where purchase or sale is either for shipment to another State or for manufacture within the State and the shipment outside the State of the products resulting from such manufacture. Articles normally in such current of commerce shall not be considered out of such commerce through resort being had to any means or device intended to remove transactions in respect thereto from the provisions of this Act. For the purpose of this paragraph the word "State" includes Territory, the District of Columbia, possession of the United States, and foreign nation.

(e) The word " person "shall be construed to import the plural or singular, and shall include individuals, associations, partnerships, corporations, and trusts.

(f) The act, omission, or failure of any official, agent, or other person acting for any individual, association, partnership, corporation, or trust, within the scope of his employment or office, shall be deemed the act, omission, or failure of such individual, association, partnership, corporation, or trust, as well as of such official, agent, or other person.

SEC. 2. No board of trade whose members are engaged in the business of buying or selling agricultural products or receiving the same for sale on consignment in interstate commerce shall exclude from membership in, and all privileges on, such board of trade, any duly authorized representative of any lawfully formed and conducted cooperative association, corporate or otherwise, composed substantially of producers of agricultural products, or any such representative of any organization acting for a group of such associations, if such association or organization has adequate financial responsibility and complies or agrees to comply with such terms and conditions as are or may be imposed lawfully on other members of such board: Provided, That no rule of a board of trade shall forbid or be construed to forbid the return on a patronage basis by such cooperative association or organization to its bona fide members of moneys collected in excess of the expense of conducting the business of such association.

SEC. 3. Any such cooperative association or any such organization whose duly authorized representative is excluded from such membership and privileges by any board of trade referred to in section 2 of this Act may sue in the United States District Court in whose jurisdiction such board of trade is operated or maintained for a mandatory injunction compelling such board of trade to admit such duly authorized representative to such membership and privileges and for any damages sustained, and such court shall have jurisdiction to issue such an injunction and to award such incidental damages as it may deem appropriate.

Approved, March 4, 1927.

[H. R. 1]

An Act To establish a Federal Farm Board to promote the effective merchandising of agricultural commodities in interstate and foreign commerce, and to place agriculture on a basis of economic equality with other industries.

Be it enacted by the Senate and House of Representatives of the United States of America in Congress assembled,

DECLARATION OF POLICY

SECTION 1. (a) That it is hereby declared to be the policy of Congress to promote the effective merchandising of agricultural commodities in interstate and foreign commerce, so that the industry of agriculture will be placed on a basis of economic equality with other industries, and to that end to protect, control, and stabilize the currents of interstate and foreign commerce in the marketing of agricultural commodities and their food products

(1) by minimizing speculation.

(2) by preventing inefficient and wasteful methods of distribution. (3) by encouraging the organization of producers into effective associations or corporations under their own control for greater unity of effort in marketing and by promoting the establishment and financing of a farm marketing system of producer-owned and producer-controlled cooperative associations and other agencies.

(4) by aiding in preventing and controlling surpluses in any agricultural commodity, through orderly production and distribution, so as to maintain advantageous domestic markets and prevent such surpluses from causing undue and excessive fluctuations or depressions in prices for the commodity.

(b) There shall be considered as a surplus for the purposes of this Act any seasonal or year's total surplus, produced in the United States and either local or national in extent, that is in excess of the requirements for the orderly distribution of the agricultural commodity or is in excess of the domestic requirements for such commodity.

(c) The Federal Farm Board shall execute the powers vested in it by this Act only in such manner as will, in the judgment of the board, aid to the fullest practicable extent in carrying out the policy above declared,

FEDERAL FARM BOARD

SEC. 2. A Federal Farm Board is hereby created, which shall consist of eight members to be appointed by the President, by and with the advice and consent of the Senate, and of the Secretary of Agriculture, ex officio. In making the appointments the President shall give due consideration to having the major agricultural commodities produced in the United States fairly represented upon the board. The terms of office of the appointed members of the board first taking

office after the date of the approval of this Act shall expire, as designated by the President at the time of nomination, two at the end of the first year, two at the end of the second year, one at the end of the third year, one at the end of the fourth year, one at the end of the fifth year, and one at the end of the sixth year after such date. A successor to an appointed member of the board shall have a term of office expiring six years from the date of the expiration of the term for which his predecessor was appointed, except that any person appointed to fill a vacancy in the board occurring prior to the expiration of the term for which his predecessor was appointed, shall be appointed for the remainder of such term. One of the appointed members shall be designated by the President as chairman of the board and shall be the principal executive officer thereof. The board shall select a vice chairman who shall act as chairman in case of the absence or disability of the chairman. The board may function notwithstanding vacancies, and a majority of the appointed members in office shall constitute a quorum. Each appointed member shall be a citizen of the United States and shall not actively engage in any other business, vocation, or employment than that of serving as a member of the board; nor shall any appointed member during his term of office engage in the business (except such business as is necessary to the operation of his own farm or farms) of buying and selling, or otherwise be financially interested in, any agricultural commodity or product thereof. Each appointed member shall receive a salary of $12,000 a year, together with necessary traveling and subsistence expenses, or per diem allowance in lieu thereof, within the limitations prescribed by law, while away from his official station upon official business.

ADVISORY COMMODITY COMMITTEES

SEC. 3. (a) The board is authorized to designate, from time to time, as an agricultural commodity for the purposes of this Act (1) any regional or market classification or type of any agricultural commodity which is so different in use or marketing methods from other such classifications or types of the commodity as to require, in the judgment of the board, treatment as a separate commodity under this Act; or (2) any two or more agricultural commodities which are so closely related in use or marketing methods as to require, in the judgment of the board, joint treatment as a single commodity under this Act.

(b) The board shall invite the cooperative associations handling any agricultural commodity to establish an advisory commodity committee to consist of seven members, of whom at least two shall be experienced handlers or processors of the commodity, to represent such commodity before the board in matters relating to the commodity. Members of each advisory committee shall be selected by the cooperative associations from time to time in such manner as the board shall prescribe. No salary shall be paid to committee members, but the board shall pay each a per diem compensation not exceeding $20 for attending committee meetings called by the board and for time devoted to other business of the committee authorized by the board, and necessary traveling and subsistence expenses, or per diem allow

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