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horsemen,,The Fins furnish a few good riflemens they take the only: good sailors of the empirelt The Jews, are also recruited it but they are only used as workmen i They are said, however, to make good sailors Qut of 65 to 70, millions of men, subjects of the Tsar, 40 to 45 millioner (of whom 34 millions jare Great Russians) are subjected to conscriptiones All these Great Russians are pot pply innocent of tall bellicose ardour, but they hold the military profession in positive horror. - lollipoped avtooked; upon in my purely ethnographical point of view, Russia, from the tendencies, of its predominant race, and of the great majority of those who are allied to it, would appear to be destined byi nature to consti-z tyte, a pacific nation of industrious and commercial babits, of peasants and of herds, rather than a military nation called upon to domineer over the world. What a pity that the isųegessive heads of such a nation should have mistaken their mission. Even, in moste cases. De Hax thausen will have it, Russia has as yet only fought on the defensive side 3 and in the case,,of, the Poles and the Tartars, it is only just, he argues) that the restless warrior races should be subjected by a more powerful
pacific" nation! Let us hope that this is the case also with regard to the position of Russia and Western Europe, although it is evident that Haxthausen himself is, in momentary,dread of an advance of the Rus, sians into the heart of Germany; but, even if so, it certainly is not thoi case with regard to the position of Russia in relation to Turkey. The possession of Constantinople, the resuscitation of the Greek worship at St, Sophia, and the holding the keys of the Bosphorus and of the Dardanelles, is an undying tradition with the Russian, be hq Tsar or be: he serf. Nor with inflexible perseverance opposed to a degenerate semiti barbarous, race, and the erroneous policy oft western nations in opposing themselves to the enormous power of Russia, instead of availing them selves of the obstacles i presented by the intervening principalities of the Danube, will the day of success be long delayed, hbo boste Snov
I Although the Russian army is recruited, like that of other nations, from vagabonds, id'ers, and bad subjects, imore particularly, malefactors and criminals, it is still acknowledgedly deeply imbued with religious feel ing. The strange way in which ideas of God, of the Tsar, and of the country are mixed up together in the mind of the Russian boor, ensure an enthusiasm in the soldiery as great almost as that which inspired the first followers of Muhammad is. If the Russian does not fight from any chivalrous inspiration, he fights for his God and the Tsar, for the love of Holy Russia and the Russian pationality. As was the gase with the Jews in olden time, the Russians are strongly imbued with the religious conviction that they are the chosen of God, The stoicism, shown by the Russian soldier in the hour of danger rests on his deep faith in his mission, apd the celess tial reward that awaits him, - These religious sentiments, and the cha, racter of the Slavonian nationality, also produce à manked antipathy for all that is foreign an antipathy-which is one of the great features of Muscovite character, and which tends, no doubt, to fortify the military spirit. The Slaypniap elasticity, the vanity and pliability, the spirit of association, and the very physical aptitudes of the Russian, furnish man terials for what is called, in its ensemble, esprit de corpsit r Last ei The subjection of the Russian soldier is so perfect that it is impossible to Incontemplatë 9 dhything more onifötnt than Russian troops." Their dress; theird march, their manners, nay? their very physiognomies, bearlithe game impression everywhere. This is il almost ridiculously prominent in the Taard, there they put the men with light hair and blue eyes into one company; and the men with dark hair and dark eyes into another. IlsThe excessive discipline enforced in the Russian army. has no parallel since the time of the Rothank yıThe Russian soldier is not allowed to think for himself, I still less toi criticise. This passive obedience has giveit rise to many stories of the spirit of an order being sometimes confounded with the letter.6% One day, aliship, having many officers and soldiers on board, went down in the Neva! The order was passed to the soldiers to save, in the first place, the officers of the guard. Sop of each person they suceeeded in getting holds they anxiously' in quired if he was at officer of the guard ? in The water filling the mouths of these unfortunates, they could not answer; so they were allowed to drow). Another time, it being very dusty, the soldiers were ordered to water the field for exercise. While engaged on this duty, at came on to rain heavily, but the soldiers contitúed their labout notwithstanding. It was suffieient that it was ordered " At the time of the destruction of the winter palate by fire, a priest succeeded, with great difficulty, in getting into the chapel to rescue the sacramental plate! 1" As he was returning, he sawła soldier in the corridor enveloped in smoke! Come with me," he shouted out, wiór you will perish in the flames:" 13166. No" answered the soldier; bow but give me your blessing 1 Another, caught in an inundas tion, allowed himself to be drowned rather than leave his post. The military purposes sof this wonderful subordination probably in great part the result of the frequent application of the stick, 'a weapon which playslâ most important part in the formation of the Russian soldier will beli best understood from another anecdote. At the siege of Warsaw, a young grenadier, addressing himself to an old soldier, and pointing towards the Polish'entrenchments, said, What do you think, comrade zido you think we shall take those entrenehments ?2.57.95 P scarcely think we shall,49 answered the other ;; they are too strong?! 116 But," added the young soldier, 19+ suppose. We are ordered to take them??,764 Oh! then it will be another thing lif we areriordered to take them, we will take them botigatii shisi wojs113 B teme 18-19 - $ /'lib,- 11 uil 12 zu The religious feeling istetitertained in the Russian regiments by a num ber bf papas,lor popes, attached to each. -Every soldier has his amulets and images of saints. The enrperor gives the example of devotion." On Baster Monday he issues forth from the palace and embraces the sentinel posted at the gate, saying, de Christ is risen again !” to which the soldier answers, ito. Yes, truly, he is nisen again.” 10 It is said that one day the soldier non duty i replied, "Yes, so they say!!! He happened to be a Tártarlowhos by the chances of conscription, had got into the guard. Ever since the post at the palace has been entrusted to none but orthodox Russiaps. 910 vittot oj duob on bij duin bulb 1939 11,01) illi wila 10 The Rassiari's have a first grenadier. His name was Archippe Ossi poff, and he sacrificed himself in 1840 in blowing up the fort of Miks hailoff rather than let it fall into the hands of the Circassians.oi When the first grenadier of the first company of the regiment of Tenginsk is called, the existing first grenadier, who is reckoned as second, has to answer, “Dead, for the honour of the Russian arms in the fort of Mikhailoff.” The regiment of Tschernigoff has the privilege of wearing red stockings, because at the battle of Pultava it waded up to the knees in blood.
The Cossacks, or, as they call themselves, Tscherkesses, or Circassians, are of various races, chiefly of pastoral or nomadic habits, dwelling on the steppes or plains of Southern Russia, and united together in democratic associations for the purposes of war and plunder-war being looked upon as a means, plunder as the invariable object. The Cossacks of Little Russia dwelt on the Dniepr--the Cossacks of Great Russia on the Don. The Cossack is, however, no longer now what he was in olden times; the firing of a neighbouring stanitzi no longer calls him to horse. Roused from their slumbers, they no longer hurry to the fords of the Donetz or the Don to carry off the booty and prisoners made by Tartar tribes. They can no longer make plundering expeditions into the Crimea, or along the shores of the sea of Azoff. The Cossacks are now in great part embodied among the regular troops ; such as are not so are still regularly organised for service. Among a large portion the sword bas taken the place of the lance, and they now have even their artillery. It is questionable whether, under such a system, and debarred of their ancient privileges of plunder, the Cossack has not lost some of those qualities which once made him so formidable to the enemy. Their courage became doubtful in Poland, and more than doubtful in the Caucasus. It is said that they somewhat retrieved their character in Hungary ; but still the Cossack of the present day is no longer the fearless, indefatigable, chivalrous cavalier that never ceased to sweep the skirts of la grande armée. The Cossacks of the present day are those of the Don, comprising 58 regiments of cavalry, and 14 batteries of horse artillery. Those of Azoff, with 30 gun-boats. The Cossacks of the Danube, with 2 regiments of cavalry. Those of the Black Sea, comprising 12 regiments of cavalry, 9 battalions of riflemen, 3 horse and I foot batteries. The Cossacks of the Caucasus, with 18 regiments of cavalry and 3 horse batteries. Those of the Ural, comprising 12 cavalry regiments. Those of Orenbourg, 10 regiments of cavalry. Those of Siberia, 9 regiments of cavalry and 3 batteries of horse artillery. The Cossacks of the frontiers of China, 8 sotni. The Cossacks of Astrakhan, 3 regiments of cavalry and i battery of horse artillery. The citizen Cossacks of Siberia, 8 foot regiments, or battalions. Total, 124 regiments of 126,200 men and 224 guns. A tolerably effective army of itself, but a portion of which is permanently absorbed in the war in the Caucasus.
To these must be added the Tartars of the Crimea, who once boasted of their Khans at the head of 150,000 horsemen, and now only contribute one squadron of fine troops to the Imperial Guard. The Circassians and Georgians furnish a squadron of the guard forming the personal escort of the emperor, and with the squadron of Cossacks of the Guard, the socalled " Tscherkesse Guard,” also one regiment of cavalry to the Polish army, and one regiment of infantry employed against the Lesghis. The Baskirs and Metscheriacks of Perm and Orenbourg also furnish small contingents; and lastly the Buriats and Tunquses furnish five regiments of cavalry to aid the Cossacks in guarding the Chinese frontier.
The Cossacks are still armed with bows and arrows, so that they can kill a sentinel without the least noise ; their whole war is a struggle of skill, personal courage, and daring, against which a German peasant, or a Parisian tailor, turned soldier, has no more chance than he would have against a Bedouin Arab. The system of plunder is so organised among them, that when in Paris in 1812-14, they had, by dint of riding long stages, a regular line of Cossack posts extending from the Seine to the Don, and along which the booty was daily transmitted. This line was established and kept up by themselves!
It is but fair to remark of this force, which is at once everywhere and nowhere-of this soldier, who with his arms so tight as not to make the slightest noise, steals upon his enemy like a tiger--who, spread out like a swarm, defy alike great guns and musketry, and wait their moment to rush like lightning upon the foe--that it has also been said of them that by their devastations they often compromise the safety of their own army without in any way contributing to the general results of the war.
There can be no doubt that the Russian army-the most numerous body of men ever yet collected together by one nation for purposes of war--has its deficiencies and its short-comings; one of the chief of which is, that which is almost inseparable from so vast an organisation, the difference between the nominal and the really effective sum total. But still the existence of such an army, greater than that of all the other European powers put together, cannot be looked upon without feelings of apprehension not unmingled with awe. There have ever been upon this point two classes of thinkers, both having an extreme tendency, one to underrate the power of Russia, the other to make too much of it. The middle is at once the safest and most rational position in which to stand in a discussion which has had no small amount of asperity thrown into it.
One of the best proofs of what that power is, cannot be better shown than at the present moment, when all the power of the Porte, seconded by its vassals of Egypt and Tunis, and backed by its fanatic and warlike hordes from Arabia, Kurdistan, and Albania, has been unable to raise an army that can combat more than one-tenth of the army which the Tsar could bring against the devoted empire. It has been found, also, at a convenient moment, that even the possession of the seas would not influence the march of armies by land. Nothing can better show the necessity of neither underrating nor tampering with the power of Russia. · The heterogeneous composition of the Russian army; its wide dissemination, and the difficulties of assembling its various corps; the want of sinews of war, or the means of crippling these; the inherent weakness of the autocratic government, and the insubordinate relations of Tsar, nobility, and serfdom, have all alternately been held forth as drawbacks upon its nominal strength. But many of these points, as its wide dissemination, might, in another sense, be looked upon as Russia's strength. For example, if Russia could not afford to have a separate army in the Caucasus, it could not afford to go to war with Turkey; as if it could not afford an army in Poland, it could also not afford to beard France and Great Britain. As to the want of sinews, the yearly increasing value of the Ural and Sibe
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Minor on the other. The very guns of the Bosphorus and of the Dardanelles might, if no land force was brought into co-operation, be made to revenge any probable disaster on the Black Sea. mom mot SOST
The war now entered upon is a war of religion ; it is a last and final crusade of Christianity against barbarous Islamism. The proclamation of the Russian commander-in-chief, which concludes with the following would oppose her in that sacred mission shall be annihilated with the Pagans. Long life to the Tsar! Long life to the God of the Russians"
leaves no doubt upon the subject. mm 10 Meme DOB
There is every reason to presume, from the manner in which diplos matic proceedings have been made to march side by side with the continuous pouring in of troops into the principalities on the Danube, that the Emperor of Russia never intended to be stopped in the line of conduct which he had marked out for himself. The hasty acceptance of the note prepared by the conference, before it had been accepted by the chief party in question, as also the aggrieved party-Turkey-was a refined piece of diplomacy. It enabled the emperor to say to the conference, “You dictated terms such as you deemed it honourable and just for Russia and Turkey to accede to. I, the Emperor of all the Russians, hastened at once to give in my adhesion to the arrangement proposed by your honourable conference.