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TIME CALCULATIONS AND EXPLANATIONS OF SIGNS AND ABBREVIA.

TIONS. All the calculatione except the Moon's Phases, Tides and seasons are in mean local time. (See table for its conversion into Standard Time.) The Sun's rising and setting is for the upper limb and corrected for refraction. The signs used are at follows: ó conjunction or near approach, at which time a line from the Vesta Star through one will also pass through the other; 8. opposition or 180° from the sun at which time the Superior Planets are the brightest; O quadrature or 90° from UX Sun: 0, Sun; © Earth; , Mercury; 3. Venus; dMars; 24. Jupiter; h. Saturn &, Uranus; Moon Jowesti , Moon highest; Moon generally; 2. Ascending Node; 8. Descending Node.

Per.--Perhelion, or nearest to Sun: opposed to Planets.
Aph.-- Aphelion, or furthest from Sun; applied to Planets.
Per.-Perigee, or nearest to Earth; applied to the Moon.
So.-Southing, or Meridian Passage.

STANDARD TIME TABLE.
To obtain standard time, add or subtract the figures given to local time.

City.

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Standard Correc- !

Standard Correc of tion. City.

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tion Division 1 Minutes.)

| Division. Minute Albany. N. Y...

Eastern

5 Little Rock, Ark... Central Austin, Texas...

Central

Louisville, Ky..... Central Baltimore, Md.... Eastern

Lynchburg. Va.... Eastern | Baton Rouge, La... Central

Memphis, Tenn.... Central Bismarck, N. Dak... Central

Milwaukee, Wis... Central Boston, Mass...... Eastern

Mobile, Ala....

Central Buffalo, N. Y..... Eastern

Montgomery. A

Central Burlington, lowa

Central

Nashville, Tenn... Central Cairo, 111.....

Central

New Haven, Conn. Eastern Charleston, SC. Eastern

New Orleans, La..... Central Chicago, Ill...... Central

New York, N. Y.... Eastern
Cincinnati, Ohio.

Central
Yorfolk, Va..

Eastern
Cleveland, Ohio

Central
Ogdensburg. N. Y.

Eastern
Columbia, S. C.... Eastern

Oniaha, Neb.....

Central Columbus, Ohio.. Central

Pensacola, Fla... Central Dayton, Ohio .... Central

Philadelphia, Pa. Eastern Denver, Col.....

Mountain

Pittsburg, Pa.... Eastern Des Moines, Iowa Central

Portland, Me..... Eastern
Detroit, Mich...

Central
Providence, R. 1

Eastern
Dubuque, Iowa i.. Central

Quincy, Ill.....

Central
Duluth, Minn...

Central
Raleigh. N. (..

Eastern
Erie, Pa....

Central
Richmond, Va..

Eastern
Evansville, Ind... Central

Rochester, N. Y.

Eastern Ft. Gibson, Cher. N.. Central

21 Rock Island. III... Central Fort Smith, Ark .... Central

San Francisco, Cal Pacific Fort Wayne, Ind.. Central

ISanta Fe, N. M.. Mountain Galena, Ill......... Central

Savannah. Ga....

Central Galveston, Texas... Central

Shreveport, La... Central Grand Haven, Mich Central

Springfield, Ill.... Central Harrisburg, Pa.... Eastern

St. Joseph, Mo... Central Houston, Texas.... Central

St. Louis, Mo..... Central Huntsville, Ala..... Central

St. Paul, Minn... Central Indianapolis, Ind... Central

Superior City, Wi Central Jackson, Miss.. .. Central

Syracuse, N. Y.

Eastern Jacksonville, Fla.. Central

Toledo, Ohio..

Central Janesville, Wis.... Central

Trenton N. J

Eastern Jefferson City, Mo... Central

Utica, N." I..

Eastern Kansas City, Mo.... Central

Washington, I

Eastern Keokuk, lowa..... Central

Wheeling, W. Va.... Eastern Knoxville, Tenn.. Central

Wilmington, Del.... Eastern La Crosse, Wis... Central

Wilmington, N. C... Eastern Lawrence, Kan... Central

Yankton, S. Dak..... | Central | Lexington, Ky...,

Central

23

TIME STANDARDS. The following is the table of times, based upon the meridian used by the Unit States and Canada:

s Central Meridian.! Name of Time. 1. Degree. From Greenwich. !

Nearest Place. Intercolonial

60

4 hours west, About 318° east of Halifax, N. S. Eastern

75

5 hours west. Between New York and Philadelph Central

6 hours west. I St. Louis and New Orleans. Mountain

105

7 hours west Denver, Col. Pacific ...

120

8 hours west. 112° east of Sacramento, Cal. Sitka .

135 19 hours west. 14° east of Sitka, Alaska, Tahiti

150 110 hours west 22° west of the island of Tahiti. Hawaiian

17 (10 h. 31 m. west. Near centre of Molokai,

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GULK OF
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23 Map of the Standard Time Belts, 2 extremes being 50 slight as to be of no importance for ordinary purposes, except

the case of the Moon's rising. southing and setting, when 6m, for Pacific Coast baints and 3m. for Mississippi River Valley region, including Chicago, etc., must be aded, or 2m. for each hour of longitude.

The heavy dotted lines show the arbitrary divisions of time in the United States. The plus and minus marks on either side of the meridian lines show whether it is necessary to add to or subtract from the standard time of points east or west 01 heee lines to arrive at actual, or mean local, time. See table on page 4.

STANDARD TIME. For the convenience of the railroads and business in general a standard of time es established by montual agreement in 1883, and it is by this method of calculation het trains are now run and local time is regulated. In accordance with this system the United States, extending from 65° to 125° west longitude, is divided into four The sections, as shown on the map. Inside of cach of these sections standard time

uniterm, and the time of each section differs from that next to it by exactly ne hour.

If the standard time correction for any place Dot enumerated in the table be esired proceed as follows: Locate the place, as any one can approximately on this

and then subdivide the hour space in which the place is until the distance in me 60m, = one space) from that meridian within whose bounds the place is located

apparent. Then add or subtract the result to mean time as the sign at the top of he map indicates. Example: What will be the standard time of sun rise July i at enn Yann, N Y.7 The map does not give the lines of latitude and longitude, but

people can locate their own place in its respective State on the map with suff

Correctness. By this means I locate Peon Yan at about one-eighth of the disnce between the 75th and Both meridians and within the Eastern time zone. This

give 8m. to be added, or 4:31.

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CHINESE CALENDAR The year 1907 corresponds nearly to the year 4604 of the Chinese era, and is the 44th of the 76th cycle of 60 years. 1907.

1907. First month begins...........February 13 Seventh month begins..........August Second month begins............March 14. Eighth month begins........ September Third month begins.... ..... April 13 Ninth month begins...... ... October Fourth month begins... ....May 12 Tenth month begins..... ... November Fifth month begins...............June 11 Eleventh month begins...... December 5 Sixth month begins............... July 10

1908.

Twelfth month begins.........January *30 days; all others 20 days.

THE MEMBERS OF THE SOLAR SYSTEM.

Name.

Sun
Mercury ..
Venug
Earth
Mars.
Jupiter
Saturn ...
Uranus
Neptune ..,

(From sun, Siuereal Orbit ve-
mjilions period, loc., miles Diameter, Mass, Volume, Density,
of miles. days. l per sec. miles. Earth=1. Earthol Earth=1.

866,4001 331100 1310001
36.0 87.969 23 to 35 3,030 0.1251 0.0501
67.2 224.701
21.91 7,700 0.78

0.92

0.86 92.81 365.256

18.5
7,918
1.
1.00

1.00
141.5 686.95
15.0 4,230 0.107

0.152

0.72 483.31 4332.58

86,500 316.0 1309
886.0 10759.22
6.01 71,0001 94.9

721

0.13 1781.9 30686.82

31,900 14.7

65

0.22 2791.6 60181.11 1 3,41 34,800 17.1

85

0.20

8.1

0.24

4.21

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THE SUN'S COURSE THROUGH THE ZODIAC AND THE SEASONS. Sun

Washington mean time.
enters
Sixn.Con.
D. H. M.

D. H. M.
Dec. (*06) 22 0 37 p.m. Winter begins, and lasts 89 O 40 S. of Equator,
Jan'y i'u7) 20 11 14 p.m.
February 19 1 42 p.m.
March 21 1 17 p.m. Spring begins, and lasts 92 20 10 N. of Equator,
April

1 0a.m.
Nay

0 47 a.m.
June
9 27 a.m. Summer begins, and lasts 93 14 35

N. of Equator.
July

23 8 1 p.m .
Auglist

8 51 a.m.
September 02 a.m. Autumn begins, and lasts 89 18 34 S. of Equator
October 24 8 35 a.m.
November

23 5 36 a.m.
December 22 6 36 p.m. Winter begins

Tropical year.,365 5 59
Tize north of the Equator, 1860. 10b. 45m.
Time south of the Equator, 1780. 19h. 14m.

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7d. 15h. 31m. longer north of the Equator than south of it, Tisis is due to the slower motion of the Earth (Sun's apparent motion) while in that portion of its orbit most distant from the Sun (aphelion). Hence in the summer months we are further from the Sun than in the winter time.

THE PLANETS. MORNING STARS-WEST OF SUN., H--Just before inferior conjunction, INFERIOR PLANDTS.

July 1, 1908. Mercury (8), until February 2, March

SUPERIOR PLANETS. 13 to May 24, July 24 to September 6,

Mars (0), until March 9, and after November 14.

Jupiter (21), from July 16 to November 6 Venus (9), until September 14.

Saturn (h), from March 9 to June 19. The planet Venus will present the

Uranus (6), until April 3. Various phases, as shown on page 7, as Neptune (*), from July 5 to October 9. follows:

EVENING STARS-EAST OF SUN. A--Fifteen days after superior conjunetion, or September 29.

INFERIOR PLANETS.
B-At greatest elongation west, Febru-

Mercury, from February 2 to March 18

May 24 to July 24, and September 6 ti ary 8. C-When brightest as a morning star,

November 14.
January 4.

Venus, after September 14.
D--Just after inferior conjunction, or

SUPERIOR PLANETS.
July 10, 1908.

Mars, after March 9.
E-Fifteen days before superior con-

ly 16 and after Novem junction, August 31.

ber 5. At greatest elongation east, April Saturn, until March 9 and after June 19 26. 1908.

Uranus, after April 3. G--When brightest as an evening star, | Neptune, until July 6 and after Oo May 29, 190&

tober 9.

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THE PLANETS (Continued). Mercury will be brightest February 20-28, setting shortly after the Sun; also August 18-28, rising shortly before the Sun.

Venue will be brightest as a morning star January 4, but will not get around on the other side of the Sun at her point of greatest brilliancy as an evening star until May 29, 1908, She will be at her greatest elongation (angular distance) west or the Sun, 46° 53', Fetri'ary 8. An opera glass or small telescope will

Toward bring out her phases, as shown in the an

the Sun. nexed cut. Her difference in apparent size

N or diameter is due to her varying distance from the Earth, according as she is between

Phases of
125 and the Sun or in the opposite portion of
her orbit. See the table following this divi- E
sion for her motion in her orbit; also that
of the other principal planets, page 8.

Venus.
MARS NEAREST THE EARTH,

The planet Mars will attract the atten-
tion of the world this year because of the As seen in the

As seen in the 1 fact that he will approach nearer to us than Morning.

Evening. he has been within the last fifteen years, or will be again in the following fifteen years. The reason for this will be understood by an inspection of the annexed figure. When the points C (Aphelion) in the Earth's orbit, and A (Perihelion) in Mars's orbit. come in line with the Sun. then the Earth and Mars will be thell nearest possible. A moderately close approach to these conditions occurs every

fifteen years. This year, on July 12, these planets will occupy the positions in their respective orbits E and F. On July 5 the Earth will be at C, or farthest from the Sun, and on September 26 Mars will be at A, or nearest to the Sun. It is apparent that there must be a point between A and C where these bodies are in line with the Sun, and where they will be nearest, and, as has been said, this occurs at E and F. At such times Mars is some 30,000,000 miles nearer to us than when these conditions shown in the figure are reversed. with Mars at or near D and the Earth at or near B. While Mars will be mathcinati

cally brightest July 6, he will be by far the most conspicuous object in the stellar or planetary hosts for weeks before and after that date, and will be most carefully watched and photographed at observatories. Comparisons of these with former photographs may disclose important changes

Jupiter will not be at his brightest this year, but will be very bright in Deeember, as he will attain his point of opposition to the Sun January 23, 1908.

Saturn will be brightest, on September 17. He will then be in the last degrees o Aquarius and close to the Equinoctial Colure, or First Meridian of the lieavers, corresponding to the Meridian of Greenwich or Washington on the Earth.

Uranus will be brightest July 3 and Neptune January 2.

DO MARS ORBIT.

ORBIT

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CHURCH DAYS AND MOVABLE FEASTS. Epiphany ... ......Jan. 6 Ascension Thursday.......

May 9 Conversion af St. Paul.............Jan. 25 Whit Sunday (Pentecost).... .....May 19 Septuagesima Sunday.. --...Jan. Trinity Sunday......

....May 26 Purification B. V. M. ....Jan. Corpus Christi.........

....May 30 Sexagesima Sunday.... Feb, St. Barnabas.........

....June Quinquagesima Sunday. Feb. 10 St. John the Baptist.

June 24 Sbrove Tuesday................. Feh. 12 | Saints Peter and Paul...

.Jun 23 Ash Wednesday (Lent begins)... ..Feb. 13 St. James..............

.....July 2017 St Valentine..... ..Feb. 14 Transfiguration ....

..... Aug. 6 Quadragesima Sunday.. ..Feb. 17 St. Bartholomew.

..... Aug. st. Matthias. ....Feb. 2 St. Matthew........

.Sept. 21 SE, David..

March 1 | Michaelmas (St. John and all
Mid-Lent Sunday
March 10 Angels)

.Sept. 29 St. Patrick..... .....March 17 St. Luke.................

...Oct 18 Palm Sunday ... .......March 24 Saints Simon and Jude.

...Oct. . Annunciation (I )........March 25 All Saints' Day.......

.. Nov. 1 Good Friday..

..March 29 All Souls' Day.. Baster Even....

..March 30 Thanksgiving Day...... Bester Sunday.. .....March 31 St. Andrew.....

..... Nov. 30 Low Sunday....... .....April 7! St. Thomas..............

.......Dec. 21 Yaundy Thursday,..., ..... April 12 Christmas Day Wednesda ......Dec. 25 St. George..... ..... April 23 St. Stephen....

.Dec. St M ark..............

. April 25 St. John the Evangelist...........Dec. 27 Beints Phillip and James,... .....May 1 Holy Innocents.....

...Dec. 28 Rogaton Sunday..... ...........May 5

.NCV. 2 Nov. S

MERIDIAN PASSAGE, RISING AND SETTING OF THE PLANETS.
Washington mean time, (AB) p. m. figures are in black type.)
VENUS
MARS.
JUPITER

SATURN

In

Monthn...

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Rises.
Sets .
Bets.

Sets в мiн мiн мiн мiн мiн мн мн мн мн мн мн January..

9 23! 4 11 4 2011 7491 2 211 2 37||11 411 6 411 7 11ll 4 10 9 48$ January..

3 48! 1 7 33 2 10 2 28 10 5 6 5 57 6 26 3 84 9 13, $ January..

8 591 3

7 181 1 591 2 19 10 1 131 5 421 2 58 8 88 % February..

7 1 1 46 7 9

514 2 19 8 0 February..

853) 3 47
6 45 1 33) 158

1 44 7 26 February.. 9 4 3 624 6 30 1 21 147

1 96 51 6 March....

9 101 3 571

A 2111
6 17 1 11 1 38

12 41 625 March...

9 171 4 4 T21 6 1112 66 1 25 2 1 541 2 12 06 0 March 211 9 241 4

54412 411 1101 April..

9 324

6 25 12 23 12 53 3112 381 1 8 10 531 Invisht April..

5 512 412 35

12 0 12 34 10 18 Rises April...

9 42 3 511
4 45 11 47112 15

11 27111 57 43 3644 May...

| 4 22 11 24 11 54

10 55 11 25 9 7 3 10 May..

11 9 521

3401 3 35 3 56 10 58 11 26 5 10 22 10 51 8 32 7 41 : May...

211 9 571 3 24 3 26 10 28 10 58 11 9 51/10 20 7 551 2 S June.. | 110 4 3 30 3 15 1 2 48! 9 52 10 25

9 161 9 7 151 1 23 1 Jaso.. 11/10 131

2 9 9 16 9 50 1 30 8 45 9 13 6 38 12 4611 June.

21/10 231 3 34 3 8 i 24 8 33 9 811 1 20 8 15 8 43 6 0 12 71: July...

1 10 35 340 3 12 12 35 8 6 5th 12 50 7 46 8 12 5 21 11 32 11 July....

1110 48 3 511 3 22 11 38 Sets. 1 12 2017 14 7 42 4 42 10 53 10 July.... 21 11 2 4 5 3 36

3 351 2 551|11 5 Ố Ố 16th 2 10 13 10 August 1 11 17 4 26 40

2 37 1 57 11 17 Invisible. 3 18 9 308 August... 11111 29 4 43 4 20

2 1 1910 471 Rises. August... 21 11 391 • 11th 8 40 1 40 12 49 10 17 3 27 3 2 September... | 111 48 Invisible.

8 812 53 12 20 9 43 2 55 2 30 Septernher.... 11/11 56 Sets.

12 38 11 5411 9 121 2 251 2 1 12 271 6 September....

21/12 021 6 41 6 5 7 24 12 21 11 45 8 40 1 541 1 October... | 112 081 600 56 7 612 611 31 8 7 1 231 1

Sets. October ......

11 12 15 5 551 5 45 6 50 11 53 11 23 7 34 12 50 12 29 171 4 8 4 October... 21 12 231 5 521 5 37 6 35 11 43 11 16 7 0 12 17 11 58 November.... 1/12 33 5 531 5 28 S 20 11 34 11 10 6 22 11 43 11 22 November....

11112 45 5 541 5 28 6 6 11 25 1 5 5 46 11 8110 47 8 10 7 11 November... 21/12 596 11 5 31 5 52 11 18 11 11 5 8 10 30 10 9 7 301 1 1 1 December,...

1 1 1 141 6 14 5 42 5 39/11 11/10 57|| 4 301 9 631 9 32|| 651112 4215 December.... 11 1 296 29! 5 57 11 5 26 11 5 10 55| 3 501 9 13 8 52|| 6 1212 311 December....121 1 44 647 6 18 5 12 10 58110 511 3 8 8 301 8 911 5 34 11 21 11 December.... 131) 157 7 6 42 4 58 10 50 10 4611 2 261 7 48 2611 4 57110 45 10 CHRONOLOGICAL ERAS.

EMBER DAYS.

| Wednesday, Friday and Saturday after The year 1907, which comprises the lat

First Sunday in Lent-February 20, Il ter part of the 131st and the beginning of and 23.

the 1320 year of the independence of the Pentecost-May 22, 24 and 25. United States of America, corresponds September 14 September 18, 20 and nearly to

December 13--December, 18, 20 and 21 The Manometan year 1325, which be- MAHOMETAN CALENDAR-A. M. 80 gins on February 14.

1907 A. D. The year 5668 of the Jews, which be

The Mahometan year 1325 is the 5th gins on September 9, or at sunset Sep the 44th cycle of 30 years, and contal tember 8,

355 days.

L ! The Chinese year 4604, wbich begins | Year. Month.

Begins. da February 13.

1324...11...Dul Kaeda (1906).Dec. 19 The year 7415-16 of the Byzantine Era,

1324...12... Dulhegge (1907)..Jan. 18 beginning September 1.

1325... 1... Muharrem

Muharrem ......Feb. 14 The year 2219 of the Grecian Era, which

1325... 2...Saphar ... ... ., March 16 began near the Vernal Equinox, B. C. 312. 1325,.. 3...Rabia I......... April 14 The year 2567 of the Japanese Era,

1325... 4...Rabia II......... May 14

1325... 5...Jomhadi I.......June 12 CHRONOLOGICAL CYCLES.

1325... 6...Jomhadi II...... July 12 Dominical Letter......................

1325... 7... Rajeb ...........Aug. 10 Epact (Moon's age, January 1)....

1325... S... Shaban .... ....Sept. Lunar Cycle, or Golden Number ......

1325... 9...Ramadan* ......Oct.

1325...10... Schawall ........Nov. Solar Cycle.......................

7

1320...11...Dul Kaeda....,.Dec. Roman Indiction...............

6 Julian Period.....

1325...12...Dulhegge (1908)..Jan. 5 Dionysian Period....

236

1326... 1... Muharrem (1908), Feb. Jewish Lunar Cycle....

5 Fasting.

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