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of two-thirds, expel & member, Each house shall keep a journal of its proceed. ings, and from time to time publish the same, excepting such parts as may in their judgment require secrecy, and the yeas and nays of the members of either house on any question shall, at the desire of one-fifth of those present, be entered on the journal. Nelther house, during the session of Congress, shall, without the consent of the other, adjourn for more than three days, nor to any other place than that in which the two houses shall be sitting.
Sec. 6. The Senators and Representatives shall receive a compensation for their services, to be ascertained by law, and paid out of the Treasury of the
United States. They shall, in all cases except treason, felony Compensations and and breach of the peace, be privileged from arrest, during their Privileges, attendance at the session of their respective houses, and in
going to and returning from the same; and for any speech or debate in either house they shall not be questioned in any other place, No Senator or Representative shall, during the time for which he was elected, be appointed to any civil office under the authority of the United States which shall have been created, or the emoluments whereof shall have been increased during such time; and no person holding any office under the United States shall be a member of either house during his continuance in office.
Sec. 7. All bills for raising revenue shall originate in the House of Representatives, but the Senate may propose or concur with amendments, as on other
bills, Every bill which shall have passed the House Revenue Bills--Procedure of Representatives and the Senate shall, before it President's Action. becomes a law, be presented to the President of the
United States; if he approve he shall sign it, but if not he shall return it, with his objections, to that house in which it shall have originated, who shall enter the objections at large on their journal, and proceed to reconsider it. If after such reconsideration two-thirds of that house shall agree to pass the bill, it shall be sent, together with the objections, to the other house, by which it shall likewise be reconsidered, and if approved by two-thirds of that house it shall become a law. But in all cases the votes of both houses shall be determined by yeas and nays, and the names of the persons voting for and against the bill shall be entered on the journal of each house respectively. If any bill shall not be returned by the President within ten days (Sundays excepted) after It shall have been presented to him, the same shall be a law, in like manner as if he had signed it, unless Congress by their adjournment prevents its return, in which case it shall not be a law. Every order, resolution or vote to which the concurrence of the Senate and House of Representatives may be necessary (except on a question of adjournment) shall be presented to the President of the United States; and before the same shall take effect shall be approved by him, or, being disapproved by him, 'shall be repassed by two-thirds of the Senate and House of Representatives, according to the rules and limitations prescribed in the case of a bill,
Sec. 8. The Congress shall have power to lay and collect taxes, duties, imposts and excises, to pay the debta and provide for the common defence and general
welfare of the United States; but all duties, imposts and General Powers of excises shall be uniform throughout the United States; to borCongress.
row money on the credit of the United States; to regulate
commerce with foreign nations, and among the several States, and with the Indian tribes; to establish a uniform rule of naturalization and uniform laws on the subject of bankruptcies throughout the United States; to coin money, regulate the value thereof, and of foreign coin, and fix the standard of weights and measures; to provide for the punishment of counterfeiting the sccurities and current coin of the United States; to establish postoffices and postroads; to promote the progress of science and useful arts, by securing for limited times to authors and inventors the exclusive right to their respective writings and discoveries; to constitute tribunals inferior to the Supreme Court, to define and punish piracies and felonies committed on the high seas, and offences against the laws of nations; to declare war, grant letters of marque and reprisal, and make rules concerning ruptures on land and water; to raise and support armies, but no appropriation of money to that use shall be for a longer term than two years; to provide and maintain a navy, to make rules for the government and regulation of the land and naval forces; to provide for calling forth the militia to execute the laws of the Union, suppress Insurrection and expel invasions; to provide for organizing, arming and disciplining the militia, and for governing such part of them as may be employed in the service of the United St.(tes, reserving to the States respectively the appointment of the officers and the authority of training the militia according to the discipline prescribed by Congress; to exercise exclusive legislation in all cases whatsoever over such district (not exceeding ten miles square) as may, by cession of particular States, and the acceptance of Congress, become the seat of government of the United States, and to exercise like authority over all places purchased by the consent of the Legislature of the State in which the same shall be, for the erection of forts, magazines, arsenals, dockyards, and other needful buildings; and to make all laws which shall be necessary and proper for carrying into execution the foregoing powers, and all other powers vested by this Constitution in the Government of the United States, or in any department or oficer thereol
Sec. 9. The migration or importation of such persons as any of the States now existing shall think proper to admit shall not be prohibited by the Congress prior
to the year one thousand eight hundred and eight, but a tar Limitations of Its or duty may be imposed on such importation, not exceeding ten Powers. dollars for each person. The privilege of the writ of habeas
corpus shall not be suspended, unless when in cases of rebellion or invasion the public safety may require it, No bill of attainder or ex post facto law shall be passed. No capitation or other direct tax shall be laid, unless in proportion to the census or enumeration herein before directed to be taken. - No tax or duty shall be laid on articles exported from any State. No preference shall be given by any regulation of commerce or revenue to the ports of one State over those of another; nor shall vessels bound to or from one State bé obliged to enter, clear or pay duties in another, No money shall be drawn from the Treasury but in consequence of appropriations made by law; and a regular statement and account of the receipts and expenditures of all public money shall be publişhed from time to time. No title of nobility shall be granted by the United States; and no person holding an office of profit or trust under them shall, without the consent of the Congress, accept of any present, emolument, office or title of any kind whatever, from any king, prince or foreign State.
Seo. 10. No State shall enter into any treaty, alliance or confederation; grant letters of marque and reprisal; coin money; emit bills of credit; make anything
but gold and silver coin a tender in payment of debts; pass any Limitations of bill of attainder, ex post facto law, or law impairing the obligation State Powers. of contracts, or grant any title of nobility. No State shall, with
out the consent of the Congress, lay any imposts or duties on imports or exports, except what may be absolutely necessary for executing its inspection laws; and the net produce of all duties and imposts laid by any State on imports or exports shall be for the use of the Treasury of the United States; and all such laws shall be subject to the revision and control of the Congress. No State shall, without the consent of Congress, pay any duty of tonnage, keep troops or ships of war in time of peace, enter into any agreement or compact with another State, or with a foreign power, or engage in war, unless actually invaded, or in soch imminent danger as will not admit of delay.
The President and His Powers. Section 1. The executive power shall be vested in a President of the United States of America. He shall hold his office during the term of four years, and,
together with the Vice-President, chosen for the Electoral College-Eligibility, same term, be elected as follows: Each State shall Succession, Compensation. appoint, in such manner as the Legislature thereof
may direct, a number of electors, equal to the whole number of Senators and Representatives to which the State may be entitled in the Congress; but no Senator or Representative or person holding an office of trust or profit under the United States shall be appointed an elector. The electors shall meet in their respective States, and vote by ballot for two persons, of whom one at least shall not be an inhabitant of the same State with themselves. And they shall make a list of all the persons voted for and of the number of votes for each; which list they shall sign and certify, and transmit, sealed, to the seat of Government of the United States, directed to the President of the Senate. The President of the Senate shall, in the presence of the Senate and House of Representatives, open all the certificates, and the votes shall then be counted. The person having the greatest number of potes shall be the President, if such number be a majority of the whole number of electors appointed; and if there be more than one who have such a majority, and have an equal number of votes, then the House of Representatives shall immediately choose by ballot one of them President, and if no person have a majority then from the five highest on the list the said House shall in like manner choose the President. But in choosing the President, the votes shall be taken by States, the representation from each State having one vote; a quorum for this purpose shall consist of a member or members from two-thirds of the States, and a majority of all the States shall be necessary to a choice. In every case, after the choice of the President, the person having the greatest number of votes of the electors shall be the Vice-President But if there should remain two or more who have equal votes, the Senate shall choose from them by ballot the Vice-President. The Congress may determine the time of choosing the electors, and the day on which they shall give their votes; which day shall be the same throughout the United States. No person except a natural born citizen or a citizen of the United States at the time of the adoption of this Constitution shall be eligible to the office of President; neither shall any person be eligible to that office who shall not have attained to the age of thirtyfive years, and been fourteen years a resident within the United States. In case of the removal of the President from office, or of his death, resignation or inability to discharge the powers and duties of the said office, the same shall devolve on the Vice-President, and the Congress may by law provide for the case of removal, death, resignation or inability both of the President and Vice-President, declaring what'officer shall then act as President and such officer shall act accordingly untii the disability be removed or a President shall be elected. The President shall, at stated times, receive for his services a compensation which shall be neither increased por diminished during the period for which he shall have been elected, and he shall not receive within that period any other emolument from the United
states, or any of them. Before he enters on the execution of his office he shall take the following oath or affirmation: “I do solemnly swear (or affirm) that I will faith fully execute the office of President of the United States, and will, to the best of my ability, preserve, protect and defend the Constitution of the United States."
Sec. 2. The President shall be Commander-in-Chief of the Army and Navy of the United States, and of the militia of the several states; when called into
the actual service of the United States, he may require the Military, Civil and opinion, in writingof the principal officer in each of the Treaty-making executive departments, upon any subject relating to Powers.
duties of their respective offices, and he shall have power to
grant reprieves and pardons for offences against the United States, except in cases of impeachment. He shall have power, by and with the advice and consent of the Snate, to make treaties, provided two-thirds of the Senators present concur, and he shall nominate, and, by and with the advice and consent of the Senate, shall appoint ambassadors, other public ministers and consuls, judges of the Supreme Court, and all other officers of the United States whose appointments are not herein otherwise provided for, and which shall be Established by law; but the Congress may by law vest the appointment of such inferior officers as they think proper, in the President alone, in the courts of law or in the heads of departments. The President shall have power to fill all vacancies that may happen during the recess of the Senate, by granting commisvions which shall expire at the end of their next session.
Sec. 3. He shall from time to time give to the Congress information of the state of the Union, and recommend to their consideration such measures as he
shall judge necessary and expedient; he may, on extraordiMessages and Extra nary occasions convene both houses, or either of them, and Sessions,
in case of disagreement between them, with respect to the
time of adjournment he may adjourn them to such time as be shall think proper; he shall receive ambassadors and the public ministers; he shall take care that the laws be faithfully executed, and shall commission all of the officers of the United States. Sec. 4. The President, Vice-President and all civil officers of the United
States shall be removed from office on impeachment for and Removal by Im- conviction of treason, bribery or other high crimes and peachment.
Supreme Courts and Judicial Powers. Section 1. The judicial power of the United States shall be vested in one Supreme Court. and in such inferior courts as the Congress Inay from time to time ordain and establish. The judges, both of the Supreme and inferior courts, hall hold their offices during good behavior, and shall at stated times receive for their services a compensation which shall not be diminished during their continuance in office.
Sec. 2. The judicial power shall extend to all cases, in law and equity, arising under this Constitution, the laws of the United States, and treaties made or which
shall be made, under their authority; to all cases affecting Limits of Judicial ambassadors, other public ministers and consuls, to all cases Power.
of admiralty and maritime jurisdiction; to controversies to
whic th United States shall be a party; controversies between two
more States; between State and citizens of another State; between citizens of different States; between citizens of the same State claiming lands under grants of different States, and between a State, or the citizens thereof, and foreign States, citizens or subjects. In all cases affecting ambassadors, other public ministers and consuls, and those in which a State shall be a party, the Supreme Court shall have original jurisdiction. In all the other cases before mentioned the Supreme Court shall have appellate jurisdiction, both as to law and fact, with such exceptions and under such regulations as the Congress shall make, The trial of all crimes, except in cases of impeachment, shall be by jury, and such trial shall be held in the State where the said crime shall have been committed, but when not committed within any State, the trial shall be at such place or places as the Congress may by law have directed.
Sec 3 Treason against the United States shall consist only in levying war against them, or in adhering to their enemies, giving them aid and comfort. No
person shall be convicted of treason uniess on the testimony Treason and Its of two witnesses to the same overt act, ar on confession in open Punishment. court The Congress shall have power to declare the punish
ment of treason, but no attainder of treason shall work corruption of blood or forfeiture except during the life of the person attainted.
Rights of States and Citizens. Section 1 Full faith and credit shall be given in each State to the public acts, records and Judicial proceedings of every other State And the Congress may by general laws prescribe the manner in which such acts, records and probeedings shall be proved, and the effect thereof.
Sec & The citizens of each State shall be entitled to all privleges and immenities of citizens in the several States. A person charged in any Stato with
treason, felony, or other crime, who shall flee fron justice, and Equal Rights of be found in another state, shall on demand of the executive Cltizens. authority of the State from which he fled, bo dolivered up to be removed to the State ha ying jurisdiction o! the crime.
No par mon held to service or labor in one State, under the laws thereof, escaping into
another, shall, in consequence of any law or regulation therein, be discharged from such service or labor, but shall be delivered up on claim of the party to whom such service or labor may be due.
Sec. 3. New States may be admitted by the Congress into this Union; but no new State shall be formed or erected within the jurisdiction of any other State;
nor any State be formed by the junction of two or more States, Creation of New or part of States, without the consent of the legislatures of the States. States concerned as well as of the Congress. The Congress
shall have power to dispose of and make all needful rules and regulations respecting the territory or other property belonging to the United States; and nothing in this Constitution shall be so construed as to prejudice any claims of the United States, or of any particular State. Sec. 4. The United States shall guarantee to every State in this Union a
republican form of government, and shall protect each of Guaranty of Repub- them against invasion, and on application of the Legislature, lican Government. or of the executive (when the Legislature cannot be con
vened), against domestic violence.
Amendments to Constitution. The Congress, whenever two-thirds of both houses shall deem it necessary. shall propose amendments to this Constitution, or, on the application of the legis
latures of two-thirds o the several States, shall call & Action by Congress- convention for proposing amendments, which in either case Ratification. shall be valid to all intents and purposes, as part of this
Constitution, when ratified by the legislatures of threefourths of the several States, or by conventions in three-fourths thereof, as the one or the other mode of ratification may be proposed by the Congress; provided that no amendment which may be made prior to the year one thousand eight hundred and eight shall in any manner affect the first and fourth clauses in the pinth section of the first article; and that no State, without its consent, shall be deprived of its equal suffrage in the Senate.
Supreme Authority of Constitution. All debts contracted and engagements entered into before the adoption of this Constitution shall be as valid against the United States under this Constitu
tion as under the confederation. This Constitution, and the Debts and Treaties laws of the United States which shall be made in pursuance Official Oaths No thereof, and all treaties made, or which shall be made, Religious Test.
under the authority of the United States, shall be the
supreme law of the land; and the judges in every Slate shall be boun thereby, anything in the Constitution or laws of any State to the contrary notwithstanding, The Senators and Representatives before mentioned, and the members of the several State legislatures, and all executive and judicial officers, both of the United States and of the several States, shall be bound by oath or affirmation to support this Constitution; but no religious test shall ever be required as a' qualification to any office or public trust under the United States.
Ratification of Coustitution. The ratification of the convention of nine States shall be sufficient for the estab
lishment of this constitution between the States so ratifying the Nine States Suf- same. ficient to Establish. Done in convention by the unanimous consent of the States
present, the seventeenth day of September, in the year of our Lord one thousand seven hundred and eighty-seven, and of the independence of the United States of America the twelfth. in witness whereof we have here unto subscribed our names.'
GEO. WASHINGTON, President and Deputy from Virginia New-Hampshire-JOEN LANGDON, NICHOLAS GILMAN. Massachusetts-NATHANIEL GORHAM, RUFUS KING. Connecticut-WM. SAML JOHNSON, ROGER SHERMAN. New-York--ALEXANDER HAMILTON. New-jersey-WILL LIVINGSTON, DAVID BREARLY, WM. PATERSON, JONA
DAYTON. Penasylvania-B. FRANKLIN, THOMAS MIFFLIN, ROBERT MORRIS, GEO.
CLYMER, THOMAS FITZSIMONS, JARED INGERSOLL, JAMES
WILSON, GOUV. MORRIS. Delaware--GEO. READ, GUNNING BEDFORD, Jun'r, JOHN DICKINSON, RICH
ARD BASSETT, JACO. BROOM. Maryland - JAMES M'HENRI, DAN. OF ST. THOMAS JENIFER, DANL. CARROLL Virginia-JOHN BLAIR, JAMES MADISON. Jun'r. North Carolina--WM. BLOUNT, RICHARD DOBBS SPAIGHT, HU. WILLIAMSON. South Carolina-J. RUTLEDGE, CH'S COATESWORTH PINCKNEY, CHARLES
PINCKNEY, PIERCE BUTLER. Ceorgia--WILLIAM FEW, ABR. BALDWIN.
Attest: WILLIAM JACKSON, Secretary,
AMENDMENTS. (The first ten amendments were proposed at the first session of the Ist Copgress of the United States, which was begun and held at the city of New York on March 4, 1780, and were adopted by the requisitie number of States 1 vol. Laws of U. S. p. 72 They together constitute a Bill of Rights.) The following is the preamble and resolution; Congress of the Unitei States begun and held at the city of New York, on Wednesday, the 4th day of March, 1789. The conventions of a number of the States having at the time of their adopting the Constitution expressed a desire, in order to prevent misconstruction or abuse of its powers, that further declaratory and restrictive clauses should be added; and as, extending the ground of public confidence in the government will best insure the beneficent ends of its Constitution.
Resolved by the Senate and House of Representatives of the United States of America, in Congress assembled, two-thirds of both houses concurring, That the following articles be proposed to the legislatures of the several States as amendments to the Constitution of the United States, all or any of which articles, when ratified by three-fourths of sald legislatures, to be validi to all intents and purposes as part of said Constitution, namely:
ARTICLE I.-Congress shall make no law respecting an establishment of re. ligion, or prohibiting the free exercise thereof; or abridging the freedom of speech, or of the press; or the right of the people peaceably to assemble, and to petition the Government for a redress of grievances.
ARTICLE II.-A well regulated militia being necessary to the security of a free State, the right of the people to keep and bear arms shall not be infringed.
ARTICLE III.--No soldier shall in time of peace be quartered in any house without the consent of the owner, nor in time of war, but in a manner to be prescribed by law.
ARTICLE IV.-The right of the people to be secure in their persons. houses, papers and effects against unreasonable searches and seizures shall not be violated, and no warrants shall issue but upon probable cause, supported by oath or affirmation, and particularly describing the place to be searched and the persons or things to be seized.
ARTICLE V.--No person shall be held to answer for a capital or otherwise infamous crime unless on a presentment or indictment of a grand jury, except in cases arising in the land or naval forces or in the militia when in actual service in time of war or public danger, nor shall any person be subject for the same offence to be twice put in jeopardy of life or limb; nor shall be compelled in any criminal case to be a witness against himself; nor be deprived of life, liberty or property without due process of law; nor shall private property be taken for public_use without just compensation.
ARTICLE VI.-In all criminal prosecutions the accused shall enjoy the right to a speedy and public trial by an impartial jury of the State and district wherein the crime shall have been committed, which district shall have been previously ascertained by law, and to be informed of the nature and cause of the accusation; to be confronted with the witnesses against him; to have compulsory process for obtaining witnesses in his favor, and to have the assistance of counsel for his defence.
ARTICLE VII.-In suits at common law, where the value in controversy ball exceed $20, the right of trial by jury shall be preserved, and no fact tried by a jury shall be otherwise re-examined in any court of the United States, than according to the rules of the common law.
ARTICLE VIII.-Excessive bail shall not be required, nor excessive fines imposed, nor cruel and unusual punishments inflicted.
ARTICLE IX.-The enumeration in the Constitution of certain rights shall not be construed to deny or disparage others retained by the people.
ARTICLE X.--The powers not delegated to the United States by the Constitution, nor prohibited by it to the States, are reserved to the States respectively, or to the people.
ARTICLE XI.- (Proposed by Congress held at Philadelphia, December 2, 1793; ratification déclared by President, January 8, 1798.) The judicial power of the United States shall not be construed to extend to any suit in law or equity, commenced or prosecuted against one of the United States by citizens of another State, or by citizens or subjects of any foreign State.
ARTICLE XII.(Proposed at first session of VIIIth Congress, in Washington, October 17, 1803; ratification announced by Secretary of State, September 25, 1804.)
The electors shall meet in their respective States and vote by Election of Presi- ballot for President and Vice-President, one of whom at least dent and
shall not be an inhabitant of the same State with themselves. Vice-President they shall name in their ballots the persons voted for as Prer
dent, and in distinct ballots the persons voted for_as VicePresident, and they shall make distinct lists of all persons voted for as President, and of all persons voted for as Vice-President, and of the number of votes for each; which list they sha gign and certify, and transmit sealed to the seat of government of the United States, directed to the President of the Senate. The President of the Senate shall, in the presence of the Senate and House of Representatives, open all the certificates, and the votes shall then be counted; the person having the greatest number of votes for President shall be the President, if such number be a majority of the whole number of electors appointed; and if no person have such majority, then from the persons having the highest numbers, not exceeding three, on the list of those voted for as President, the House of Representatives shall choose immediately, by ballot, the President. But in choosing the President, the vote shall be taken by States, the representation from each State having one vote; a quorum for this purpose shall consist of a member or members from two-thirds of the States, and a majority of all the States shall be necessary to a choice. And if the House of Representatives shall not choose a President whenever the right of choice shall devolve upon them, before the fourth day of March next following. then the Vice-President shall act as President, as