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through them very rapidly. The veins, like the organism. External events influencing the arteries, were full and distended, but their dif- mind, and causing cares and anxieties—hopes ference of color rendered them clearly distin- and fears; or affecting the body, as heat and guishable. When the animal was fed and again cold-may quicken the circulation and drive allowed to sink into repose the blood-vessels away sleep. The stimulus, too, may arise from gradually resumed their former dimensions and within. The disordered stomach may, by symappearance, and the surface of the brain became pathy with heart and lungs, quicken the flow of pale as before. The contrast between the ap- blood to the brain, and either banish sleep or pearances of the brain during its period of func- disturb it, and so bring to us all the horrors of tional activity, and during its state of repose or nightmare. That mental emotion does quicken sleep, was most remarkable.*

the brain circulation is a fact known to all; These observations entirely contradict the whether it be slight or whether it be violent, theory that sleep is due to pressure from dis- transitory or permanent, it increases cerebral tended veins, to venous congestion. And fur- action. And this acceleration once established ther experiments made by Mr. Durham proved does not cease of a sudden. An instant conthat when pressure was made upon the veins, version of fear or anxiety into the certainty of and distension of them produced, the symptoms prosperity or success may sometimes at once which followed were not those of sleep, but of bring relief, and from sheer fatigue sleep may torpor, coma, or convulsions. And this view is follow, but more frequently the effect of the completely corroborated by what we know of mental tension is kept up for some considerable diseases which are accompanied by these symp- time. When we have been working for hours

Common observation, too, confirms it; with toiling brain we do not go to sleep the we must often have noticed when looking at a moment we lay our heads on the pillow-sleep person asleep, that the face appeared paler than comes to us slowly and coyly. The head feels usual, and that a flush came over it on waking; hot, and we hear the rapid pulse beating in it and all are agreed that the general circulation as we lie, and only by degrees does the quickis diminished, as also the respiration, during ness of this abate. sleep. A person in tranquil and natural sleep Why brain-work raises the rate of the circulaoften breathes so slowly and so gently that we tion, is a question of physiology which, like are obliged to isten attentively to discover that many others, we can only answer by having rehe breathes at all.

course to general principles. Whenever any Can we go any further ? Can we say why it part of the body is actively employed a larger is that the diminished supply of blood produces supply of blood is sent to it: as motion warms sleep and rest for the brain? We may have re- our hands and feet, so the working brain decourse to one of two theories, but here we can mands and procures a larger supply of blood not bring demonstrative proof so easily as we than the idle one. And the brain is stimulated did before. First, we may propound a chemical beyond all doubt, not only according to the theory, that oxydation of the brain-substance, quantity of the blood sent to it, but also accordbeing in proportion to the vascular activity, is ing to the nature and quality of it. It is readiminished as the latter is reduced, and then sonable to suppose that alteration in this must sleep follows. This is true, no doubt, so far as affect the brain-function, and observation and

That the blood in the brain changes experiments prove that it does. From all this from arterial to venous, parting with its oxygen, that has been said about the various circum. we know, but there still remains the question, stances which prevent sleep it may be possible why does the arterial action lessen so as to al- to deduce the methods of procuring it, at any low of sleep ensuing ? The chemists say that rate, on some of the occasions when it appears the products of oxydation accumulate, and by as if it would never come. Many persons are their accumulation interfere with the continu- habitually bad sleepers, and all know what it is ance of the process, and act as a kind of regu- to lie awake and be unable to go to sleep, eren lator, just as a lighted taper is extinguished in when they are in ordinary health. We can a close jar by the products of its own combus- promote sleep by removing every thing which is tion. But we constantly see that this is not likely to stimulate the brain and the brain cirthe case, that although the brain action be vio- culation, and also by reducing the circulation lent in the extreme, and sleep be absent for days by other means, and lessening the susceptibil. together, no products of oxydation put a stop to ity and excitability of the brain as far as posthe process, but it goes on till ended by death. sible. Chemistry fails, as it always does, to explain First, we must get rid, so far as we are able, the whole of any vital process. In the more of all sources of discomfort which are likely to guarded, though less mathematical, language of harass and stimulate the brain. Mental ansphysiology, we may say that every thing which iety and worry are perhaps the most freqnent of stimulates the brain to a certain amount of action these. But it will be said that we can not reprevents sleep, and that this stimulus must be move anxiety. This is too frequently true; removed before sleep can be obtained. The and then, if it banishes sleep night after night, stimulus may arise within or without the bodily and the sufferer is harassed and worried and

Durham on the “ Physiology of Sleep."-Guy's llos- gets no rest, serious results follow. If the anxpital Reports. 1860.

iety or grief be irremovable, something ought to

it goes.

be done to counteract it, and to substitute other the one goes to sleep, the other lies awake half thoughts in the place of it. Change of locality, the night. Therefore, we must needs suppose change of companions, will often break through that the elements and material of the food the dominant and painful idea, and repose and taken into the blood alter the composition of it, quiet will soon follow. Possibly it may be not and lessen or increase its stimulating properties. over-anxiety, but simply over-work that for After a hearty meal the blood which is necesnights together prevents us sleeping, and this is sary for keen, clear brain-action is loaded with more easily dealt with. The late and excessive new material just taken in from the newly-diwork must cease. If we have been toiling till gested food, and is less fitted, on this account, midnight, and then with heads full of our sub-to excite and keep up the functional activity of ject go to bed to lie down and take no rest, we clear intellect. This theory agrees, I think, must give it up or take the consequences. It better with the facts than that of the diversion will not do to lie awake, day after day, till three of the blood from the head to the stomach by or four o'clock in the morning. We can not the digestion process. For we may often obcounteract this state of things; the brain is serve that sleepiness will follow the swallowing over-worked and over-stimulated, and the stim- of a very trifling quantity of food or drink, as ulus which keeps up the active functional circu- one glass of wine or beer. It is not to be suplation must be removed. Again, if sleep be posed that the process of digesting this will di. prevented by bodily discomfort, external or in- vert much blood to the stomach. It must affect ternal, this must be remedied so far as it can. us, therefore, by the material entering the circu. The bed may be too hard, or too soft, or too lation. When a man lies dead drunk no one short; the pillow may be too high or too low. doubts but that the brain is affected by the alcoHeat and cold will much affect the circulation hol conveyed to it by the blood. It can be colin the head. If the surface and extremities are lected in the brain after death. And what hapcold, especially the feet, there will be a defi- pens in the case of a large quantity of spirit hapciency of blood in them, and consequently an pens probably in the case of a small quantity of excess in the internal parts, and in the head. food or drink. Again, if sleep is caused by the In this way we are kept awake by cold as much diversion of blood in and for the process of dias by the actual discomfort arising from it. gestion, it is reasonable to suppose that the lonHeat will directly accelerate the circulation. ger and more difficult the digestion, the more And although the fatigue caused by heat may blood would be diverted, and the sounder the in some degree counteract this, yet most people sleep. But, on the contrary, we know that the sleep less in the very hot nights of summer than more indigestible the food the more sleep is prethey do in cooler weather. We are both pre- vented, while quickly-digested materials, which vented from going to sleep, and roused from are easily assimilated, promote slumber. A sleep, by this cause. Excess of heat and cold single small cup of tea can hardly be said to reare to be avoided if we wish to sleep soundly. quire digestion; yet this will banish sleep from Bedrooms must be warmed in winter and cooled many, and can only do so by affecting the nervin summer; people must get over the old preju- ous centres. dice about opening bedroom windows, and must If there is undue excitability of the brain, and eschew feather-beds and mountains of blankets. the ordinary stimuli of thought or noise are suffi. Many a one, if he do this, will sleep better cient to keep off sleep, if the nervous susceptithan he has done all his previous life.

bility of the individual of itself keeps him awake, Another thing which promotes sleep is the what can be done in addition to the means alpartaking of food. As indigestible food hin- ready mentioned? We must try and lessen ders sleep or rouses us from it, so a digestible this excitability, from which some occasionally meal favors it. All know what it is to feel suffer till it almost constitutes a disease. This sleepy after a hearty dinner, nay, even a light may be done, and often is done, by non-medical lunch will often have the same effect if we sit methods. In fact, we know that each one has or remain inactive after it. And this is not his proper and peculiar recipe for going to sleep. due to the strong liquids imbibed, for a dinner One man counts tens, hundreds, or thousandswith water alone may have the same effect. counts till he can count no longer. Another There are different theories as to the cause of repeats from memory Latin verses, it may be, our being rendered sleepy by food." One is, or English poetry. One man fixes his attention that the circulation is affected by the ingestion strongly on one subject, and tries to exhaust and digestion of it: that an extra supply of himself upon this. Another does just the oppoblood is directed to the stomach and digesting site, and tries to think of no one thing, but to organs, and so diverted from the head. The jumble his ideas into a confused chaos as he circulation in the head is lessencd, and sleep finds them wandering when he is dropping off ensues. This idea is probably not incorrect, to sleep; and this man probably succeeds the and partially explains the phenomena, but not best. Now these plans for the most part are entirely. It seems insufficient to account for based upon the principle of diminishing the exthe sleepiness produced by some kinds of food, citability of the brain by means of fatigue. We and the wakefulness caused by others. One know that in health fatigue is one of the chief man, at ten o'clock at night, takes a glass of causes of sleep. Fatigue of body and fatigue beer, another an equal quantity of green tea: of head, not calling up anxicty or emotional excitement, are excellent sleep-compellers, and by eating or drinking something which has been fatigue, especially of body, if excessive, will so placed in readiness by their bedside. deaden the excitability of the brain that stimuli, If all means fail, and the nights get worse and even of a powerful sort, will have no effect upon worse, and the sufferer more and more restless, it. This is why men and boys have gone to he needs must have recourse to the physician sleep on a ship's deck in the midst of battle. and his pharmaceutical treasury, and he gets a Many will sleep in any position, even the most sleeping potion, which in all probability will be uncomfortable, amidst great noise, or even in some preparation of opium. Now every one great dangers, from sheer fatigue. And when has his views and theories about opium, amountexcessive and morbid wakefulness is present, it ing altogether to what De Quincey calls “the is a very good and natural method of invoking fiery vortex of hot-headed ignorance upon the sleep to subject the body to hard exercise; and name" of it. Let him who wants to read the fatiguing the brain by counting, or the like, poetry of this drug study the “Confessions." may have the same effect, though less surely. The prose thereof is written in the pages of If by working our memory till we are tired, we many medical authors, yet no two are agreed can produce fatigue without calling up any anx. upon the mode of its action, whether the beneious feelings or thoughts, volition at last ceases, ficial or the poisonous. Most admit, however, and we sleep. But if sleep does not come, is that in small quantities it is a stimulant, in large there any other method ?

a narcotic, a poison. Some say that the small It may be that we lie awake because we are or stimulating doses procure sleep, and are alone hungry. Hours may have passed since our last beneficial, yet this is contrary to the foregoing meal. Whether we feel hungry or not, it is at remarks, which tend to show that stimulation any rate a fact that something to eat will often of all sorts drives off sleep. That small doses bring sleep. The effect of food has been already of opium will keep many awake is as certain mentioned. It is a reasonable plan, but one as that green tea does. It quickens the pulse often neglected, probably from the difficulty of in these small quantities, and stimulates the cirprocuring something in the night. There is a culation of the brain. A double dose will repopular fallacy abroad that we ought not to go duce the circulation and procure sleep. The to sleep on a full stomach, a fallacy adhered to opium conveyed by the blood to the nerve-cenin the face of the fact that every animal eats be- tres appears to lessen their force and energy, fore sleep, that infants almost invariably require and to deaden the excitability both of the men. a full stomach to send them to sleep; and so, tal brain and also of the nerve-structures which fearing to go to bed with a full stomach, people supply the bodily organs. When the dose goes go with an empty one, and do not sleep. Many beyond this it becomes poisonous, and it not would sleep much better with an early dinner only lessens but destroys the excitability, and and a good supper, than they do with their six we have coma, collapse, convulsions, and death. o'clock dinner, which allows them to get hungry But this is not the place for an examination of again before they want to go to sleep. Many this question, nor for an enumeration of all the have found this out and guard against it, and if other substances which the physician employs they wake in the night they tempt sleep again to "entice the dewy feathered sleep."


No abbots now in ghostly white nor sable,

No choir to rival the angelic songs,
No whispering thunder in low organ-notes,

To thrill with heavenly answers kneeling throngs.

The monks hare long departed I shadows now

Fall thick upon the roofless porch and chancel; Long since the raging king drew angry sword,

The charter of this fallen house to cancel.

And see, the Elder brings its pure white flowers,

So broad and level, lavish, and so fair,
As offerings to the shattered altar-stone,

That still, though rent and mossy, moulders there.
And still the suppliant wind, its frightened dirge

Moans ceaseless o'er the silent sheeted dead,
Or wails its lingering hymns when winter moods

Are shining cold and brightly overhead.
These little worshipers, the wild-flowers, too,

Sown by the pitying angels, rize and bloom
(Speedwell and primrose) in among the stones,

Nod from the arch, or sway above the tomb.
Nature has pity on man's frailty,

And loves such ruins for their builder's sake,
For the old piety that's gone to dust,

And lies so calmly now beneath the brake.

No priests por worshipers are left-ah! vainly

Faith, praying, consecrates her special places;
Time is a cruel heathen, and delights

To leave on sacred things its mouldy traces.
But “Yo," Ilope says, for where of old there stood

The altar and God's shrine so loved and treasured,
Comes now the blackbird's ceaseless gladsome hymo,

Poured forth with joy and gratitude unmeasured.

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LADY GODIVA AT HOME. YEORGE ELIOT—who ought to be indict-ornamentation indoors—these suggest at every

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rich plums which adorn the heads of “his" chap- ing, but with no positive knowledge of the subters grew --quotes over the eighth chapter of ject, I resolved to delve among the old records Felix Holt the following sentence : “ The mind and chronicles in the British Museum and the of man is as a country which was once open to London Library, and find what I could about squatters, who have bred and multiplied, and the ancient city and the bascs of its legendsbecome masters of the land. But there hap- especially that of Lady Godiva's ride through it. peneth a time when new and hungry comers In this search I have come across some curious dispute the land; and there is trial of strength, facts. and the stronger wins. Nevertheless, the first Up to the year 1016 there stood on the site squatters be they who liave prepared the ground, of Coventry a large Saxon convent. This was and the crops to the end will be sequent (though entirely destroyed by Edric, who, in the year chiefly on the nature of the soil, as of light sand, stated, invaded Mercia. From this time the inixed loam, or heavy clay, yet) somewhat on history of the city becomes blended with its the primal labor and sowing."

patron saint, Lady Godiva. Whatever, under This exquisite illustration might be special- historic scrutiny, may befall the actual existence ized by the substitution in it of “ Coventry” for of Godiva, it is pretty certain to survive any “ country.” I mean this in the historical rather skepticism. That the Countess of Mercia, with than any philological sense, though there be ety- whom that name is now associated, was the mologists who might establish a near relation- most distinguished devotee of the middle of the ship between country” and “ Coventry"—that eleventh century Matthew of Westminster, who is, “Convent-tre,” tre being the old word for wrote about 250 years after Earl Leofric, writes: " town." Walking about the streets of this old

“In the same year (A.D. 1057), in September, died city, listening to its poor ragged minstrels sing- Count Leofric, of worthy memory, and was buried with ing and hawking its legends done into doggerel, honor in the monastery at Coventry, which he and his witnessing the Fair and its pageant, one is at wife, the devout and noble Countess Godiva, worshiper of first bewildered at finding these things in the God and lover of the Holy Virgin Mary, built from the

foundation, out of their own patrimony. And the monasEngland of to-day, and at length perceives that tery buildings being erected, they so endowed them with they are the cropping up, through centuries of lands and with ornaments that in all England no other English formations, of an old and alien life which monastery could be found with such abundance of gold, squatted hereon in an almost pre-historical era. silver, and precious gemis." The quaint and airy gables overhanging narrow He then goes on to mention various other streets, the airy build of churches with their cool towns whose monasteries she, Lady Godiva, stone pavements, the frequent use of external founded and endowed. But it is evident that ornament on plain houses—so characteristic of Sir William Dugdale, whose Antiquities of Warsouthern people, who live out of doors, and so wickshire was published in 1656, had very thordifferent from the English style, which keeps all | oughly consulted every record about Coventry.

Vol. XXXIII.-No. 197.-TT

From him we learn that “Leofrick wedded tivities and pageants. In 1456 Queen MarGodeva, a most beautifull and devout lady," and garet, being at Coventry, saw " alle the pagentes that she was the sister of Therald de Burgen- pleyde save domesday, which might not be hall, sheriff of Lincolnshire. With reference to pleyde for lak of day.' In 1575, in the celethe convent, which Leofric and Godiva built in brated entertainment of Queen Elizabeth at 1044, Dugdale says that Godiva

Kenilworth, “ certain good barted men of “Gave her whole Treasure thereto, and sent for skillfull Coventree,” according to Lancham's narrative, Goldsmiths ; who with all the gold and silver she had, " exhibited their old storiall sheaw.” It is surmade Crosses, Images of Saints, and other Curious Orba- prising what admirable courtiers the old proph. ments, which she devoutly disposed thereto..... And even at the point of her death gave a rich Chain of pretious ets and martyrs became in the presence of roystones, directing it to be put about the neck of the Blessed alty. I have seen, in an old Coventry book, a Virgin's Image; so that they that came of devotion thither "gag” used by the Prophet Jeremy in addressshould say as many Prayers as there were severall Gems ing Henry VI. and his Queen, when they were therein."

present with their little son, Prince Edward, at The monastery thus founded had twenty-four the play in Coventry, in which he (Jeremy) Benedictine monks, and the church connected says to them: with it was consecrated “to the honor of God,

“L’nto the rote of Jesse rote likkyn you well I may, the Virgin Mary, St. Peter, St. Osburg, and all The fragrante floure sprongen of you shall so the Saints." William of Malmesbury has inci

Encrece and sprede—". dentally mentioned its extraordinary ornament- The “floure" being, of course, the little Prince. ation, declaring that "it was enriched and beau

These courtly speeches by sacred to royal tified with so much gold and silver that the personages indicate a very important phase of walls scemed too narrow to contain it; inso- the growth of the English drama out of the old much that Robert de Limesi, bishop of the dio- miracle-plays. I must sum up in a few words cese, in the time of King William Rufus, scraped what were a profoundly interesting history to from one beam that supported the shrines 500 trace. It is generally believed that the first marks of silver.”

miracle-plays were invented and acted by Leofrie is a distinctly historical character. He pilgrims to and from the Holy Sepulchre for was the fifth Earl of Mercia, a district which com- their edification. At this time the subjects were prised the present counties of Warwick, Worces- exclusively Scriptural. At a later period the ter, Nottingham, Northampton, Lincoln, Leices- priesthood, seeing a means of gain in them, ter, Derby, Stafford, Gloucester, Chester, Salop, took them under their own charge. The Pope and Oxford. He was, under Canute, Captain- granted indulgences to those who went to see General of the royal forces; took an active part them. In the MS. of the Chester plays in the in securing the succession of Harold ; assisted British Museum [MS. 2124] the author speaks in the clevation of Edward the Confessor, and of his having gone to Rome to obtain leave of in upholding the monarch against Earl Godwyn. the Pope to have the “mysteries" done into the He and his Countess were buried in the great English tongue-showing that they were originporch of the church of this monastery, of which ally in Latin. At this second period, under the Reformation left not one stone upon another. the priests, there was a large introduction of

But while this great monastery remained un- clements from the Apocryphal Gospels and der such magnificent endowment and patronage the Legends of Saints. Toward the close of Coventry became the centre of French pilgrims the 15th century the legend of St. George and and place - hunters. Indeed these swarmed the Dragon seems to have been a great novelty through the Earl of Mercia's realm, so that I in Coventry, and had a great “run.” St. find the most ancient laws of the city written in George, it must be remembered, was, according French. With these came the “mysteries,” or to the unquestionable authority of the “ History ** miracle-plays," with which Coventry is above of the Seven Champions of Christendom," born all other towns associated. Thus Dugdale writes: in Coventry, and after his great achievements

“ Before the suppression of the monasteries this cittye brought his bride hither : was very famous for the pageants that were play'd therein

“Where being in short space arriv'd, upon Corpus Christi day. These pageants were acted

l'nto his native dwelling-place, with mighty state and reverence by the fryers of this house, and conteyned the story of the New Testament,

Therein with his dear love he livid,

And fortune did his nuptials grace. which wils composed into old English rime. The theatres for the several scenes were very large and high; and be

They many years of joy did see, ing placed upon wheeles were drawn to all the eminent

And led their lives at Coventry." places of the cittye, for the better advantage of the spec

Percy's Reli ques. In that incomparable library belonging to Sir Thomas Cotton there is yet one of the books which per

When, in the year 1474, Prince Edward, son or Ludus Coventriæ. I myselfe have spoke with some addressed in an octave stanza by one representteyned to this pageant, entitled Ludux Corporis Christi, of Edward IV., visited Coventry, he was first old people who had, in their younger yeares, bin eyewitnesses of these pageants soe acted; from whom I have ing Edward the Confessor, and afterward by St. biu told that the contuence of people from farr and neare George in armor : a king's daughter stood holdto see that show was extraordinary great, and yielded noe ing a lamb, and supplicating his assistance to small advantage to this cittye."

protect her from a terrible dragon. The ChamIn the 15th century it became the fashion to pion was placed upon a “conduit” “ running make these plays a leading feature in royal fes- wine in four places, and minstrelsy of organ


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