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the “ Reese River Mining Company"—and the Parrott, is another specimen of the imMessrs. Duncan, Sherman, and Co., bankers, proved class of mills. The battery consists of Messrs. Hitchcock and Darling (of the Fifth ten stamps, and the furnaces and amalgamating Avenue Hotel), Treanor W. Parke, Esq., and department are of corresponding capacity. ConJohn Parrott, are supposed to be the principal nected with the mill is a fine town property, posowners of stock. The mill has just been com- sessing the advantage of a plentiful and neverpleted under the superintendence of Captain failing supply of water. Cañon City is situated Gager. It is a magnificent building, with at the entrance of the cañon, and Watertown strong wood frame-work and boarding, sub- immediately below. Two years ago there was stantial stone foundations, and all the con- an extraordinary degree of activity in town veniences for working the ores by the most ap- lots at this place. Every body thought it was proved system. The Reese River Company the proper site for the great mining capital; owns a number of ledges in the adjacent hills, and forthwith a town sprang up, with an exa large tract of wood-land, and a fine saw-mill, press office, numerous stores and saloons, and which has already paid for itself. Among the a branch telegraph line. When the town was valuable ledges also owned by this Company in built and filled with inhabitants the question Lander Hill is the Providentia, in which some arose—What was it all about, and what were extraordinary "strikes” have recently been they to do? No valuable ledges had yet been made at a depth of 300 feet. The vein is not discovered in the vicinity. Water was plenty, wide-ranging only from two to three feet, but the citizens could not live exclusively on but the ore is wonderfully rich. I saw aver- water. So the town was as quickly abandoned age specimens taken out which assayed at the as it was built; and now it stands—a long street rate of $2000 to the ton.
of empty houses. The truth is, people were Bael's Mill at Big Creek, three miles abovė insane about that time. The property is really
INTERLOR OF BUEL'S MILL
the moisture evaporated. It is then crushed dry in the batteries and taken from them in cars, upon a railway leading to a series of hoppers in the furnace room. From the hoppers it is shaken down into the ovens, where it is roasted. While the process of roasting is going on, it requires to be constantly stirred so that the most minute particles may be subjected to the action of the heat. This is continued from four to eight hours at a charge, according to the quality of the ore. Rich ores and heavy sulphurets require a longer
time than poor or light valuable. It embraces the best water privilege ores. Salt is added, according to the greater any where in the neighborhood of Austin. or less amount of sulphurets to be reduced to Within a few years, when the country becomes chlorids. The per-centage of salt used is from settled, it is destined to be the centre of an in- eight to twenty, varying with the quality of the dustrious farming and manufacturing popula- ore. Its effect is to develop through the heat tion. It is one of the few places where vege- a chlorine gas, which has a strong affinity for siltables can be abundantly raised, and where ver, and forms after desulphurization a chlorid mills can be run by water-power—a valuable of silver. The base metals are mostly volatilconsideration in a mining country.
ized, and thus separated from the silver. As The high cost of reducing the ores has hith- soon as the ores are sufficiently roasted they erto been a great drawback to the prosperity of are removed from the ovens to the cooling and the mining interests. While the Washoe mills screening room, where they are sprinkled with can make handsome profits on ores ranging water to prevent wastage in the transportation from $20 to $100 per ton, the Reese River to the amalgamating room. The next process mills are compelled, in consequence of the ad- is to collect the silver by amalgamation. Some ditional cost of roasting, to charge from $80 to of the mills use the Freiberg or barrel process, $100 per ton. None but very rich ores can bear such costly working. A large amount of the labor and expense of working the mines is lost. Mills that could reduce $40 and $50 ores, with advantage to themselves and the miners, would soon make handsome fortunes. There is plenty of that grade of ore now lying waste over the hills.
In this connection a brief description of the process of reduction, under the improved system, may not be uninteresting.
When the ore is delivered at the mill, it is placed in a kiln and
which is conducted by means of revolving barrels. Wheeler pans are also extensively used. Differences of opinion exist as to the relative advantages of the various methods of amalgamation. A common practice is, to precipitate the chlorid of silver by means of copper arms revolving in tubs. Steam is injected through small holes in the bottom of each tub, disseminating the quicksilver through the revolving mass. The silver chlorids, by contact with the copper arms, are precipitated in ductive mines. The Whitlatch Union enjoyed the form of metallic silver, leaving as a resid- for a time an extraordinary reputation. The uum a chlorid of copper, which flows off into width of its ledge and the richness of its ores the tailings when the tubs are discharged. This gave it a speculative value beyond all reasonprocess usually lasts from three to four hours. able estimate. Last year the vein suddenly The silver thus collected is then placed in re- broke off, and the stock - holders expended torts and smelted. The best mills produce $40,000 in trying to find it again. All other bullion ranging from 900 to 1000 fine.
stocks became depressed in consequence of this A brief reference to the great mining enter- unexpected event. The utmost confidence, prise of the “United Reese River Company” however, prevailed among experts that the must close my remarks on the present condition ledge was somewhere near. It had not “peof Austin and its neighborhood. This Com- tered out,” but seemed to be cut square off by pany was organized for the purpose of securing some convulsion of the earth. Recently a releading interests in the best mines. The main markable discovery was made. The dislocaprinciple upon which it is based is, to concen- tion, instead of causing the ledge to drop down, trate capital upon the development of all meri- had thrown it up, and all the explorations had torious ledges, and furnish the mills with a run below it-in some cases following it, in a steady and ample supply of ores. The Com- parallel line, within three feet! It is now pany have already leased a mill at Austin, and opening out as rich as ever, with unquestionare now working it on their own account, be able evidences of permanency. The Board of sides furnishing work for custom mills. Where Managers, under the control of Mr. Harker as machinery is necessary for hoisting or pump- President, and Mr. N. C. Fasset as Secretary, ing, or new shafts or drifts have to be run, they have their office in San Francisco.
Mr. Rayco-operate with other stock-holders in the la- mond is general agent at Austin. The busibor and expense of development, giving the ness of the Company is conducted with fidelity weight of their influence and capital to the and judgment, and there can be no reasonable prosecution of the work, with the aid of relia- doubt as to the success of this important enterble experts, and drawing a pro-rata share of prise. Large interests are held in New York. the proceeds. Mines that would otherwise be There is a sufficient surplus of earnings now in unproductive are at once placed in a paying hand to commence the payment of dividends; condition. The Company starts with a capital but the experience of the Washoe mines has of two millions of dollars, of which sufficient deterred the managers from undertaking to has been paid in to secure the practical control pay dividends until there is a sufficiency of ore of some of the best mines in the Reese River ahead to insure the continuance of payments district. By drawing their supplies of ores for at least twelve months ahead without abatefrom so many different sources, under the gen- ment. Such enterprises as this, judiciously and eral supervision of an experienced agent, any economically managed, can not fail to promote failure in a particular ledge is not apt to affect the best interests of the district, and encourage the average result. At this time active opera- investments in mines of demonstrated value tions are in progress on several ledges of estab- throughout the State. lished reputation. Valuable interests are held in the Diana, North Star, Oregon, Apollo, Jo In summing up my impressions of this porLane, Blue Ledge, Black Ledge, Governor tion of the Reese River country, I must not Seymour, Chicago Southern Light, Whitlatch omit to mention a few of the leading mines, Union, and many others well known as pro- which have already yielded large results, con
sidering the limited amount of labor and capi- This evil will cure itself in time. Undoubtedtal expended in working them. The “ Diana" ly there will be heavy losses in individual cases; is down 118 feet by perpendicular shaft, with but I am fully satisfied there will be a large an incline of 40 feet below. It now averages average of success where capital is judiciously in antimonial ores and sulphurets $200 to the invested, and mills and mines economically ton. A new engine of 30 horse-power has been managed. erected upon it. The “Morgan and Munsey" Senator Stewart, on his way back from the runs parallel with the Diana at a distance of States last summer, took occasion, in the course 150 feet, and is considered one of the best of a speech at Austin, to dwell upon the great ledges in Lander Hill. This mine is down 250 advantages that would be derived from the feet by incline, has a 3 feet vein, and has yield- speedy construction of the Pacific Railroad. ed over two hundred thousand dollars. The There was only one part of the honorable SenSavage, Oregon, North Star, and Southern ator's speech to which any of his auditors could Light are all splendid ledges, yielding the rich- take exception; and, as I happen to be specialest class of ores. The General Hooker, St. Ily interested in that, I will mention it. Mr. Louis, Governor Seymour, and Washington Stewart said the people of the East had no idea Irving are in active operation with excellent of Nevada except what they derived from cerresults. The Hubbard, a rich ledge in Central tain caricatures in Harper's Magazine. Every Hill, near Upper Austin, has not only paid for body read Harper's, and, a matter of course, the labor and capital expended upon it, but every body thought the mines were a humbug; within a few months returned, in clear profit, the miners a race of savages, armed to the teeth the snug little sum of $19,000 to the owners. with pistols and bowie-knives; and the climate The Eagle Mill and its mining property is pay- so boisterous that it was necessary to cling to ing handsomely.
awning-posts to keep from being blown away! After nearly three months of hard experi- Now, Mr. Stewart knows very well Virginia ence, during which I scarcely passed a day City is not Nevada; but it was a good point to without exploring one or more of the mines, I make before an audience of his constituents. am thoroughly convinced this is the richest of He intimated that if the writer would be seriour mineral regions. Whether all the mining ous for once in his life, and devote his pen to enterprises now in progress will pay is another the true interests of the country, he could do question. I think Eastern people are too easi- as much through the pages of Harper toward ly imposed upon by specious representations, the building of the Pacific Railroad as any man and have too great a tendency to expend large living. Mr. Stewart will admit that there is a sums of money in the erection of mills and reformation in the present article, which, it is offices before they fully develop their ledges. hoped, will be found serious enough.
KINDLING impulse seized the host He sees them creep. Yet, here and there,
Half bid 'mid leafless groves they go;
Of turreted marbles show, Grant, who without reserve can dare ;
So dwindle these to eyes below. And, “Well, go on, and do your will,”
But fronting shot and flanking shell He said, and measured the Mountain then: Sliver and rive the inwoven ways; So master-riders fling the rein
High tops of oaks and high hearts fall, But you must know your men.
But never the climbing stays. On yestermorn, in grayish mist,
From right to left, from left to right Armies, like ghosts, on hills had fought; They roll the rallying cheerAnd, rolled from the cloud, their thunders loud Vie with each other, brother with brother, The Cumberlands far had caught;
Who shall the first appearTo-day the sunlit steeps are sought.
What color-bearer, with colors clear Grant stood on cliffs whence all was plain, In sharp relief, like sky-drawn GrantAnd smoked as one who feels no cares;
Whose cigar must now be near the stump. But mastered nervousness intense
While, in solicitude, his back Alone such calmness wears.
Heaps slowly to a hump. The summit-cannon plunge their flame
Near and more near; till now the flags Sheer down the primal wall;
Run like a catching flame; But up and up each linking troop
And one flares highest, to peril nighestIn stretching festoons crawl
He means to make a name.
Salvos ! they give him his fame.
And then the leap where Death has led And sees two miles of dark dots creep,
Flag answered tlag along the crest, And knows they mean the cope.
And swarms of rebels fled.
“ ARE THERE OTHER INHABITED WORLDS ?* RE there on any of these globes which will soon be seen in his neighborhood. It is
seem to be moving around us beings the analogue of the larger condensation of formed like ourselves, or animals, or any vapor that would be produced were one of us plants? Do people on the Moon contemplate to breathe on the same window. The fly is our Earth, a glorious orb in their firmament, burning away and vaporizing water with the and spy out our actions through telescopes as superfluous heat. we attempt to spy out theirs ? Before the To illustrate the necessity of air to the wellevening is finished I hope to be able to answer being of animals, a bird may be put under a these questions in a satisfactory manner. glass bell jar standing on the air-pump. By
Let us examine, in the first place, the condi- the aid of the pump the air can be removed to tions essential to the existence of the organized a large extent from the bell jar, and as soon as beings with which we are familiar, and then we the exhaustion is commenced, the bird shows will try to discover whether such conditions are signs of discomfort and becomes more and found on any other celestial body. It will only more restless as the action continues. He be necessary to investigate a few of these con- would eventually die if kept under the exhaustditions, because if we find any that are abso- ed jar. lutely essential to life, whether animal or vege- To plants air is just as necessary as to anitable, missing on other globes, our purpose will mals, although we can not easily demonstrate be fulfilled. They can not be inhabited. this by a lecture-table experiment. The larger
To sustain the life of an animal three things part of their substance is derived from the atare necessary. It must have air, water, and mosphere by the aid of the Sun's beams; but food. Why is this the case ? We all know a small portion comes in through the roots. how soon life is extinguished if the supply of Nature has so arranged the relations of plants air to the lungs be cut off'; the person turns to animals that they take out from the air the of a livid blue, becomes insensible, and soon impurities that have been imparted to it by dies. Or by breathing the noxious gas that animals and replace the ingredients that are arises from the burning of charcoal the same necessary to the latter. If in any planet we result occurs. One of the elements of the air, could detect the traces of vegetable life, it a fifth part of its bulk, is a gas-oxygen. It would at once be a strong argument for the possesses the power of sustaining the operation existence of animals there, and vice versa. of burning. In a stove, for example, if we But you may think that I have omitted the desire the burning to be accelerated, we in case of aquatic animals and water plants altocrease the draught and let in more air—that is, gether. They seem to have no access to air, more oxygen; if we desire to reduce the rate and might be fairly supposed not to require it. of combustion, we diminish the access of air. You will sustain yourselves in that opinion by If we shut off the supply of air altogether the citing the case of a man submerged in water fire goes out.
who drowns, and by that of a fish brought out So it is in a human being. A burning is into the air that dies. Nevertheless air is neccontinually going on in him, and this it is that essary to all fishes; for if you boil water and so enables him to keep warm in spite of the cold expel the air from it, and then when cool put a of winter or of the night season. No animal fish into it, he can not live. He is in the same can possibly exist without a supply of air to condition as the bird in the bell jar. carry on combustion in its body. When we The other case, that of a fish dying in the are about to die, and our interior production air, is as readily explained. A fish is not proof heat is ceasing, we grow cold. That air is, vided with lungs as we are, but breathes the essential to the life of even the lowest animals air dissolved in water by the aid of its gills. is shown by the fact that, if water be taken in When taken out of water the gills dry up, and which animalculæ are swimming, and cold ap- the little tufts of blood-vessels, of which they plied so as to cause it to freeze, a drop remains consist, adhere to one another so as to be ununfrozen around each of these little animated able to act any longer. Some fish, as the eel, forms for a certain time after the rest has con- have, however, the means of keeping their gills gealed. Heat is being produced by the ani- wet by causing the mouth to remain partly filled mal-to liberate that heat it must be consum- with water, and these can be retained on land ing air and burning its body.
for many hours and yet live. Again, in an instance with which many of Water in its turn is just as essential as air. us are familiar, the respiration of a small ani- By its aid food is carried into the body and dismal is shown. If on a cold day you watch a tributed, and it also acts as a regulator of heat. fly that has lighted on a dry window, a collec- If we tend to become too warm, as in the sumtion of moisture, the results of his respiration, mer season, water escapes rapidly from the
lungs and skin, and by its evaporation keeps * A Lecture delivered before the Young Men's Christian
us cool. That such evaporating processes cause Association of New York by HENRY DRAPER, M.D., Professor Adjunct of Chemistry in the University of New
a cooling may be proved by an experiment with York.
which many of us are acquainted. It is often