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few logs may have happened to ledge, but is / as the frozen surface is technically named, is set exactly where it is wanted, and is made so quite strong enough to bear the weight of comas to suit the force of the current. In those paratively small animals, such as wolves, espeplaces where the stream runs slowly the dam cially when they run swiftly over it; but it is carried straight across the river, but in those yields to the enormous weight of the Elk, which where the water has much power the barrier plunges to its belly at every step. The wolves is made in a convex shape, so as to resist the have now the Elk at an advantage. They can force of the rushing water. The power of the overtake it without the least difficulty; and if stream can, therefore, always be inferred from they can bring it to bay in the snow its fate is the shape of the dam which the Beavers have sealed. They care little for the branching built across it. Some of these structures are horns, but leap boldly at the throat of the hamof very great size, measuring two or three hun- pered animal, whose terrible fore-feet are now dred yards in length, and ten or twelve feet in powerless, and, by dint of numbers, soon worry thickness, and their form exactly corresponds it to death. Man, too, takes advantage of this with the force of the stream. The Beaver state of the snow, equips himself with snowmakes its houses close to the water, and com- shoes, and skims over the slight and brittle municates with it by means of subterranean crust with perfect security. An Elk, therefore, passages, one entrance of which passes into the whenever abroad in the snow, is liable to many house or “lodge," as it is technically named, dangers, and, in order to avoid thein, it makes and the other into the water, so far below the the curious temporary habitation called the surface that it can not be closed by ice. It is, Elk yard, and which is represented in the illustherefore, always possible for the Beaver to tration. This winter home is very simple in gain access to the provision stores, and to re- construction, consisting of a large space of turn to its house, without being seen from the ground on which the snow is trampled down land. The lodges are nearly circular in form, by continually treading it so as to form both a and much resemble the well known snow- hard surface on which the animal can walk, houses of the Esquimaux, being domed, and and a kind of fortress in which it can dwell seabout half as high as they are wide, the average curely. The whole of the space is not trodden height being three feet and the diameter six or down to one uniform level, but consists of a seven feet. These are the interior dimensions, net-work of roads or passages through which the exterior measurement being much greater, the animal can pass at ease. So confident is on account of the great thickness of the walls, the Elk in the security of the “yard” that it which are continually strengthened with mud ! can scarcely ever be induced to leave its snowy and branches, so that during the severe frosts fortification and pass into the open ground. they are nearly as hard as solid stone. Each This habit renders it quite secure from the atlodge will accommodate several individuals, tacks of wolves, which prowl about the outside whose beds are arranged around the walls. of the yard, but dare not venture within; but, Generally, the Beavers desert their huts in the unfortunately for the Elk, the very means which summer time, although one or two of the houses preserve it from one danger only lead it into may be occupied by a mother and her young another. If the hunter can come upon one of offspring. All the old Beavers who have no these Elk-yards he is sure of his quarry; for domestic ties to chain them at home take to the animal will seldom, leave the precincts of the water, and swim up and down the stream the snowy inclosure, and the rifle-ball soon lays at liberty, until the month of August, when they low the helpless victims. return to their homes.
The Elk is not the only animal that makes The Elk, or Moose, inhabits the northern parts these curious fortifications, for a herd of Wapiti of America and Europe, and is, consequently, deer will frequently unite in forming a common an animal which is forined to endure severe home. One of these “yards” bas been known cold. Although a very large and powerful ani- to measure between four and five miles in dimal, measuring sometimes seven feet in height ameter, and to be a perfect net-work of paths at the shoulders--a height which is very little sunk in the snow. So deep, indeed, is the less than that of an average elephant-it has snow when untrodden, that when the deer tray. many foes, and is much persecuted both by man erse the paths, their backs can not be seen and beast. In summer time it is tolerably safe, above the level of the white surface which conbut in the winter it is beset by many perils. ceals the yard. During the sharp frosts, also, the Elk runs but We have now, in a series of articles, given little risk, because it can traverse the hard, 'accounts of a few of the Homes constructed by frozen surface of the snow with considerable different classes of the animal creation. The speed, although with a strange, awkward gait. illustrations and a considerable portion of the But when the milder weather begins to set in descriptions have been derived from the "Homes it is in constant danger. The warm sun falling without Hands” of the Rev. J. G. Wood. We on the snow produces a rather curious effect. have by no means exhausted the material conThe frozen surface only partially melts, and the tained in that admirable volume, which we water, mixing with the snow beneath, causes earnestly commend to the attention of those it to sink away from the icy surface, leaving a who wish to know more of this interesting subconsiderable space between them. The "crust,” | ject.
THREE MONTHS WITH ITALIAN BRIGANDS.* R. MOENS is an Englishman of fortune, of the people by whom the stupendous edifices
and, as it appears, an amateur photo- were reared. The party consisted of Mr. grapher. Early in 1865 he set out, accom- Moens, Mr. Aynsley, an English clergyman, panied by his wife, upon an Italian tour, going and their wives. From Naples a railway runs, first to Sicily, and making the gira or “round" past the considerable town of Salerno, someof that island, which was a few years ago so what more than twenty miles from Paestum. pleasantly described by Ross Browne in his fa- It was indeed a little suspicious that the landmous "Yusef.” Mr. Moens had moreover the lord of the “Hotel Vittoria" at Salerno thought special design to photograph the eruption of it necessary to post up in various languages a Etna, which was then going on. His descrip- notice to “travelers desirous of visiting the • tion of this is very interesting; but we must temples of Pæstum that the road is now perpass it over in order to give, as far as we may, fectly safe between Salerno and Pæstum, owing some account of his subsequent experiences to the vigilance of General Avenati, the Miliwhen a captive among the brigands on the tary Commander of the district, who has stamainland.
tioned patrols along the road at Battipaglia, Crossing over to Naples early in May he set Barizzo, and Pæstum.” After a three hours out for a trip to the ruins of the famous tem- drive they reached the temples a little before ples of Pæstum, which stand in solitary grand- noon, a squad of soldiers accompanying them. eur, in a mountain wilderness, with no traces Mr. Moens set his camera in order and phoEnglish Travelers and Italian Brigands: A Narra
tographed the ruins. Toward evening they tive of Capture and Captivity. By W.J. C. MOENS. Har- set out on their return; not a little surprised per and Brothers.
that their military protectors were nowhere