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An attempt is made, in the following pages, to cover a wider field than that covered by most of the existing works on Seamanship.

The admirable treatises of Luce, Nares, and Alston, originating in the days when seamanship was almost wholly concerned with the fitting and handling of vessels under sail, have preserved through later editions the general characteristics which they naturally assumed in the beginning. These treatises will never be out of date until the time, still far in the future, when sails shall have been entirely driven out by steam. It will hardly be denied, however, that the Steamer has long since established its claim to consideration in Seamanship, and that there is room for a work in which this claim shall be more fully recognized than in the treatises above referred to. The excellent work of Captains Todd and Whall, “ Practical Seamanship for the Merchant Service," deals more fully than either of its predecessors with the handling of steamers; but its point of view is, as its name implies, primarily and almost exclusively that of the Merchant Service.

Shortly after the present work was begun, a circular letter was addressed to officers of the merchant service and extensively circulated through the Branch Hydrographic Offices at New York, Philadelphia, Baltimore and Norfolk, requesting the views of the officers addressed.

The answers received to these questions were unexpectedly numerous and complete. More than forty prominent officers of the Merchant Service replied, many of them writing out their views and describing their experiences with a fullness of detail far beyond anything that could have been anticipated.

The thanks of the author are due particularly to the following for letters or for personal interviews covering the above points : Capt. W. H. Thompson, S. S. Belgenland; Capt. T. Evans, S. S. Runo; Capt. J. Dann, S. S. Southwark; Ist Officer T. Anfindsen, S. S. Southwark ; Capt. J. C. Jameson, S. S. St. Paul ; Capt. H. E. Nickels, S. S. Friesland ; Capt. G. J. Loveridge, S. S. Buffalo; Capt. F. M. Howes, S. S. Kershaw; Capt. T. J. Thorkildsen, S. S. Trojan ; Capt. Otto Neilsen, S. S. Pennland; Capt. H. Doxrud, S. S. Noordland; Capt. C. O. Rockwell, Clyde S. S. Co. ; Capt. S. W. Watkins, S. S. Montana ; Capt. Anders Beer, S. S. Nordkyn ; Capt. J. M. Johnston, S. S. Sardinian ; Capt. A. R. Mills, S. S. Westernland ; Capt. J. S. Garvin, S. S. Cherokee ; Capt. Robt. B. Quick, S. S. El Cid ; Capt. Wm. J. Roberts, S. S. New York ; Capt. T. Richardson, S. S. Noranmore; Capt. E. O. Marshall, S. S. Maryland ; Ist Officer H. S. Lane, S. S. Maryland ; Capt. W. F. Bingham, S. S. Marengo ; Capt. R. Gowing, S. S. Greatham; Capt. H. J. Byrne, U. S. A.T. McPherson ; Capt. Paul Grosch, S. S. Stuttgart; Capt. Geo. Schrotter, S. S. Belgravia ; Capt. F. C. Saunders, S. S. English King ; Capt. Chas. Cabot, S. S. Venango ; Capt. Chas. Pinkham, S. S. Queen Wilhelmina ; Capt. A. Traue, S. S. München; Capt. W. Thomas, S. S. Quernmore ; Capt. H. O. Nickerson, Fall River Line ; Capt. Geo. Lane, Baltimore Steam Packet Co.

Important assistance was received from Naval Constructor W. J. Baxter, U. S. Navy, who prepared Chapters I and XVIII; and from Lieutenant E. E. Hayden, U. S. Navy, who contributed several Charts and much valuable information upon Meteorology, for Chapter XIX.

Chapter V was suggested by a paper, “ Mechanical Appliances on board Ship,” by Captain Thomas Mackenzie, issued by the London Shipmasters' Society as No. 29 of their valuable series of publications.

It would be impossible to mention all the naval officers who have assisted the author with criticism and suggestions; but acknowledgment is especially due to Lieut.-Commander A. W. Grant, Lieut. John Hood, Lieut. W. R. M. Field, Lieut. John Gow, Lieut.-Commander W. F. Worthington, Commander J. E. Pillsbury, Lieut. V. S. Nelson, Lieut. Ridgely Hunt, and Chief Boatswain W. L. Hill, all of the United States Navy.

Above all, acknowledgment is due to Chief Boatswain C. F. Pierce, U. S. Navy, who not only assisted in the preparation of many parts of the text, but prepared sketches for fully one-half the illustrations of the volume.

AUSTIN M. KNIGHT. UNITED STATES NAVAL ACADEMY,

APRIL 1, 1901.

CHAPTER VIII.

THE COMPASS LOG AND LEAD-SUBMARINE SIGNALS.
The Magnetic Compass - The Gyroscopic Compass.-The Radio Com-
pass.—The Pelorus.— Bearings.-Measurement of Speed — Patent Logs.-
Revolutions of the Screw.-Sounding.—The Hand Lead-Sounding Ma-
chines.- Principles of Sounding Machine.—Types of Sounding Machines.

- Sounding by Machine.-Submarine Signals.-Principles and Applica-

tions of Submarine Signals

Page 116

THE RULES OF THE ROAD.

Various Sets of Rules for Preventing Collision.-Authorities to be Con-
sulted upon Rules.-International and Inland Rules (United States) in
Parallel Columns, with Notes.-Vessels' Lights.—Sound Signals for Fog,
etc.--Speed in a Fog.-Steering and Sailing Rules.-Sound Signals for
Vessels in Sight of each other.-Miscellaneous Rules.-Remarks on Rules
of the Road.—Decisions of the Courts upon Rules of the Road.—Deci-
sions upon Speed in a Fog.-Laws Relating to Rules of the Road.-Rules
of other Nations than United States

Page 360

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