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hundred dollars, which is only to be paid when the whole work is done, and said main building and one lateral wing is fully completed, accepted and ready for occupancy in according with the terms of this agreement.
Sixth–It is expressly agreed and understood that this contract is made under and subject to and with a full understanding of said acts of the legislature above referred to in the location and erection of the buildings for the deaf and dumb sylum at Council Bluffs, Iowa, and said acts are made a part of this agreement so far as they may be in any way material to this act.
Seventh-It is agreed that the party of the first part shall have and hereby reserves the right and privilege to change the plans and specifications of said main building and one lateral wing, and it is further agreed that the plans and drawings as referred to in this agreement and now on file in the office of said commissioners, embrace the following, to-wit:
No. 1. Basement.
Eighth-It is agreed that in case of any change made by the parties of the first part in the plans of said building, such as in the opinion of the superintendent would necessarily delay its completion beyond the first day of October, A. D. 1870, then and in that case the party of the second part is not to be liable on his bond for a failure to have said buildings completed at the time specified as above and in his bond.
Ninth-It is further agreed that whenever the said party of the second part shall have material upon the ground for the erection of said buildings, and when estimates have been made thereon by the superintendent as aforesaid and payments have been made thereon by said commissioners in behalf of the State of Iowa, then the ownership and right of possession to said material and property passes to the said State of Iowa, and the said party of the second part sball bave no further right, title or interest in the same, except for the special purpose of using the same in the construction of said buildings.
W. R. CRAIG,
COUNCIL BLUFFS, IOWA,
November 30, 1868.5 TO THE COMMISSIONERS FOR THE IOWA STATE BUILDINGS FOR THE
DEAF AND DUMB AT COUNCIL BLUFFS,
GENTLEMEN:— I propose the changes on the asylum buildings be in writing, that each member may at his leisure, form an opinion as to its necessity:
No change has been proposed merely to reduce the expense-if it happens to be cheaper it has been proposed because it is better.
Although it is undisputably true that economy limits our choice of means, it is by no means true that the best methods of construction and the most beautiful and harmonious combinations of form are most expensive.
It is evident that while part of the building, designed for the nse of one of the sexes, is to be used for both, some change will be required in dividing the rooms.
In addition to this I would call attention to the size of the rooms in main building-by figures on drawing “No. 3,” the back rooms are 25 feet 8 inches in the clear, the front ends of the joists rest on a nine inch brick wall, which not only support this large area of floors in the third and fourth stories, but also the roof and half of observatory. There are also rooms in the front, 24 feet 4 incbes in the clear.
I would recommend, if practicable, that all these rooms be reduced to twenty feet in the clear. This would give the necessary stiffness, and reduce the cost about $5000.
The defects in the original plan seem to be consequent upon an erroneous estimate of the strength of our Iowa brick.
I would also recommend the substitution of a wooden cornice for the one of Milwaukee pressed brick. By this we not only get rid of the overhanging weight above the ceiling joist, 2 feet 3 inches on the wings and 5 feet 3 inches on main building, but get a better construction by the plate being fastened directly on the joist. It also protects the thin upper walls from moisture. This change would necessarily involve other changes, the principal of which would be to leave off the turrets at the corners. I propose this change in the cornice with a full knowledge of the severe and just criticisms against wooden cornices in cities. In the present case, where the building will always be isolated, these objections cannot apply. At first sight it appears an inferior construction, but being tinned over as a part of the roof, it is as well protected as the roof timbers themselves, and more so than the frames. It also greatly increases the architectural effect. I present an elevation' of the front, showing these changes. They would reduce the cost some $12,500.
It has been proposed to add the fourth story above the chapel to its height. At present it is only sixteen feet, and the room above of no use, but to add to the outside appearance of the centre building. This would save that part of the fourth story floor, value about $575.
There are other minor changes which would improve the building, but are not so important as the above. The windows are four feet wide: on this account, although they are nine feet high, they
ap; ear low. To make them three feet three inches would improve their proportion, and add nine inches to the strength of the walls. The doors are three feet three inches wide, and in the first story eight feet nine inches high; three feet by seven feet six inches is abundantly large, and much more convenient to handle.
The common impression that in a large building everything about it must be of large proportions is wrong, we judge of the size of a building represented on a small piece of paper, or the building itself even at a short distance by the number and proportion and its openings, if the openings in a large building are of the same proportion, as in smaller ones, a part of that most powerful element of architectural effect “magnitude” is sacrificed; some eminent architects have reversed these proportions and produced apparent magnitude where it did not exist. I would not recommend deception. The doors should be of the most convenient size, the windows of a proper width and the height to compound with the height of the stories. With these properly proportioned as a unit of measurement a correct judgment of the whole will be found, either at a distance, or while inspecting the different parts in detail.
I would also call attention to the height of the first and second stories, by making these twelve instead of fourteen feet, the rooms would be much easier warmed; the stairs shorter, and about $300 saved in construction ; and I believe would not be a particle worse in any respect. The third story I would leave the whole height fourteen feet, it gives the necessary height for cornice and will receive considerable heat from the lower apartments.
There are other necessary changes which will add to the cost.
To prevent the building from unequal settlement some of the footings must be increased.
The two upper stories of the back wall inust be made as thick as the front walls.
The piers between the dining-rooms and dining-hall which are of brick must be of cut stone, or strengthened with iron columns.
That part of the back and front walls of main building supporting the roof and observatory must be made stronger, and several trusses added to the roof framing.
The north-east end finished instead of being left rough) by returning the belt courses and cornice around it.
And when the plumber shall locate the tanks, some provision will have to be made for their support. Respectfully submitted,
The above report was adopted by the committee, except the recommendations to reduce the size of the doors and height of the first and second stories.
COUNCIL BLUFFs, Iowa, Dec. 17, 1869.
TO THE COMMISSIONERS FOR THE IOWA STATE BUILDINGS FOR THE
DEAF AND DUMB, AT COUNCIL BLUFFS,
GENTLEMEN :- At your request, I submit the following general report:
I took charge of the work September 1, 1868, on the condition that such changes should be made in the plans as would render them practicable. I stated at the time that I believed Messrs. Schwartz
I and Dilger, the original architects, were men of ability. My better acquaintarce with the plans and specifications confirm that opinion, and I feel certain that upon becoming acquainted with the local circumstances they would have made similar changes with those submitted in November, 1868, having made ample provision for such action in the specifications.
The original design was practicable, only, in the very hardest semi-vitrified brick. Therefore, in constructing it of our Iowa brick, the walls had to be increased in thickness, the strength was also further increased and the building rendered less combustible by substituting, as far as practicable, brick for wood partitions, and still further by relieving the outer walls of the heary brick cornice and stone capping
For the expensive brick and stone cornice projecting only six inches, one of wood, projecting three and one-half feet has been substituted.
By this change in the cornice the turrets were impracticable. Being merely ornamental and expensive they were dispensed with altogether, giving the design somewhat of a different aspect. A