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The year 1907 undoubt- tries to which they have been and are The Flow

edly will be looked upon returning. It is possible to obtain a of Immigration

as a notable one in the good idea of the volume from the data annals of American immigration. The compiled by the Transatlantic Steamship most definite and comprehensive law that Conferences. The record shows that this country has had on the subject was 103,848 persons sailed for Europe from placed on the statute-books last Febru- United States and Canadian ports in ary. The chief provisions of this law the third or immigrant class between are likely to represent our National November 22 and January 1. The policy toward immigration for a much number who turned their faces eastward longer period of time than has elapsed in the course of the year, the same statissince the last previous law was passed. tics being used as a basis of computation, The most vexing foreign question that was 550,045, or more than two-fifths of this country had to face in the course of the westward movement. the year was one regarding Japanese immigration. The new law attempted to solve this problem, but thus far unsuc

This total will surprise

Reasons for cessfully. A National Commission pro

Return

many persons, for it is far vided for by the new statute, consisting

above the highest estiof nine members, began a thorough mates which have been made. Few investigation of the subject. Its work have any impression of the magnitude of will be continued for at least another the ebb of the alien tide. As a matter of year before it makes a full report, and fact, while many more “emigrant aliens" will include a careful investigation of the sailed eastward last year than in any effects of immigration on the social and previous year, the most striking phase industrial life of this country. An inves- was the number who sailed in the last tigation of this character is much needed. forty days. This “forty days' wonder" is In a country in which the settlement of likely to be productive of much thought political and social problems depends on the part of students of immigraso much upon a general knowledge of the tion, owing to its relation to our labor conditions underlying them, it is impor-conditions. In two different years, in tant that the public should know the the course of the last ten, the number facts. At the present time the only exact who have gone to Europe in the third information on the subject of immigration class has been greater, in proportion to within the reach of the people of the the number who came to America, than United States is contained in the annual in 1907. In 1898 the percentage was reports of the Commissioner-General of 45.39; and in 1904, a Presidential year, Immigration and the last census. The it was 48.74, or nearly one-half. The former leaves the immigrant at the exit total number who have crossed the of the immigration station, and the latter Atlantic Ocean in the immigrant class in is inadequate and antiquated so far as the course of the last ten calendar years the subject of the effects of immigration is 7,752,978. Those who have returned | are concerned, for its statistics were number 2,486,653, or 32.07 per cent. gathered before the full force of the These figures also include Canadian present wave was felt. The flow of ports, as many immigrants come to the immigration also reached a new mark United States through them. In other last year; a fact which we have already words, nearly one-third of our immigrareported and commented upon. The tion, in the course of that period, has phase of the subject which presented manifested no intention of remaining itself in the course of the year that will permanently in America. This fact will probably attract the most attention was be of great interest to those who have i the volume of the eastward flow, in the been troubled regarding the assimilation course of the last two months, of those of the immigrant. The facts regarding styled “emigrant aliens.” This was so this heretofore little recognized phase of abnormal that it is causing much appre- immigration have come to light so recenthension regarding its effect on the coun- ly that it is not possible fully to analyze

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its causes. Several stand out quite States for military aid. The clause in clearly, however. The movement of the the Constitution upon which this right last two months is due to a combination of appeal rests is as follows: of causes, such as the approach of the The United States shall guarantee to every holiday and idle season when many re- State in this Union a republican form of turn home in normal years, fear regard- government, and shall protect each of them ing the demand for unskilled labor in against invasion, and, on application of the

legislature, or of the executive (when the the near future, and incidentally the prox- legislature cannot be convened), against imity of a Presidential election. Many domestic violence. foreigners look upon a Presidential year This has always been construed to mean as one in which labor conditions are that when the President of the United likely to be unsettled. This movement States receives such an appeal from a demonstrates that we have an elastic State Legislature or Governor, it is allabor supply at our command which can most a mandatory duty for him to accommodate itself, in a measure, to con- furnish assistance promptly. If the ditions. If there were any doubt of the President were to wait for full inquiry truth of this, the comparatively empty into the facts, the mischief apprehended third-class quarters of certain steamships might be done; the very nature of the approaching New York would be con- case requires quick decision and prompt vincing. This elasticity is increased by action. The Outlook has already rethe fact that, owing to the influx of ported the appeal of Governor Sparks, of money from America and the higher Nevada, to the President for troops to be wages paid in such countries as Italy, sent to Goldfield, and the President's as a result of a decreased labor supply action in promptly complying with the through emigration, the economic condi- request. As a matter of fact, no single tions in Europe are more favorable life had been lost by violence before for unskilled labor than formerly. In Governor Sparks's appeal was made, nor December, 1906, 85,466 aliens were has there been any disturbance, unless landed in the United States. In the possibly the slightest, since the troops corresponding month of 1907 the total arrived. Governor Sparks, however (and, number of arrivals in the third class naturally, the mine-owners also), is of the at the Atlantic ports of the United opinion that if the troops were not at States and Canada was, approximately, Goldfield extensive disturbances might 48,000. Among the causes for the occur. Meanwhile, the Nevada Legislanormal return are nostalgia, full pockets ture has not been called together to deal denoting a fulfilled mission, and illness. with the situation, and it is only too apThose who complain of the cost of main- parent that the local authorities, including taining relief institutions for the benefit the Governor, have been disposed to look of foreigners would be astonished if they to the United States Government for realized the number of those who go their sole support. This is all wrong, home after giving America of their best, and when Governor Sparks went so far worn out victims of a changed environ- in a despatch to the President as to intiment, and many of them suffering from mate that even if the Legislature were tuberculosis and other pulmonary ail- convened it might not take necessary ments.

action, the time for plain speaking had

arrived. President Roosevelt accordIt is an axiomatic prin- ingly notified Governor Sparks that if The Situation at

ciple of law and com- within three weeks the Governor did Goldfield

mon sense that it is the not assemble the Legislature (three duty of a State to preserve peace and weeks having been named by Governor security within its own limits. Some- Sparks himself as the time necessary for times, but not often, a condition of that purpose), the Federal troops now in affairs arises when it is beyond the Goldfield would, five days thereafter, be power of the State authorities to exercise withdrawn. The Governor has intimated this function completely. In that case his intention to call the Legislature as an appeal may be made to the United recommended. So far as we have seen, this action of the President is universally large, helpful policy of a State working approved, unless it be by a part of the for the public good. The United States people of Nevada. If, after a genuine Supreme Court points out that the comand earnest effort has been made by the pany got its charter after the statute was Governor and Legislature of Nevada to passed, and the presumption was that it establish

peace and prevent violence, it at that time accepted the restrictions of shall be evident that outside assistance the statute. But, apart from this, the is really necessary, no doubt the United Court held that the law is not objectionStates might properly again come to the able, either on the ground that it denies assistance of the local authorities; but to the railway companies the equal proit is certainly true that the power of send- tection of the laws or that it deprives the ing National troops to preserve quiet in corporation of its property without due localities where disturbances exist should process of law. Furthermore, Justice not be hastily or carelessly employed. Holmes, though with some hesitation,

expressed separately his belief that the

statute requirement might be justified The school-children under the State's police power, adding Half-Fares for

have had their day in these significant words: School-Children court, and it is grati

If the Fourteenth Amendment is not to be fying to record the fact that the United

a greater hamper upon the established pracStates Supreme Court holds that a State tice of the States, in common with other may lawfully order its railways to carry governments, than I think was intended, them to and from school at half-price. they must be allowed a certain latitude in

the minor adjustments of life, even though As reported through an interesting ed- by their action the burdens of a part of the itorial in the New York Sun, this right community are somewhat increased. The of the State has been affirmed as con

traditions and habits of centuries were not

intended to be overthrown when that amendstitutional, on one ground by the Massa

ment was passed. chusetts Supreme Court, on another by the United States Supreme Court. The case arose in Attleborough, where a street

Last week the

Constructive Treason railway company refused to sell tickets

trial of the one for the transportation of pupils of the hundred and sixty-nine members of the public schools at rates not exceeding first Russian Duma who signed the half the regular fare charged for the Viborg Manifesto was concluded. It transportation of other passengers, as will be remembered that during the first the law requires. The company argued Duma a large number of Radicals, that the statute was confiscatory because mostly Constitutional Democrats, claimed it made the company carry the children the right to authorize, or to refuse to at a loss. But the highest court in authorize, taxation. When, by forcible Massachusetts replied that, so far as the dispersion of the Duma, they were destatute went, the company could raise prived of this right, they fled to Finland, its rates to adults so as still to make a and, in a conference at the city of profit on its total business, and that, as Viborg, recommended to their fellowthe children rode at times when the cars countrymen to refuse the payment of were not crowded and as they occupied taxes. Among the political leaders at less space, it was not certain that the Viborg were Ivan Petrunkevitch, who half-fare involved loss. But the really framed the first demand on the Emperor important point of the decision was that for a Constitution ; Prince Dimitri Shathe selection of children as a class to be kofsky, ex, Secretary of the Lower House; favored was not an arbitrary act (as if, Prince Obolinsky, the eminent jurist; for instance, white passengers paid less Vladimir Naboukov, the no less wellthan black), but was in pursuance of the known Radical leader, and others. It sound and long-established policy of the is impossible for Americans not to feel Commonwealth to encourage education. sympathy with such men. It is true Thus technicalities or close construction that it might have been more astute of a constitution are not to hinder the not to have recommended to their fellow

countrymen to withhold tax payments been no Druce case! People dearly love until they were sure that public opinion mystery and romance in high life; and in Russia would support them. But there for many years servant-girls, pot-boys, has been no attempt on the part of the and readers of shilling-shockers have been ex-deputies to deny their responsibility responding eagerly to the requests for subfor the manifesto ; on the contrary, they scriptions to aid in ousting the present have sustained it before the court with Duke. The remarkable story has had a courageous devotion. While the former certain appearance of probability because deputies still remain at large without bail, in point of fact the fifth Duke of Portland and while the comparatively light sen was a very singular person. He disaptence of three months'imprisonment peared from public life two or three times pleasantly surprises those who had feared for considerable period.s, and these peria sentence for one or two years' incar- ods are said to correspond with the apceration, the case will be appealed to the pearance in London life of T. C. Druce, Senate, the highest Russian tribunal, whose goings and comings were also It will be interesting to note whether mysterious. The Duke spent hundreds that body upholds the decision of the of thousands of pounds in underground lower court in declaring the accused excavations and passages at the great individually and collectively guilty of Portland estate of Welbeck Abbey. composing and signing a document which Among these excavations was an immense later was circulated in Russia by other underground ball-room, the center of participants in the agreement for the miles of passages. In this ball-room instigation of national action against the the Emperor William of Germany was Government–in other words, what is quite lately entertained during his visit according to the lower court, construct to England. In dress, in tastes, and in ive treason.

his life the fifth Duke of Portland was

eccentric to a degree, and it has even One of the most ex been darkly intimated that he was a leper, The Collapse of traordinary delusions of and that he killed his brother, Lord the Druce Myth

modern times received George Bentinck, on account of a quarrel its death-blow last week when the grave over a woman—who, it has been alleged, of Thomas C. Druce was opened in Eng afterward married T. C. Druce. land, and instead of a coffin filled with lead there was found the body of a bearded man corresponding to the de

It is very difficult at

A Tissue of Lies scription of Druce. It is true that a son

this distance to tell of T. C. Druce declared that he saw his whether or not there is any truth in father die, saw him put into a coffin and some of the assertions supposed to consaw that coffin interred, but this evidence nect the Duke of Portland with Druce. was scouted by the tens of thousands of It is almost an instinct, with newspapers English people who have insisted that at least, to exaggerate in telling such a Druce was one and the same person with story, and as it is repeated from one the fifth Duke of Portland and that he paper to another statements of fact carried on a separate existence as Druce become confused with mere unsupported in a merchant's bazar conducted by

Thus most American papers in him for years in Baker Street, London. telling the story have flatly stated that The case has been in the courts lately there is an underground tunnel connectin the form of a trial of the son of Druce, ing the town house of the Duke of Portwho now owns the bazar and who saw his land with the Baker Street bazar. If father die, on a charge of perjury brought this is so, it would certainly be a strong by a grandson of T.C. Druce who upholds bit of evidence, taken in connection with the double-identity myth and claims to be the fifth Duke's known passion for suban heir of the Portland estates. It might terranean burrowings; but we believe seem the only simple course that the that, sifted down to actual fact, it will be grave should have been opened many found that no such tunnel exists and that years ago—but then there would have there is simply a rumor that it used to

rumors.

a

a

exist. So with portraits showing a re minded writer will give us a clear, caremarkable resemblance between the two ful study of the facts as a fascinating men; they have been printed here as if contribution to the psychology of selfphotographs, while really they are draw- delusion. ings by more or less imaginative newspaper artists. Once such a myth is

The Outlook has

One Central American started, it grows with marvelous rapidity.

State

already commentAn American witness insisted that he

ed upon the reknew the one man as both Druce and markable provisions contained in the the Duke, that he was a confidant of eight treaties signed week before last at the Duke's purpose in leading a double Washington by the representatives of the life, and that he arranged the make- five Central American states, assembled believe Druce funeral at Mr. Druce's in a conference which may prove to be request. But when this man appeared the most important event thus far affecton the stand he was shown to be a noto- ing their history. The brief summary rious liar, known in America as the which we gave reveals only in part the

living affidavit-maker” and to extraordinary character of the treaties. be the man who tried to sell to Ameri- Additional emphasis may well be laid can newspapers sensational false upon them. This is desirable, first of hood about the theft of A. T. Stewart's all, for the good of the republics thembody; his testimony collapsed like a selves, as the more adequate the notice house of cards, and when he returned the treaties receive in this country, to New York his extradition on the more certain will be their ratificharge of perjury was demanded. Then cation by the Governments involved. there came forward a delightful lady liar, Secondly, the building of the Panama in whom the Duke of Portland had also Canal has put these countries, so to confided, and with whom Charles Dick- speak, “in the front yard” of the United ens had conversed on the subject, telling States. Their conduct, now that of our her that he knew all about it—and, by near neighbor, is more than ever importhe way, because the words Druce and tant to us. Stirred by last winter's strife Drood have a vague resemblance, Charles and disorder, which existed in all but Dickens's unfinished tale, “ Edwin one of the Central American republics, Drood," is supposed by the myth-be- Mr. Root, Secretary of State, and the lievers to have had something to do with Central American representatives in the Portland case, although there is not Washington were moved to follow the the slightest resemblance in plot between Portsmouth precedent, and asked that a the two stories. This woman, Mary Rob Peace Conference be called. Such a inson, said she wrote the whole story out plan found favor in Mexico also, and the in her diary at the time; and that was to invitations of Presidents Roosevelt and be a prime piece of evidence. But on the Diaz were accepted by the Central Amerstand she regretfully stated that the diary ican Presidents, who were glad to see had been stolen from her, and she could the countries to their north act the part only produce alleged copies of what she of a friend and neighbor in helping them asserted was in it. We have only indi to reconcile their differences. But the cated some of the more salient features work accomplished by the Conference in this extraordinary case, which has as quickly outran the bounds of mere arbimany intricacies and doublings as have tration. Hitherto the trouble with Centhe underground passages at Welbeck tral American efforts at peace has been Abbey. Druce diea and was buried in that they have been general agreements 1864 ; the fifth Duke of Portland died in and empty promises, which have been 1878 ; and ever since then one branch of almost immediately broken. The treaties the Druce family have been exploiting just signed, however, follow a different their claims to the enormous Portland line. They are specific and practical, estate. There are half a dozen sensa Two, in especial, are well adapted to tional plots for novels to be had out of begin the progressive growth of a comthe affair, but we hope that some fair mon-sense Central American conduct,

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