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learning might well be imitated by the anese students in America outnumbers Departments of Education in other coun- proportionately the student body of any tries. In no direction is this power more other foreign element. Of these the Momapparent than in the Mombusho's main- busho students have been sent primarily tenance of about a hundred Japanese to develop a body of more competent prostudents abroad. They receive nine fessors in different branches of science hundred dollars a year for their ordinary for the Japanese universities and other expenses, in addition to which a hun- schools. For the more practical purpose dred dollars is given to be expended of studying commercial, financial, and on clothing; and the clothing is pre- other systems in the national life of scribed. Thus it is that one always other countries, the Government sends sees a Japanese provided with a frock special experts. It has been said that coat and tall hat. In addition to this, the Far Eastern question was settled those who come to our colleges and uni- by the late war. That question was versities in the East have a matter of largely one of land supremacy. It refour hundred dollars for traveling ex- mains to be seen, however, whether penses; those who remain in the West another Far Eastern question is not dehave three hundred do ars. Of course veloping--that of commercial supremthere is a great difference among Japa- acy--and whether the Japanese Governnese students, just as there is among ment's sagacity in sending special experts , other students, and those who show spe- abroad will not redound immensely to cial qualifications gain special financial the benefit of the Island Empire, by acreturns. For instance, if a particularly quainting it with the commercial and keen student wishes to investigate the financial systems in effect here, their Pennsylvania coal mines, he has a right excellences, their defects, and, above all, to apply for an additional sum of money. how to meet them triumphantly in the Large numbers of Japanese students are broad field of economics. at Harvard, Yale, Columbia, and at the New York University. Among these, however, are not many who have been
The Congo cannot much sent out by the Mombusho.
longer remain an insult
and the Congo self-supporting In the New York
to Christendom. Even University School of Commerce alone the long-suffering British Parliament has there are between twenty-five and thirty at last spoken. Last week the House , Japanese students, and they have shown of Commons passed a resolution urging themselves particularly fond of political the Government to do all in its power to economy, finance, and banking. Aside bring about a transfer of the Congo from from the Japanese in the Law School the King of the Belgians to the Belgian there are several in the School of Peda- Parliament, and, what is most signifigogy, among them two or three women cant, promising support to the Governstudents. One of these is of semi-royal ment in any measures (consequent upon family, and is pursuing a course in lan- the possible failure of this transfer) taken guages, literature, and philosophy, simply either alone or with other Powers to as a matter of general culture. Another secure the enforcement of the General is studying with the idea of employing Act of Berlin (1885). It was by this her knowledge as a teacher at home. treaty that the Powers created the Congo One of the men is the son of a Japanese and intrusted it, for humanitarian purnillionaire. A large proportion of the poses and on strict conditions, to the students, however, come from the poorer King of the Belgians. The Powers have classes, and frequently they earn their seen the King false to his trust and living during the day at some form of defiant of their requirements. Now the manual labor in order to take courses of enormous patience of Great Britain is study in the evening. Most of those at about exhausted. Sir Edward Grey, the New York University are employed Secretary for Foreign Affairs, expressed by Japanese commercial houses in the his sympathy with the resolution. It metropolis. The total number of Jap- was made evident that the British Gov
ernment had received invaluable support half Russia and Austria have, with the from the American Government. In- Sultan's consent, directly intervened in deed, Lord Fitzmaurice, Under-Secretary Macedonia as the mandatories of the of the Foreign Office, spoke with the Powers. The intervention was both civil utmost gratification of the co-operation and military. A Russian and an Austrian between Great Britain and the United civil agent were appointed to control the States, and said that the two Govern- action of the Turkish authorities in Macements had been in communication with donia. They listened to the Christian each other through their Ministers in complaints of oppression, outrage, and Brussels. Speaking of a White Book on murder, and investigated them. They the Congo, to be published shortly by indicated to the Turkish Inspector-Genthe British Government, he said : eral the needed improvements. But the
This book will include the first outward investigation had to take place in the and visible sign of the co-operation between
presence of a Turkish official, and the ourselves and the United States-a very inspector was often able later to frustrate interesting extract from the report of an the suggestions of the civil agents. MoreAmerican Consul which by permission we
over, in addition to supposed restraint were allowed to incorporate.
by these ag ts, a number of foreign The report is that of Consul-General officers were appointed to serve with the Smith at Boma, who testifies to the bur- Turkish constabulary. But the condition dens of the natives, which are so heavy of Macedonia to-day seems hardly better that the women have practically ceased than before. No wonder that a British to bear children. The conditions in the Liberal Ministry, like Gladstone's, though Congo, as Lord Fitzmaurice said, have in general more marked by pacific tenresulted in “as great a negation of inter- dencies than would be a Conservative national and treaty rights, as great a Cabinet, declares through Sir Edward defiance of public law, and as great a Grey, the Foreign Secretary, that "the sacrifice of the interests of humanity Turkish question has more than once as anything the modern world ever has led to a European war. We are rapidly heard of.” From an official of the Brit- nearing a point where the Concert of the ish Government those words are tremen- Powers must either justify or stultify dous. The present situation in the itself." Congo cannot endure much longer.
“ To wed academic culture to Work and
was the phrase with It is interesting to
which Dr. James H. Dillard, The Macedonian Cry read the words last the General Secretary of the newly Not Stijled
week, in the British established Jeanes Foundation, characHouse of Lords, of the Foreign Under- terized the new movement in education. Secretary, Lord Fitzmaurice: “The For- He was speaking at the annual Negro eign Office feels it necessary to ask Conference at Tuskegee. The Conferwhether the time has not arrived to ence itself, with the Workers' Conference appoint a Christian governor of Mace- which followed it, was a splendid embodidonia.” Arrivedl It arrived a generation ment of the truth of that phrase. The ago and more. Fortunately, England, academic culture shown there may have the Power chiefly responsible, under Bea- been elementary, and the work a good consfield, for tearing up Russia's Treaty deal like drudgery ; that made it, howof 1877 with Turkey, and substituting ever, all the more inspiring. There was that of Berlin the following year, has there, for instance, a colored farmer from now changed from a position of half a Montgomery County. He told the assemcentury's unfriendliness to Russia. No blage that since last year he had paid longer, we hope, can the Sultan offset for eighty acres of land. Here was the Russia's representations to Turkey as work-hard work. But he went on to to disorders both on the Persian and say that there was no school-house in his Bulgarian borders by relying on Eng- community, and that school had to be lish apathy. For four years and a kept in a church, and he promised his
auditors that before another year had as a test of character which it might be passed he would do something to get a well to apply to the most respectable of school building. Here was the valua- another race. Dr. Washington, the soul tion of academic culture. Farmer after of the Conference, put it plainly when farmer told of achievements-cantaloups he said: he had raised, wool he had grown, neigh- We must not overlook the fact that we bors who had been making homes. Like occupy mainly as laborers and agricultural the Conferences of other years, this was
workers nearly one-fourth of the physical an experience meeting. The very sim- territory of this country. We will not be
permitted long to occupy such a large proplicity of the words and the homeliness portion of one of the richest countries in the of the evidences of thrift and prog- world unless we demonstrate that we can ress made all the more impressive the get as much out of the territory, and, espeseriousness of these people's convic- cially, out of the soil, as any other race.
Men may draw racial and color lines, but tions. That on the one side. On the soil and rain and sunshine yield their riches other there was the record of advance- as readily to the toil of the black hand as to ment in education and social wel- the white hand. fare. In one county the negro farmers And he added, with that quiet humor of had succeeded in erecting twenty-two his which never stabs, but effectually school-houses at an average cost of seven
disarms: “Some people argue that eduhundred dollars. For the construction cation hurts the negro. Certainly a little of these and for the extension of the education will hurt him more than much school term the negroes had themselves education." Most gratifying, perhaps, raised eight thousand dollars. It is for of all that the Conference elicited was the the encouragement of such work as this testimony given of improvement during that the Jeanes fund is to be used. Then the past year in the relations between there was the story of Mount Meigs—a school for wayward negro boys established by the Federation of Negro
The launching of the
The Ethical Social Women of Alabama. Without bolts or
League bars, in spirit it seems to be kin to the
into public notice last George Junior Republic, the Cleveland week, in conference at the Hotel Astor Farm Colony, and the Juvenile Court of in New York, was an event of more than Judge Lindsey. There was the account passing interest. It is new only as an of a reformatory in Georgia established extension of the now large and vigorous and maintained by negroes. There were work which the People's Institute has the tales of effort by negroes on behalf been carrying forward for a dozen years, of temperance among negroes. There till now it has the good will of perhaps was the description of a Farmers' Im- a million people in the crowded teneprovement Society, in Texas, whose ment districts of New York. The League members own 70,000 acres of land, aims to draw together and “unite the which has established an agricultural forces within and without church and school, conducts an insurance society, synagogue in a fellowship of service for and is about to found a bank. Not least the ethical and social betterment of the moving was the account of the Black community.” These forces are strongly Belt Improvement Society. In this or represented in the General Committee ganization there are ten degrees. To of one hundred and twenty-five promibe eligible for the first degree a man nent citizens, which backs the movement must have at least the desire to own and directs it through an Executive Comsomething; for the second degree he mittee of fifteen, of whom Professor must own three chickens and a pig; for Knox, of Union Theological Seminary, the fourth an acre of land; for the fifth, is Chairman. The Seminary has taken twenty acres; for the sixth, forty; and large interest in the League, whose preso on through the tenth degree. In all liminary conferences were held there, these there is a standard of usefulness and seven members of its Faculty ! See The Outlook for February 15, p. 351 ; January
serve on the General Committee. At 18, p. 123; and February 29, p. 476.
the opening conference Bishop Greer
presided and spoke, followed by Pro- lyn; and last week the opening of the fessor Charles Sprague Smith, Director first tubes of the Hudson Tunnels made of the People's Institute, President Fin- the connection between New York and ley, of the City College, Mr. John Spargo, New Jersey. The tubes which were who spoke for Socialists, Rabbi Schul- opened for traffic last Wednesday lead man, of Temple Beth-El, Mr. A. J. Boul- from the Lackawanna station in Hoboken ton, who spoke for labor unions, and to the New York shore at Christopher Professor Knox. Each from his Street, thence to the junction of Sixth point of view urged the union of all men Avenue and Ninth Street in Manhattan, of good will for social regeneration by and up Sixth Avenue to Nineteenth Street. fraternal devotion to the common good The northern terminal will ultimately be now set aside by self-seeking individual- at Thirty-second Street, where a great ism. Between Mr. Spargo's ethical Terminal Building will be constructed. socialism and Bishop Greer's ethical On the New Jersey side extensions will individualism the difference in practical also be made to the Erie and Pennsylvaeffect seemed tenuous ; the same spirit- nia stations; and two other tubes are ual principle dominated each. Speaking building from the Pennsylvania station for labor unions, Mr. Boulton said that to Cortlandt Street, where a terminal individualism had never had a fair and office building of unusual size has chance, and would not until the taxing already been constructed. The route power of the many was used to abol- will finally be continued from Hoboken ish the special privileges of the few. to Newark, affording real rapid transit Emphasis on moral and religious prin- between that city and New York. The ciple as the arbiter of social and completion of the first of the Hudson economic questions prominent Tunnels has a certain romantic interest. throughout these addresses. The League It constitutes the only connection for pasproposes at present to hold frequent con- senger traffic (the Poughkeepsie bridge, ferences for the discussion of ethical- while part of an important route for social problems, the exchange of experi. freight, is used by sọ few passengers as ences, and closer personal acquaintance, to be a negligible quantity) between the between its component groups. The shores of the Hudson River south of first of these conferences a month hence Albany. But, more romantically, it marks is to take up the problem of the unem- the fulfillment of a project first undertaken ployed. Though localized in New York, in 1879, and twice abandoned, once for and chiefly concerned with the great city, lack of a proper method of construction, it will aim to radiate an influence far once because of a lack of financial supbeyond. While the League is not pro- port. It was when the undertaking was fessedly a religious body, its aim is assumed a second time that the Greatpractically in line with that of the head shield, the appliance which has State Conference of Religion-"to draw made possible the construction of the together religious men of every creed in dozen tunnels now building under the associated effort for the promotion of waters surrounding Manhattan Island, social righteousness.”
was invented. The first shield built on
the plans of the great English engineer The last barrier which was used in the work on the Hudson The First Tunnel
divided Manhattan Tunnels; and now shields of exactly the under the Hudson
Island from the sur- same construction are in use all over the rounding land has been pierced; from world where sub-aqueous tunneling is in Long Island, from the mainland of New progress. In an article published in York, and from New Jersey, the head The Outlook a year ago the shield was borough of Greater New York may now described as follows: be approached without crossing the In appearance the shield resembles a great water. About three years ago the sub- drum built of heavy steel plates. In the way pushed under the Harlem River into drumhead, called the diaphragm, there are
doors for the passage of workmen and the the Bronx; two months ago it was ex
withdrawal of mud and rock and silt. The tended beneath the East River to Brook- upper drum rim is a cutting edge, which,
when the shield is driven forward by hydraulic statue, and a permanent fund to supplejacks, goes through the material in front like a biscuit-cutter, and holds up the river bed
ment the pension fund of the Fire Deabove while thé biscuit of mud and silt is partment for the care of the widows of removed. The barrel of the drum, extending firemen and for the education of their backward over the completed portion of the children. Contributions may be sent to tunnel tube, forms the true shield for the men who set up the tunnel proper, ring by ring the Committee, Lincoln National Bank,
General Thomas L. James, Treasurer of within its protecting circumference. The bottom of the drum is at the same time the 32 East Forty-second Street, New York. head of the completed tunnel tube, and is supplied with air-locks, through which the workmen enter into the construction chamber within the shield. Immediately back of the The Church and the drumhead there is a huge revolving crane called an “erector," also Greathead's inven- Moral Revival tion, equipped with a muzzle like the jaws of an ant, which picks up the heavy sections of the tunnel rings, and, lifting them, holds
Many people are so confused by the them in place while the workmen bost them flotsam and jetsam on the surface of the together.
great political and economic movement So the Hudson Tunnels are a triumph of which now absorbs the interest of the mechanical ingenuity and skill, as the country that they fail to discern its funwork of an appliance without which damental and intensely ethical spirit. their building would have been impossi- When the incidents and accidents, the ble. But even more are they a triumph foam and froth, the invective of the of imagination and industrial statesman- demagogue and the anathemas of those ship; and this triumph belongs to one
who are defending what they believe to be man, William G. McAdoo, who took a their private interests, are put out of the project which had twice failed, and by way, it grows more clear every month that the force of his organizing ability and
we are in the heart of a great moral movethe strength of his personality carried it ment as significant as any that has taken to completion.
place in the history of the country. This movement has not come in a day. It is
not a mere revolt against the oppressive Last week The Outlook economic conditions, nor is it simply A Firemen's
reported the death of an insurrection against political bosses Memorial Deputy Chief* Kruger, of and robbery.
and robbery. It is a quickening of the the New York Fire Department, and the conscience of the people, and an attempt, movement for the erection of a memorial sometimes instinctive, often blind, but to his memory and that of other firemen with a great wisdom at the bottom of it, who have lost their lives in the perform- to bring the business and social life of ance of their duty. A Committee of promi- the country into harmony with moral nent citizens has now been formed for ideals. The churches have had much the promotion of this purpose ; Bishop to do with this movement, but not nearly Henry C. Potter is the Chairman, and as much as they ought to have had. other members include the Fire Com-. They have not led it. At the first glance missioner, the President of the Board of it appears to have grown up very largely Education, the President of the New outside their walls. Many of its most York Board of Fire Underwriters, Isidor ardent leaders, who are filled with ethical Straus, Andrew Carnegie, and Henry W. enthusiasm, are, if not unfriendly, at least Taft. The Committee has undertaken indifferent to organized religion. The systematic work for the collection of churches are now in the position of seesubscriptions in the five boroughs of the ing a great moral tide rising around them city, and appeals to all citizens to assume which they cannot claim to have set in a share, however small, in this testi motion, and of which they certainly have monial of appreciation for the brave not the definite leadership. service which the firemen give to the The majority of people in the different city. The plans, which are yet only churches do not comprehend the magnitentative, contemplate a monument or tude of the work which the Young Men's