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Another object of Mr. Miyakawa’s book is, Deism, Materialism, and Realism. Research we take it, a setting forth of the possibilities among rare works and unpublished manuof Americo-Japanese intercourse. The au- scripts serves here to rescue from oblivion thor is well aware of Japan's debt to Amer- some worthy but forgotten names;e.g., Samuel ica in the opening by us of his country to Johnson, first President of King's College, the world, and he dedicates his volume to now Columbia University, a close disciple of one of the grandsons of Commodore Perry, the world-famous Bishop Berkeley, and the whom he calls Japan's “ National Redeemer.” first American prophet of Berkeley's idealism. A third aim of the author seems to be to Another such, “whose very existence has trace the origin and growth of the Japanese been declared almost a myth,” was Cadwal. Constitution and laws. Mr. Miyakawa's lader Colden, Lieutenant-Governor of New style has something of the inelasticity ob. York province two centuries ago, described servable among Japanese when they try to as " the first and foremost of American ma. speak English, as distinguished from the terialists.” But neither he nor most of those remarkable elasticity of their late enemies, here classed with him, whatever they ascribed the Russians, when they essay our language. to "matter," were what the term "materialDespite this, and though the text does not now denotes. They recognized the impress one as having as great originality existence of God, as no modern materialist and influence as some other books on Japan, does. Dr. Joseph Buchanan, of Kentucky, there is in it a certain forcefulness and even who died young about a century since," the fascination, for in it we learn the better to earliest native physiological psychologist" appreciate the peculiar Japanese way of Dr. Riley calls him, is the only one of these looking at men and things.

“materialists” who, as quoted, seems To this col

deserve the name as now used. Priestley, Sonnets of

lection of

chemist and theologian, and Dr. Benjamin Henry Wadsworth Long fellow

Longfellow's

Rush, the" father of psychiatry in America," Sonnets Mr. Ferris Greenslet has written a

a believer in God and immortality, no doubt delightful introduction, not too long, thor.

entertained on minor points some views now oughly well informed and thoroughly criti

current among materialists, but this seems cal , discussing the sonnets in the volume rather slender ground for saying that "the

South stood for materialism.” More satisfrom a technical point of view, and at the same time giving them the very high place factory and quite interesting is the account to which, in the judgment of most critics,

given of Deism, and how it fared in Harvard they are entitled. No better poetry has been

and Yale, King's and Princeton. Deism is written in this country than that which ap

rightly treated as a way of thinking, not a pears in this volume. Indeed, the Sonnets system of thought. Its representatives introhave not been surpassed save by the work

duced here were as far apart as Cotton of the greatest sonneteers. The volume is

Mather and Bishop Berkeley on the right,

Its published in large-paper edition, and also in

and Franklin with Jefferson on the left. a smaller but very attractive form.

emphasis on natural law undoubtedly “has

tened the intellectual emancipation of New “A connected story of the England.” But its banishment of God from American

growth of [philosophical] opin- activity in his world led down into a skeptiPhilosophy

ion in the land” is a phrase in cism which, submerged by waves of revivalthis volume ? which describes it very well. ism, was succeeded by the “common-sense" Until a recent time the land had produced philosophy of Realism, imported from Scotbut one philosopher deserving rank with the land, fostered alike in church and college, European masters-Jonathan Edwards. The naturalized at Princeton, and overspreading late President Porter, of Yale, truly said, as

All American philosophy, the present author states, that philosophy indeed, is from imported stock, the account has been chiefly used here in its applications of whose naturalization and development to morals, politics, and theology. Dr. Riley here, as given by Professor Riley, is a valupresents it for the most part thus involved, able contribution to the history of civilizaas in the first section of his work, which tion on this continent. treats of Puritanism and Anti-Puritanism. The course of its development is traced from

the country.

Homer's story,' here told in sim. For Boys

ple, choice language, and illus

and Girls the settlement of Massachusetts to the time

trated by twelve of Flaxman's of Emerson under the titles of Idealism, plates in color, is one of the best of chil

dren's classics, and a most attractive gift1 The Soonets of Henry Wadsworth Longfellow. Arranged, with an Introduction, by Ferris Greenslet. Hough.

book. ? American Philosophy. By 1. Woodbridge Riley, Ph.D. 1 The Iliad for Boys and Girls. By the Rev. Alfred J. Dodd, Mead & Co., New York. $3.50, net,

Church. The Macmillan Company, New York. $1.50,

ton, Mifflin & Co., Boston. 75c.

1

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In this small volume the The Infinite

free from undue bias. Perhaps the most vivid author modestly sets forth record is that supplied by Rosalie LamorAffection

" the theology of a young man lière, servant at the Conciergerie, who felt who has hospitably submitted himself to such tender sympathy for the unhappy Queen what is termed "modern thought.'" Herein and did all in her feeble power to mitigate the larger aims of the Protestant Reforma- her sufferings; and it seems almost incredtion seem to him to be coming to realization. ible that the Duchesse d'Angoulême should "Thus,” says he,“ we can no longer confine have allowed this loyal dependent to be inspiration to the Bible, the incarnation to deprived of her little pension and die in a Christ, or religion to a church.” He finds hospital. There are many and excellent the real supernatural in the work of the Holy illustrations, and the book is printed on good Spirit in the realm of moral life ; for miracles paper and thoroughly well made. in physical nature he sees no need. The divinity of Christ and the humanity of God The House of

The many readers who are to him the two great truths to be empha

have been delighted and

Sforza sized. Christ is divine, because perfectly

instructed by Julia Cartmanifesting the character of God; the char. wright's recent volumes on Beatrice and acter of Christ is reproducible in his follow

Isabella d'Este, the students of Italian hisers: “he is actually what man is prophet

tory who have been instructed by Symonds's ically.” Rather inconsistently with this, “ an

Age of the Despots ”—now well-nigh a infinite ethical difference" is affirmed be

classic-will take up the present volume' tween Jesus and humanity, qualified by sub.

with interest. They will lay it down again sequent hesitation either to assert or to deny

with the feeling that here, if anywhere, one that mankind will ever attain to the perfec

can find an account of a particular historical tion of Christ. This somewhat hazy thought, period affecting one of the Italian states, an

account as clear and concise as it is brilliant perceptible in writers of the Ritschlian school, is suffused with warmth of moral

and forceful. Almost a century elapsed befeeling touched with the love of God for

tween the year when Francesco Sforza made

himself master of Milan and the year on man—“the infinite affection."

which his grandson and namesake died The translation of M. The Last Days of

childless. The events of these intervening G. Lenotre's book by Marie Antoinette

years are among the most interesting in all Mrs. Rodolph Stawella

Italian history, and are chronicled for us in is a valuable addition to the mass of litera

this book with equal accuracy and charm. ture already in existence commemorating Six Sforza dukes in all wielded the scepter the last sad days of Marie Antoinette. This of Milan, and of these at least two were book consists of chronicles that supply superbly representative types of the many details of the awful fourteen months that

sided Renaissance despot, one uniting in his the unhappy Queen-during their passage

person all the civic qualities which go to termed the “chattering Austrian" and after

make a “Father of His Country” or the Louis XVI.'s death the “ Widow Capet"

founder of a state, and yet who were skilled spent in three prisons, “ Les Feuillants,” the in the arts of war and of diplomacy, great “ Temple," and the “Conciergerie,” where

patrons of art and letters. The Sforza she drank the cup of suffering and humilia- princes are described for us in a volume of tion to its last bitter dregs. These chronicles

permanent value to every student of the are furnished by persons of humble life

Renaissance. servants, jailers, turnkeys, and gendarmes, eye-witnesses to the sufferings of the gentle

This well-printed and

An Arabian Queen who was to pay the penalty of her life

tremely well illustrated book ?

Princess for the transgressions of the tyrants of France

is a translation from the Ger. who went scot-free. The simplicity and

It describes the extraordinary career directness of these narratives give them a

of the daughter of the Sultan of Zanzibar, peculiar strength and value; they are far telling especially of her life in the royal more convincing and pathetic than any

ex

man.

harem, her subsequent escape, and her marstudied rhetorical essays could possibly be.

riage to a German merchant. The personal The translator has done her work skillfully, narrative is not more interesting in itself while M. Lenotre has evidently been at the

than because it contains a number of interutmost pains to sift the testimony and retain esting revelations concerning Arab life in only that of absolute authenticity and that general. ., The Infinite Affection. By Charles S. Macfarland. The 1 A History of Milan Under the Sforza. By Cecilia M.

Ady. Edited by Edward Armstrong. G. P. Putnam's Sons, · The Last Days of Marie Antoinette. From the French of New York. $3.50. G. Lenotre. By Mrs. Rodolph Stawell. The J. B. Lippin- * Memoirs of an ArabianPrincess. Translated by Lionel cott Company, Philadelphia.

Strachey. Doubleday, Page & Co., New York. $2.50, net.

ilgrim Press, Boston

This “ enquiry into the manner cal David Hume, of whom he relates some
The
One Christ

of the Incarnation"! cannot delightful anecdotes. Those who have read

be satisfactory to those to the late Dean Stanley's “History of the whom the statements of the ecumenical Church of Scotland ” can never forget it. creeds are not as conclusive as they are to The same may be said of this harvest from the author. Neither can it satisfy those the same rich field. whose critical judgment of the Epistle of James does not convince them, as the author George Matheson

A remarkable biography is convinced, that its writer believed in “ the

this,' for the man was three Persons of the Godhead.” Regarding remarkable. Scotland, prolific of great men, the Incarnation as a miraculous event, the author adopts a species of ti · so-called

celebrated blind preacher. Blind at his en“kenotic” theory, holding that a divine

trance into Glasgow University, but winning being subjected himself to the limitations of

its highest honors, minister to a city parish humanity, so as to be “unable to act or

with nearly two thousand communicants speak or think outside the limits imposed

and a multitude of poor, assiduously visiting upon Him by his manhood," and yet retain

them, but never preaching the same sermon ing the memory of existence in eternal glory.

twice, while continually addressing the pubThe wonder grows when two wills-divine

lic through the press, he was one of the few and human-with but a single consciousness

heroic souls whose energy has wrung triumph are attributed to the Incarnate One. But

out of seemingly hopeless disaster. An inthe author feels bound to discuss his sub

tensely human soul was he, warm-hearted, ject within the limits set by the ecumenical hopeful, humorous, imaginative, while praccreeds and the formula adopted in the fifth tical, thoughtful, and devout-a noble and century at Chalcedon.

beautiful personality. For fifteen years he

drew to his little village church at Innellan, The loved and lamented author on the Firth of Clyde westward from GlasThe Scot

here makes history as charming gow, thoughtful people whom his reputation as he heretofore has made fiction.” Know

induced to fix there their summer home. ing his subject by heart, he warms to it with The productivity of the rural manse in Scotinborn sympathy. Whatever strangers may

land has never been better exemplified than think of the Scot, he is at least interesting in the volumes and essays that he issued whether in his difference or his resem

from Innellan. His removal thence to St. blance to the rest of mankind. His Kirk, or Bernard's, in Edinburgh, introduced him, in National Church, is here presented as an

addition to the self-imposed tasks of his embodiment of his character. The dawn of study and pen, to parochial labors of the the eighteenth century found the Kirk tur most exacting kind. These, arduous for bulent, pugnacious, caring for orthodoxy one with every faculty unimpaired, he faced more than for humanity, at the lowest ebb

and fulfilled with a thoroughness which both in knowledge and in charity. The close proved his mettle, though with an expendiof that century found those hideous flats cov ture of energy that shortened his life. Dr. ered by the returning tide. The hard strug

Matheson's books have been widely read in gle which has won the Scot a living from a

this country. The one that the public and niggard soil was reflected in the struggle to

he himself most cared for is “The Spiritual humanize the old Adam in the Kirk. Its Experience of St. Paul,” in which he seems austere and rigorous discipline, its worship, to have found a close resemblance to his which proscribed the Lord's Prayer and

In such works as Can the Old Faith delighted in many-headed, interminable ser

Live with the New ?” and “The Psalmist mons, its “ Moderates” and “ Evangelicals," and the Scientist,” he showed his characits theology and its piety, give material for

teristic trait as a reconciler of opposing many pen-pictures of various characters, views, and in “ The Distinctive Messages of queer, hard, noble, and many a mirthful or the Old Religions” his catholicity, which pitiful reminiscence. “Scots worthies” are

gathered all their broken lights into their honorably commemorated, and the Scot completeness in Christianity. More permain his home and with his books brings the nent, probably, than his influence as a specstory of the century to a climactic finish.

ulative theologian is his hold upon hearts by Dr. Watson's love of human worth, wherever

the devotional writings which were born of found, comes out in his tribute to the skepti- his experience. These range through all the

chords of the soul with an awakening touch 1 The One Christ. By Frank Weston, B.D. Longmans,

of thought as well as of feeling. Among his Green & Co., New York. $1.60, net.

'The Scot of the Eighteenth Century: His Religion and 1 The Life of George Matheson, D.D., LL.D., F.R.S.E. his Life. By John Watson, D.D. A.C. Armstrong & Son, By D. Macmillan, M.A., D.D. A. C. Armstrong & Son, New York. $2, net.

New York. $2.

own.

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of Jesus

religious lyrics is one, written after an hour of the Egyptian capital as it has existed of suffering, which bears the stamp of im- throughout the ages-indeed, all the text is mortality, the well-known hymn, “O Love, distinctly historical rather than descriptive that wilt not let me go." The note of eulogy of present conditions. We do not always that recurs throughout this record of an remember that Cairo eclipsed Bagdad, to be extraordinary career is justified by the facts. itself eclipsed by Constantinople; that for The free rendering of the

two and a half centuries Cairo remained the The Messages Scripture text in paraphrase,

capital of Western Islâm and the seat of the which is the most prominent

most powerful Moslem state. Mr. Margolicharacteristic of the series to which this new

outh tells us about the five main periods of volume' belongs, is more serviceable in some

Cairene history—the Fatimide, the Ayyubid, parts of the Bible than in others. The mes

the Mameluke, the Turkish, and the Khesages of the prophets, the messages of Paul,

divial-as we shall not find them elsewhere often become more intelligible in paraphrase.

described. He ends his account of the presIn the Gospels there is less need of this.

ent period with the mention of three great One greatly prefers the sublime simplicity of

Englishmen-Baker, sent by Ismail Pasha to the first three verses of John to this exposi. suppress the slave trade in the Sudan; Gortory commentary: “He who has been to us

don, sent to the defense of Khartûm; and, as the Revealer of God has existed from all

the author justly says, last but not least, eternity in communion with God, and is him- Lord Cromer, “the statesman to whom the self essentially divine. He is so identified

present financial and administrative proswith God in reference to creation that it is perity of Cairo is due." possible to say that all things without excep

This book' will be tion came into being through his co-opera

Life of

of interest not alone tion.” The last prayer of Jesus in para

Eliza Baylies Wheaton

to the friends of phrase seeins superserviceably diluted. This Wheaton Seminary, but to the wider circle treatment of John is only occasionally help- who admire the noble type of womanhood ful. Dr. Riggs's ability is not in question, that New England gave to the world during but rather the nature of his task. He accepts the nineteenth century. High ideals of duty, the Johannine authorship as involving less of character, and of intellectual attainment difficulty than

any of the alternative theories. were combined in Mrs. Wheaton with a

The text of Mr. Mar- gracious charm of manner and a warm human Cairo, Jerusalem and Damascus

goliouth's book? differs sympathy that made her an exemplar for

from that of most volumes more than one generation of New England which describe the history of Cairo or Jeru- girls. Her winning yet forceful personality salem or Damascus because it has been is vividly presented in this attractively made written by one long immersed in the atmos- book, more especially as concerns her servphere of the Orient and of the Arabic lan- ices to the cause of education in connection guage. This feature is instructively evident with the seminary which bears her name. on every page of the present work, and the Her memory as thus preserved will be an text's value is enhanced by the useful and inspiration to all who read this fitting biogauthoritative small glossary appended to it of raphy of a useful woman. Arabic and Turkish names. Mr. Margoliouth tells us that he has written the text

The Peasantry

The author,” while in resi

dence for several years to accompany Mr. Walter Tyrwhitt's very of Palestine

near Jerusalem, kept a remarkable pictures in color illustrating the

daily journal of his observations and experithree cities above mentioned. These pic.

ences, especially among the country folk. tures well reproduce the subtle charm of

The material thus collected has been wrought Cairo, the impressiveness of Jerusalem, and

into this interesting and well-illustrated acthe fascination of Damascus--the last named

count of village life, manners, and customs perhaps the only easily accessible Oriental

in Palestine. Professor Grant evidently city, save Tangier, which seems not to have

cared to understand and appreciate his neighsuffered from some Occidental admixture.

bors amidst all their limitations and disadCairo, Jerusalem, and Damascus do not re

vantages. This adds to the human interest ceive equal treatment, however. Most of the book is taken up with a description

of his entertaining book.

1 The Life of Eliza Baylies Wheaton: A Chapter in the 1 The Messages of the Bible. Vol. X. The Messages of History of the Higher Education of Women. Prepared for Jesus A cording to the Gospel of John. By James Steven- the Alumnæ of Wheaton Seminary by Harriet E. Paine. son Riggs, D.D. Charles Scribner's Sons, New York. $1.25. The Riverside Press, Cambridge, Massachusetts.

- Cairo, Jerusalem, and Damascus By D. S. Margoliouth, The Peasantry of Palestine.' By Elihu Grant, B.D., D. Litt. Dodd, Mead & Co., New York. $3.50, net. Ph.D. The Pilgrim Press, Boston. $1.50.

ANIMALS AND REASON

tip of his tongue, will pick up individual In the article entitled “The Reasonable straws, and, collecting them in his mouth, will but Unreasoning Animals,” by Mr. John deposit them in one pile and so make a good Burroughs, in The Outlook for December 14,

bed, where the most intelligent dog would the writer has compared only high types of

freeze to death? In turn, the feelings of a mind in the human with very low types of dog will be greatly affected by more or less animal mind, skipping over a vast number

musical sounds from a musical instrument of intermediate minds. He says of his dog,

which will not affect in the slightest any " I see him across a gulf." Much as I like pig. I think I could give a hundred such dogs, I agree there is a gulf we cannot cross;

curious instances, from my own observation, but to go on and conclude that all animals

of unequal distribution of useful facultiesare across such a wide gap is to fail to count

faculties which, as we go up higher and in the higher animals and lower savage and higher in the scale, are more and more to be child minds which can only be counted on

found all in one animal ; yet at the top, in to fill this gap. The writer cites examples mankind, we do not find every faculty as and incidents to prove his position from our

acute as it may exist lower down. common birds and domestic animals, with

Mr. Burroughs cites a satisfactory and really which we are all familiar, and his reasoning from it that “ round and square are one."

beautiful quotation and manages to derive will appeal to persons unfamiliar with the orang-utan, the chimpanzee, the lower mon

Again, as I have said, few of us, if we have keys, and the long list of low savage and

the desire, have opportunity to witness the semi-civilized minds.

mind-workings of any of the types of animals Mr. Hornaday has studied the orang in higher than those the writer mentions. his native state, and also in captivity, to

Readers of The Outlook will not forget, gether with many of the other higher types however, that the higher animal types and of animal mind. Also in the tropics he has

the lower human types really exist to-day, seen the lower types of man. Mr. Burroughs, and that they naturally form the connecting drawing his conclusions from such animals

links between higher man as we see him and

the lower animals as we see them about us as most people see about them, does not agree with Mr. Hornaday.

in our domestic animals and common wild A most learned psychologist may have

birds. A child is generally three years old that widespread weakness, which is human,

before it can count five intelligently. Accordof a repugnance toward the minds between ing to Sir John Lubbock, no Australian lanours and the lower types of mind, and he

guage contains numerals even up to four. may work downward with this bias of uncon

Yet according to Dr. C. J. Romanes a young scious repugnance affecting his judgment. chimpanzee was easily taught to count Better the opinion of a natural naturalist, if

straws up to five, and, if one straw in her I may express it so, who has no repugnance

hand was lacking, she would sometimes turn toward monkeys or savages and other low

up the end of another straw in her hand and types of men. Such observers, at the time

in that cute way make the number of straw they consider, can bring themselves down tips she was asked to show. Much more to the level of considering a lower animal as

along this line of proof might be given. A an equal, thereby getting in true sympathy great deal remains to be collected, and it is with its passions and desires. This is the

to be hoped that the recent inroads into keynote of true observation, in this field at tropical Africa will not totally destroy any least, and the importance of it cannot be

of these invaluable forms before they have overestimated. Inability to have sympathy given to the world their share of precious with children as equals is widespread among

secrets.

H. C. DE SLOW. adults, however learned. Good teachers of children are often poor learners from chil

HOW TO FURTHER NATIONAL dren, it being seemingly impossible for

DEFENSE them to maintain, with any child, that feel- In a recent editorial note in The Outlook ing of equality, simple equality and nothing you say, in justifying our present navy, more, long enough for an understanding of « Should the day ever come, as we hope it certain sensitive children.

may, when an International Supreme Court Mr. Burroughs says that“the lower animals at The Hague is firmly established, armies all seem to be upon the same plane." How and navies will still be needed to carry out is it that a pig will hunt about and, with the the decrees of that court and to maintain

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